Metaglossia: The Translation World
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Metaglossia: The Translation World
News about translation, interpreting, intercultural communication, terminology and lexicography - as it happens
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Language careers | Department for General Assembly and Conference Management

United Nations language staff come from all over the globe and make up a uniquely diverse and multilingual community. What unites them is the pursuit of excellence in their respective areas, the excitement of being at the forefront of international affairs and the desire to contribute to the realization of the purposes of the United Nations, as outlined in the Charter, by facilitating communication and decision-making.

United Nations language staff in numbers

The United Nations is one of the world's largest employers of language professionals. Several hundred such staff work for the Department for General Assembly and Conference Management in New York, Geneva, Vienna and Nairobi, or at the United Nations regional commissions in Addis Ababa, Bangkok, Beirut, Geneva and Santiago. Learn more at Meet our language staff.

What do we mean by “language professionals”?

At the United Nations, the term “language professional” covers a wide range of specialists, such as interpreters, translators, editors, verbatim reporters, terminologists, reference assistants and copy preparers/proofreaders/production editors. Learn more at Careers.

What do we mean by “main language”?

At the United Nations, “main language” generally refers to the language of an individual's higher education. For linguists outside the Organization, on the other hand, “main language” is usually taken to mean the “target language” into which an individual works.

How are language professionals recruited?

The main recruitment path for United Nations language professionals is through competitive examinations for language positions, whereby successful examinees are placed on rosters for recruitment and are hired as and when job vacancies arise.  Language professionals from all regions, who meet the eligibility requirements, are encouraged to apply.  Candidates are judged solely on their academic and other qualifications and on their performance in the examination.  Nationality/citizenship is not a consideration. Learn more at Recruitment.

What kind of background do United Nations language professionals need?

Our recruits do not all have a background in languages. Some have a background in other fields, including journalism, law, economics and even engineering or medicine. These are of great benefit to the United Nations, which deals with a large variety of subjects.

Why does the Department have an outreach programme?

Finding the right profile of candidate for United Nations language positions is challenging, especially for certain language combinations. The United Nations is not the only international organization looking for skilled language professionals, and it deals with a wide variety of subjects, often politically sensitive. Its language staff must meet high quality and productivity standards. This is why the Department has had an outreach programme focusing on collaboration with universities since 2007. The Department hopes to build on existing partnerships, forge new partnerships, and attract the qualified staff it needs to continue providing high-quality conference services at the United Nations. Learn more at Outreach.

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🧬 Sentons-nous le goût des aliments uniquement avec notre langue ?

Publié par Redbran le 11/04/2024 à 06:00

Source: The Conversation sous licence Creative Commons
 
"Pendant le développement dans le ventre de notre mère, nous commençons déjà à percevoir les différents goûts. En effet, la saveur du liquide amniotique varie en fonction de l'alimentation de la mère.

Dès le dernier trimestre, le développement du goût est avancé, et le foetus peut distinguer les cinq grandes saveurs: le sucré, le salé, l'acide, l'amer, l'umami (signifiant "goût savoureux" en japonais). Au cours de l'évolution, le sens du goût nous a aidés à choisir les aliments nutritifs tout en évitant ceux qui pouvaient être toxiques.
 
Si la langue est l'organe où l'on trouve le plus de bourgeons gustatifs, responsables du goût, on les retrouve aussi ailleurs dans le corps.

Ainsi, en règle générale, le goût sucré indique la présence de glucide, une source d'énergie. Le goût salé signale un apport en sodium, important dans de nombreux processus métaboliques et dans l'équilibre électrolytique. Le goût umami nous informe de la présence d'acides aminés composants les protéines. Les goûts acide et amer nous alertent sur la présence de substances potentiellement toxiques. Enfin, ces saveurs peuvent se combiner afin de former des sensations gustatives plus subtiles.

La mécanique du goût

 
La langue est l'organe responsable du goût. À sa surface se trouvent de petites aspérités appelées papilles gustatives, dans lesquelles on retrouve les bourgeons gustatifs. Ces bourgeons sont des structures microscopiques en forme d'oignon composées d'une centaine de cellules.

Parmi ces cellules, les cellules réceptrices sont celles chargées de percevoir les molécules du goût, via des récepteurs constitués de protéines auxquelles se lient les molécules associées aux cinq grandes saveurs. Il existe plusieurs dizaines de protéines capables de détecter spécifiquement les molécules associées au goût. De manière intéressante il existe plusieurs dizaines de récepteurs pour les molécules amères, alors que tous les autres goûts ne sont vraisemblablement associés qu'à un seul type de récepteur chacun.

Une fois le signal perçu par les cellules réceptrices, il est transmis par les cellules présynaptiques aux neurones pour stimuler une zone spécifique du cerveau. En plus des cellules réceptrices et présynaptiques, un autre type cellulaire existe dans les bourgeons: les cellules gliales, qui servent de soutien aux cellules réceptrices et présynaptiques.
 
Bien que les outils récents tels que les animaux transgéniques ont permis d'approfondir notre compréhension des mécanismes régulant la formation des bourgeons gustatifs, il reste encore beaucoup de questions ouvertes. Comment une cellule réceptrice se forme ? Est-ce que les mécanismes induisant la formation d'une cellule présynaptique sont différents ? Est-ce que toutes les cellules d'un sous-type sont identiques entre-elles ? Ces questions nécessitent d'étudier les bourgeons gustatifs à l'échelle de la cellule unique.

Des bourgeons gustatifs dans l'oesophage

 
C'est ainsi par hasard, en séquençant les molécules d'ARN présentes dans l'oesophage de souris à l'échelle de la cellule unique pour étudier le développement des cancers, que nous avons découvert des bourgeons gustatifs dans la partie supérieure de l'oesophage. Bien que de telles structures aient été mentionnées chez l'humain, elles n'ont jamais été caractérisées et leur fonction n'a jamais été étudiée. Dans cette étude, nous avons mis en évidence de nombreuses similarités chez la souris entre les bourgeons gustatifs de l'oesophage et ceux de la langue.

Nos résultats ont également permis de mieux comprendre les mécanismes par lesquels ces bourgeons se forment. Jusqu'à présent, on pensait que les cellules de l'oesophage étaient homogènes et formaient simplement la paroi interne. Nous avons maintenant montré que les cellules de l'oesophage peuvent se transformer pour générer les trois types de cellules composant les bourgeons gustatifs, remettant ainsi en cause le dogme établi.

Mais le rôle exact de ces bourgeons gustatifs dans l'oesophage reste encore à élucider. Une étude de l'université de Harvard a démontré que des bourgeons gustatifs présents dans le larynx, dans les voies aériennes supérieures, joueraient un rôle dans la déglutition en prévenant les "fausses routes", c'est-à-dire le passage de nourriture ou de boisson dans les voies respiratoires. Cette étude suggère pour la première fois que les bourgeons gustatifs du larynx pourraient être impliqués dans une autre fonction que la détection du goût.

 
De façon analogue, les bourgeons gustatifs de l'oesophage pourraient, par exemple, servir de dernière barrière pour empêcher l'ingestion d'aliments potentiellement toxiques, ou simplement jouer un rôle dans la déglutition. Nous ne savons pas encore si ces bourgeons sont reliés au cortex gustatif dans le cerveau, et donc s'ils servent aussi à ressentir le goût. Pour le déterminer, d'autres études devront explorer cette question.

Des récepteurs au goût dans d'autres organes inattendus

La situation s'avère donc plus complexe que ce que l'on pouvait penser. En témoigne un nombre croissant d'études rapportant l'existence de récepteurs au goût en dehors de bourgeons gustatifs et plus surprenant encore, hors de la cavité buccale, suggérant qu'ils pourraient être impliqués dans d'autres fonctions.

Par exemple, des récepteurs au goût sont retrouvés dans l'intestin et il a été suggéré que ceux-ci pourraient jouer un rôle régulateur dans les processus digestifs et métaboliques.

Des protéines réceptrices de l'amer ont également été découvertes dans les voies respiratoires, où elles pourraient participer à l'ouverture des bronches, ainsi que dans la cavité nasale où elles pourraient influencer le rythme de la respiration. Plusieurs études ont également démontré la présence de différents récepteurs au goût dans les testicules et les spermatozoïdes humains et murins où ils pourraient agir sur la motilité des spermatozoïdes et la fertilité. Mais malgré ces études, de nombreux aspects concernant les bourgeons gustatifs et les récepteurs au goût restent encore à comprendre.

Protéger ou réparer le sens du goût

Lors de certains traitements contre le cancer, les chimiothérapies entraînent une perte partielle ou totale du goût et créent un réel inconfort chez les patients. Malheureusement, l'état actuel des connaissances ne permet pas encore de contrer efficacement cet effet indésirable. Certaines infections virales telles que le SARS-CoV-2, responsable du Covid-19, sont également connues pour provoquer une perte de goût, et les mécanismes sous-jacents à ce phénomène demeurent encore largement méconnus.

 
Étudier les bourgeons gustatifs de l'oesophage, comprendre leur rôle et exploiter les mécanismes qui permettent leur formation pourraient donc ouvrir de nouvelles perspectives de recherche chez l'humain. Il serait évidemment crucial de vérifier si les similitudes observées sont totales et s'il est possible d'appliquer à l'humain les stratégies pour maintenir ou restaurer les bourgeons gustatifs identifiés chez la souris. Enfin, comprendre comment les bourgeons gustatifs sont maintenus tout au long de la vie pourrait offrir de nouvelles perspectives pour les protéger afin de prévenir la perte du goût chez certains patients ou envisager des moyens de restaurer ce sens."
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Ce qui échappe à l'intelligence artificielle-François Levin-Editions Hermann

"L’intelligence artificielle est désormais partout, et son dévelop-pement semble ne connaître aucune limite. Pas un mois ne se passe sans qu’une frontière que l’on pensait insurmontable ne soit allègrement franchie.

Plutôt que de se demander quelle sera la prochaine à être dépassée, ce livre interroge sur ce qui échappe, de manière profonde, à l’IA. Existe-t-il des bornes absolues, au-delà desquelles l’IA ne pourrait se rendre ? Des domaines de la vie qui lui seraient inaccessibles, comme l’amour, la colère, la pensée, la création, la rencontre, la signification ? Ou ces états sont-ils simplement des bornes contingentes, prêtes à être outrepassées grâce au flux de données et à la puissance des algorithmes d’apprentissage machine ? Mais peut-être que la distinction se joue encore ailleurs, non dans des domaines spécifiques, mais dans une certaine expérience du monde qui différerait fondamentalement entre l’humain et la machine.

Pour répondre à ces questions, et afin de comprendre pourquoi nous tenons tant à déterminer des limites à l’intelligence artificielle, ce livre rassemble des contributions interdisciplinaires  : recourant à la philosophie, aux sciences sociales et à l’informatique, il tente de donner un sens au sentiment d’étrangeté que nous ressentons face au développement fulgurant des dispositifs  intelligents."

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Plafond d’étudiants étrangers | L’association des universités de la francophonie canadienne dépose une plainte

"L’association qui représente 22 universités et collèges de la francophonie canadienne a déposé une plainte devant le Commissaire aux langues officielles, en lien avec l’abaissement du nombre d’étudiants étrangers.

Le 22 janvier, le ministre de l’Immigration, des Réfugiés et de la Citoyenneté canadienne, Marc Miller, a annoncé l’imposition aux universités d’un plafond de deux ans dans les admissions d’étudiants étrangers, afin de contribuer à réduire la pression sur le logement.

(Montréal) L’association qui représente 22 universités et collèges de la francophonie canadienne a déposé une plainte devant le Commissaire aux langues officielles, en lien avec l’abaissement du nombre d’étudiants étrangers.

Publié hier à 14h05
LIA LÉVESQUELa Presse Canadienne

Le 22 janvier dernier, le ministre de l’Immigration, des Réfugiés et de la Citoyenneté canadienne, Marc Miller, a annoncé l’imposition d’un plafond de deux ans dans les admissions d’étudiants étrangers, afin de contribuer à réduire la pression sur le logement notamment.

Le nombre de nouveaux visas délivrés cette année, avait annoncé le ministre, sera plafonné à 364 000, soit une baisse de 35 % par rapport aux près de 560 000 délivrés l’année dernière.

Or, cette mesure est décriée par l’Association des collèges et universités de la francophonie canadienne (ACUFC), dont les membres comptent beaucoup d’étudiants étrangers francophones dans leurs établissements.

 

En septembre 2023, quelque 12 000 étudiantes et étudiants provenant de l’international étudiaient dans les institutions membres de l’ACUFC, ce qui représente environ 30 % de la clientèle totale, a souligné l’association.

L’ACUFC comparaissait, lundi soir, devant le Comité sénatorial des langues officielles, qui étudiait les répercussions du plafonnement des permis d’études sur les établissements postsecondaires francophones à l’extérieur du Québec.

Et son directeur de la recherche stratégique et des relations internationales, Martin Normand, a alors annoncé que l’association avait déposé une plainte devant le Commissaire aux langues officielles.

L’association argue que le ministère de l’Immigration, des Réfugiés et de la Citoyenneté canadienne a négligé de prendre en considération les nouveaux engagements qui incombent aux institutions fédérales, en vertu de la version modernisée de la Loi sur les langues officielles.

« IRCC (Immigration, Réfugiés et Citoyenneté canadienne) n’a pas pris de mesure positive en amont de son annonce d’un plafond national, pour en éviter ou en atténuer les impacts négatifs directs », tel qu’il est indiqué dans la loi, a critiqué M. Normand, devant le comité sénatorial.

« De fait, le ministère s’est délesté de ses responsabilités à l’égard de l’épanouissement des communautés francophones et a créé un précédent inquiétant, en attribuant aux provinces et territoires la répartition de leurs allocations entre les établissements désignés », a-t-il ajouté.

« Une véritable mesure positive, qui respecte la Loi sur les langues officielles, aurait été de faire de la clientèle souhaitant étudier en français à l’extérieur du Québec une cohorte exemptée du plafond, au moment de son annonce », a plaidé M. Normand."

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Langue française : des politiques publiques en plein essor

"Publié le 20 mars à l’occasion de la journée internationale de la Francophonie, le Rapport au Parlement sur la langue française 2024 dresse un nouveau portrait des politiques publiques menées en faveur de la langue française et du plurilinguisme.

Langue française : des politiques publiques en plein essor

Publié le 10.04.2024

Publié le 20 mars à l’occasion de la journée internationale de la Francophonie, le Rapport au Parlement sur la langue française 2024 dresse un nouveau portrait des politiques publiques menées en faveur de la langue française et du plurilinguisme.

Plus que jamais la langue française est au carrefour de multiples enjeux. A n’en pas douter, les Jeux Olympiques et Paralympiques de Paris 2024 permettront à la fois de célébrer la langue française, pour nos concitoyens et les francophones du monde entier, tout en accueillant les langues dans toute leur diversité.

Il suffit, pour s’en convaincre, de se souvenir que les valeurs de l’Olympisme suivent le rêve d’une humanité réconciliée. Ce rêve, qui prit forme à Athènes en 1896, fait honneur au français, puisque c’est dans cette langue que Pierre de Coubertin l’exprima et qu’il en convainquit ses partenaires de toutes les nations.

La célébration des 30 ans de la loi Toubon, texte fondateur, qui permet à nos concitoyens de s’exprimer et de recevoir une information dans leur langue au quotidien, sera également un temps fort de l’année. Mais nos politiques des langues font aussi la place à la diversité culturelle et au plurilinguisme, pour lesquelles l’innovation numérique ouvre de nouvelles perspectives.

Par ailleurs, la maîtrise de la langue est, pour chacun d’entre nous, individus et collectifs, fondamentale. De l’expression orale et écrite dépend notre place dans la société, notre rapport au travail, notre capacité à comprendre nos droits, nos devoirs, nos opportunités de rencontres… Ici, l’illettrisme est le fléau qu’il faut combattre.

Enfin, la promotion du français et de la francophonie dans le monde demeure un objectif fondamental pour lequel il convient de développer une stratégie ambitieuse Avec plus de 320 millions de locuteurs dans le monde, le français est une langue sans frontière.

Entretien avec Paul de Sinety, délégué général à la langue française et aux langues de France au ministère de la Culture, à l'occasion de la publication du Rapport au Parlement sur la langue française.

 

 

Le but de ce document est d’informer et de sensibiliser. La langue française, en effet, est l’affaire de tous (élus, administrations, organismes publics, associations, experts et grand public). A l’évidence, elle joue un rôle majeur dans notre société (c’est l’outil indispensable pour s’instruire, se former à une technique, connaître ses droits et ses devoirs, les faire valoir, entreprendre, expliquer, convaincre, trouver un emploi, rencontrer l’autre…).

Avec ses nouvelles données le rapport poursuit et enrichit à plus d’un titre cette double fonction d’informer et de sensibiliser. Ces analyses, accompagnées de témoignages d’experts, en effet, affinent notre connaissance de la situation de la langue française, en France et dans le monde. Ils permettent aussi de mesurer les avancées réalisées par nos politiques publiques.

 

Quelles ont été les moments marquants de 2023 ?

A l’évidence, l’inauguration de la Cité internationale de la langue française à Villers-Cotterêts par le Président de la République, le 30 octobre a été un grand moment. Incarnation de notre politique de la langue renouvelée, la Cité accueillera notamment, dans le champ de l’innovation technologique, deux projets phares : un centre européen de référence pour les technologies des langues (ALT-EDIC) et sa composante nationale, le projet LANGU:IA.

Signalons aussi la préparation des Jeux Olympiques et Paralympiques de Paris 2024. Vous savez que la langue française a été, de 1896 à 1972, l’unique langue officielle de cet événement mondial créé par Pierre de Coubertin. C’est une langue ancrée dans le sport depuis fort longtemps, comme en escrime, exemple notable. En nous appuyant sur la loi Toubon et sur le « Plan Héritage » auquel participe le ministère de la Culture, nous avons fait valoir le soin particulier que les Jeux Olympiques de Paris devront prendre pour promouvoir l’usage de sa première langue officielle.

 

Quels sont les grands enjeux pour la langue française ?

Tout d’abord, amplifier la mobilisation interministérielle pour appuyer la mise en œuvre de la loi du 4 août 1994 relative à l’emploi de la langue française, dite Loi Toubon.

Signalons ici que la Commission d’enrichissement de la langue française (CELF), qui a fêté son cinquantième anniversaire le 21 mars 2023, a poursuivi ses travaux, afin que notre langue continue d’exprimer toutes les réalités du monde contemporain. En 2023, 300 nouveaux termes ont été publiés au Journal Officiel et ont rejoint la base de données FranceTerme !

Autre enjeu majeur, le numérique. L’avenir de la langue française, de la francophonie et du multilinguisme, ainsi que notre souveraineté linguistique et culturelle, en dépendent. La France entend jouer un rôle moteur en ce domaine. La mission lancée avec nos amis québécois pour une découvrabilité en ligne des contenus scientifiques francophones en est une illustration.

Ensuite, l’inclusion : avec 2,5 millions de Français en situation d’illettrisme, la maîtrise de la langue française est une priorité que m’a confirmée la ministre de la Culture. Les efforts menés à ce titre ne se sont pas relâchés, notamment via le programme annuel « Action culturelle et langue française » déployé par le ministère de la Culture. La signature de nouveaux pactes linguistiques État-collectivités territoriales a aussi permis de renforcer les coopérations à l’échelon local : la Seine-Saint-Denis et la Réunion ont rejoint ce dispositif en 2023.

Rappelons, à ce titre, que la promotion des langues régionales est aussi un facteur d’inclusion. Les travaux engagés par le Conseil national des langues et cultures régionales, présidé par la ministre de la Culture, y ont participé, avec la préfiguration d’un portail numérique « Langues en France ». Il sera un point d’accès unique vers l’ensemble des données disponibles sur les langues parlées en France.

 

Et la sensibilisation de la jeunesse à ces enjeux, n’est-elle pas aussi essentielle ?

Oui, c’est un axe fondamental. C’est pourquoi, du côté de la jeunesse, nous sommes heureux du franc succès de l’opération « Dis-moi dix mots » (20.000 participations, près de 100.000 personnes touchées sur les territoires et à travers le monde). La Semaine de la langue française et de la francophonie est chaque année une occasion formidable de rassembler les jeunes publics autour de notre langue.

Quelles sont les perspectives pour l’année 2024 ?

Dans la poursuite de cette dynamique, l’année 2024 sera l’occasion de célébrer la langue française autour de trois rendez-vous majeurs :

- Les Jeux Olympiques et Paralympiques qui se dérouleront en France cet été, au cours desquels la langue française comme le plurilinguisme seront mis à l’honneur autour de l’objectif « Dire et vivre les Jeux en français et en d’autres langues ».

- Le XIXe Sommet de la Francophonie qui se tiendra les 4 et 5 octobre 2024 à Villers-Cotterêts et à Paris pour « Créer, innover, entreprendre en français ». Nous contribuerons plus particulièrement au volet du numérique francophone.

- Nous fêterons aussi les 30 ans de la loi Toubon, texte majeur pour notre cohésion sociale, l’occasion de mesurer son impact ces dernières années . Faut-il faire évoluer le cadre légal ? C’est un sujet dont les parlementaires pourraient se saisir.

Enfin, nous engageons un travail de fond pour rassembler et accompagner les acteurs culturels qui œuvrent dans nos territoires pour une meilleure maîtrise de la langue française chez les publics en situation d’insécurité linguistique généralement éloignés de l’offre culturelle."

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Langue française : des politiques publiques en plein essor

"Publié le 20 mars à l’occasion de la journée internationale de la Francophonie, le Rapport au Parlement sur la langue française 2024 dresse un nouveau portrait des politiques publiques menées en faveur de la langue française et du plurilinguisme.

Langue française : des politiques publiques en plein essor

Publié le 10.04.2024

Publié le 20 mars à l’occasion de la journée internationale de la Francophonie, le Rapport au Parlement sur la langue française 2024 dresse un nouveau portrait des politiques publiques menées en faveur de la langue française et du plurilinguisme.

Plus que jamais la langue française est au carrefour de multiples enjeux. A n’en pas douter, les Jeux Olympiques et Paralympiques de Paris 2024 permettront à la fois de célébrer la langue française, pour nos concitoyens et les francophones du monde entier, tout en accueillant les langues dans toute leur diversité.

Il suffit, pour s’en convaincre, de se souvenir que les valeurs de l’Olympisme suivent le rêve d’une humanité réconciliée. Ce rêve, qui prit forme à Athènes en 1896, fait honneur au français, puisque c’est dans cette langue que Pierre de Coubertin l’exprima et qu’il en convainquit ses partenaires de toutes les nations.

La célébration des 30 ans de la loi Toubon, texte fondateur, qui permet à nos concitoyens de s’exprimer et de recevoir une information dans leur langue au quotidien, sera également un temps fort de l’année. Mais nos politiques des langues font aussi la place à la diversité culturelle et au plurilinguisme, pour lesquelles l’innovation numérique ouvre de nouvelles perspectives.

Par ailleurs, la maîtrise de la langue est, pour chacun d’entre nous, individus et collectifs, fondamentale. De l’expression orale et écrite dépend notre place dans la société, notre rapport au travail, notre capacité à comprendre nos droits, nos devoirs, nos opportunités de rencontres… Ici, l’illettrisme est le fléau qu’il faut combattre.

Enfin, la promotion du français et de la francophonie dans le monde demeure un objectif fondamental pour lequel il convient de développer une stratégie ambitieuse Avec plus de 320 millions de locuteurs dans le monde, le français est une langue sans frontière.

Entretien avec Paul de Sinety, délégué général à la langue française et aux langues de France au ministère de la Culture, à l'occasion de la publication du Rapport au Parlement sur la langue française.

 

 

Le but de ce document est d’informer et de sensibiliser. La langue française, en effet, est l’affaire de tous (élus, administrations, organismes publics, associations, experts et grand public). A l’évidence, elle joue un rôle majeur dans notre société (c’est l’outil indispensable pour s’instruire, se former à une technique, connaître ses droits et ses devoirs, les faire valoir, entreprendre, expliquer, convaincre, trouver un emploi, rencontrer l’autre…).

Avec ses nouvelles données le rapport poursuit et enrichit à plus d’un titre cette double fonction d’informer et de sensibiliser. Ces analyses, accompagnées de témoignages d’experts, en effet, affinent notre connaissance de la situation de la langue française, en France et dans le monde. Ils permettent aussi de mesurer les avancées réalisées par nos politiques publiques.

 

Quelles ont été les moments marquants de 2023 ?

A l’évidence, l’inauguration de la Cité internationale de la langue française à Villers-Cotterêts par le Président de la République, le 30 octobre a été un grand moment. Incarnation de notre politique de la langue renouvelée, la Cité accueillera notamment, dans le champ de l’innovation technologique, deux projets phares : un centre européen de référence pour les technologies des langues (ALT-EDIC) et sa composante nationale, le projet LANGU:IA.

Signalons aussi la préparation des Jeux Olympiques et Paralympiques de Paris 2024. Vous savez que la langue française a été, de 1896 à 1972, l’unique langue officielle de cet événement mondial créé par Pierre de Coubertin. C’est une langue ancrée dans le sport depuis fort longtemps, comme en escrime, exemple notable. En nous appuyant sur la loi Toubon et sur le « Plan Héritage » auquel participe le ministère de la Culture, nous avons fait valoir le soin particulier que les Jeux Olympiques de Paris devront prendre pour promouvoir l’usage de sa première langue officielle.

 

Quels sont les grands enjeux pour la langue française ?

Tout d’abord, amplifier la mobilisation interministérielle pour appuyer la mise en œuvre de la loi du 4 août 1994 relative à l’emploi de la langue française, dite Loi Toubon.

Signalons ici que la Commission d’enrichissement de la langue française (CELF), qui a fêté son cinquantième anniversaire le 21 mars 2023, a poursuivi ses travaux, afin que notre langue continue d’exprimer toutes les réalités du monde contemporain. En 2023, 300 nouveaux termes ont été publiés au Journal Officiel et ont rejoint la base de données FranceTerme !

Autre enjeu majeur, le numérique. L’avenir de la langue française, de la francophonie et du multilinguisme, ainsi que notre souveraineté linguistique et culturelle, en dépendent. La France entend jouer un rôle moteur en ce domaine. La mission lancée avec nos amis québécois pour une découvrabilité en ligne des contenus scientifiques francophones en est une illustration.

Ensuite, l’inclusion : avec 2,5 millions de Français en situation d’illettrisme, la maîtrise de la langue française est une priorité que m’a confirmée la ministre de la Culture. Les efforts menés à ce titre ne se sont pas relâchés, notamment via le programme annuel « Action culturelle et langue française » déployé par le ministère de la Culture. La signature de nouveaux pactes linguistiques État-collectivités territoriales a aussi permis de renforcer les coopérations à l’échelon local : la Seine-Saint-Denis et la Réunion ont rejoint ce dispositif en 2023.

Rappelons, à ce titre, que la promotion des langues régionales est aussi un facteur d’inclusion. Les travaux engagés par le Conseil national des langues et cultures régionales, présidé par la ministre de la Culture, y ont participé, avec la préfiguration d’un portail numérique « Langues en France ». Il sera un point d’accès unique vers l’ensemble des données disponibles sur les langues parlées en France.

 

Et la sensibilisation de la jeunesse à ces enjeux, n’est-elle pas aussi essentielle ?

Oui, c’est un axe fondamental. C’est pourquoi, du côté de la jeunesse, nous sommes heureux du franc succès de l’opération « Dis-moi dix mots » (20.000 participations, près de 100.000 personnes touchées sur les territoires et à travers le monde). La Semaine de la langue française et de la francophonie est chaque année une occasion formidable de rassembler les jeunes publics autour de notre langue.

Quelles sont les perspectives pour l’année 2024 ?

Dans la poursuite de cette dynamique, l’année 2024 sera l’occasion de célébrer la langue française autour de trois rendez-vous majeurs :

- Les Jeux Olympiques et Paralympiques qui se dérouleront en France cet été, au cours desquels la langue française comme le plurilinguisme seront mis à l’honneur autour de l’objectif « Dire et vivre les Jeux en français et en d’autres langues ».

- Le XIXe Sommet de la Francophonie qui se tiendra les 4 et 5 octobre 2024 à Villers-Cotterêts et à Paris pour « Créer, innover, entreprendre en français ». Nous contribuerons plus particulièrement au volet du numérique francophone.

- Nous fêterons aussi les 30 ans de la loi Toubon, texte majeur pour notre cohésion sociale, l’occasion de mesurer son impact ces dernières années . Faut-il faire évoluer le cadre légal ? C’est un sujet dont les parlementaires pourraient se saisir.

Enfin, nous engageons un travail de fond pour rassembler et accompagner les acteurs culturels qui œuvrent dans nos territoires pour une meilleure maîtrise de la langue française chez les publics en situation d’insécurité linguistique généralement éloignés de l’offre culturelle."

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Transitions and turns in the study of languages and linguistics

By Ariane Macalinga Borlongan April 7, 2024  "LINGUISTICS is a highly evolving field. As with any academic discipline, one discovery leads to another, and the way things were understood half a century ago would be understood way differently now. To begin with, initially, linguistics was only concerned with language use in speech and writing. However, with technology being available to almost anyone nowadays, linguists realized there is a need to account for language used in computerized communication. For example, one might think that the language used in Facebook Messenger might seem like just ordinary face-to-face conversations. But no, they are far different. In Facebook Messenger, you can hinge your reply to a chat bubble earlier in the conversation. This is not possible in face-to-face modes, as you must reply immediately to something the other person said, or else it will be lost in the conversation.

The study of language and gender has likewise changed. Earlier studies in this area of sociolinguistics have only focused on the traditional sexes: male and female. But now, there is much awareness of lesbians, gays, bisexuals and transgender people — more commonly known as LGBT — and this needs to be accounted for in contemporary linguistics. People, and linguists, have also been more aware of the need to document and even revitalize minority languages than ever before. There is even a United Nations resolution that established the International Mother Language Day, observed worldwide on February 21. There has been, more than ever before, a lot of attention on language in the margins, and these not only include ethnic and sexual minorities but also migrants and those with special needs.

Likewise, technology has improved the way data are collected and analyzed in linguistics. Computers have advanced to the point that bigger data could be stored, and more sophisticated analysis could be done in ways previously unimagined.

These transitions and turns in language sciences are the focus of this year's Linguistic Society of the Philippines International Conference. It will take place from April 11 to 13 in Cauayan, Isabela. It is co-organized by the Isabela State University Cauayan Campus and led by Prof. Boyet Batang, vice president for academic affairs of the Isabela State University, and Dr. Ariane Pantaleon, also of the university. The theme of the conference is "Transitions, Transmodalities, and Transverses In Linguistics, Languages, and Language Education." Prof. Stefanie Shamila Pillai of the Universiti Malaya in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, is the keynote speaker and she will explore the dynamic landscape of language use and education, addressing the challenges and strategies for navigating transitions and dealing with transmodalities in language research and education. Dr. Joel Meniado of the Seameo Regional Language Center in Singapore will deliver a plenary lecture on human-machine collaboration and how teachers in Southeast Asia can leverage generative artificial intelligence in language teaching and assessment. The third plenary speaker is Fr. Edmundo Castañeda, president of St. Ferdinand College in Ilagan, Isabela, who will talk about the Ibanag quest for linguistic justice, pluralistic democracy, and liberatory education. More information on the conference can be read at https://sites.google.com/isu.edu.ph/lspic2024/home.

Ariane Macalinga Borlongan is one of the leading scholars on English in the Philippines and is also doing pioneering work on language in the context of migration. He is the youngest to earn a doctorate in linguistics — at age 23 — from De La Salle University. He has had several teaching and research positions in Germany, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Poland and Singapore. He serves as a consultant to the Oxford English Dictionary. He is presently an associate professor of sociolinguistics at the Tokyo University of Foreign Studies in Japan."

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First Indigenous member joins Brazilian Academy of Letters

"First Indigenous member joins Brazilian Academy of Letters

Rio de Janeiro (AFP) – Writer and activist Ailton Krenak on Friday became the first Indigenous person inducted into the Brazilian Academy of Letters, as dancers in feather headdresses shook up the staid proceedings of the country's leading literary institution.

Issued on: 06/04/2024 - 04:53

 

Wearing an Indigenous bead bandana along with the traditional gold-embroidered suit of the Academy's members, Krenak joked about his "distinguished new outfit" and feeling a bit out of place in the predominantly white institution.

Krenak, 70, is known for an acclaimed body of work criticizing the excesses of colonialism and capitalism, including the essay collection "Ideas to Postpone the End of the World" (2019), which has been translated into more than 10 languages.

He is the first member of Brazil's more than 300 Indigenous peoples to be inducted into the Academy, the rough equivalent of France's revered Academie Francaise or Spain's Real Academia.

Seen as a standard-bearer of Brazilian language and literature, the Rio de Janeiro-based institution has 40 members, known as the "immortals," who hold their seats for life.

Krenak, a writer, journalist, poet, philosopher, activist and environmentalist, was elected in October with 23 of 39 votes to the seat left by deceased historian Jose Murilo de Carvalho.

The Academy, which has at times faced accusations of racism, has gradually begun reflecting Brazil's diversity in recent years.

In 2022, it inducted singer-songwriter and former culture minister Gilberto Gil.

He and the writer and academic Domicio Proenca Filho, inducted in 2006, are the first Afro-Brazilians to join the academy since it was founded in 1897 by intellectuals including the iconic black writer Machado de Assis.

Krenak has vowed to use his seat to help shine a light on Brazil's nearly 200 Indigenous languages.

Retracing five centuries of Indigenous suffering in his speech, he questioned gestures such as the apology issued Tuesday by Brazil's human-rights ministry -- the first of its kind from the government -- for the persecution of the country's native peoples.

"Saying sorry afterwards means very little in terms of reparation. What we need is real reparations for native peoples," he said to applause.

He also criticized the destruction of the environment by humankind -- or "Predatory sapiens," as he called the species -- urging people to rethink our relationship with nature.

© 2024 AFP"

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The model built for the future-- Beijing Review

"By Zhang Yage · 2024-04-08 · Source: NO.15 APRIL 11, 2024
Participants explore translation products during a sub-forum of the Translators Association of China annual conference in Changsha, Hunan Province, on March 31

As a skill as old as language that boomed during the age of geographic discovery in the 16th century, the art of translation has undergone significant development and has been closely tied to scientific and technological progress since the latter half of the 20th century.

Currently, the rapid evolution of artificial intelligence (AI) is reshaping the translation service industry.

"In 2023, 839 translation companies in China made use of AI-based translation technology—an increase of 251 from the year before," Cheng Wei, Vice President of the Translators Association of China (TAC), said at the association's 2024 conference.

Founded in 1982, the TAC represents professional translators and interpreters nationwide through its more than 7,000 institutional members, 10,000 individual members, and 18 committees covering areas including science and technology, literature and arts, social sciences, legal affairs, ethnic minority languages, translation studies and teaching, interpreting and more. This year's TAC annual conference took place in Changsha, Hunan Province, from March 30 to 31.

Cheng said AI-based translation technology serves not only China's translation and interpretation community itself, but also the country's international exchange and cooperation. "The rapid advancement in implementing the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) entails a huge demand for foreign language professionals, but we are facing a shortage of skilled translators in languages such as Arabic and Russian," Cheng said. "The new technology will no doubt be of great service to facilitating Belt and Road cooperation." The BRI is a China-proposed initiative to boost connectivity along and beyond the ancient Silk Road routes.

During the conference, the China International Communications Group (CICG) launched the Second Translation Technology Competition. The annual competition tests competitors' literacy of translation technologies with a focus on their ability to give precise prompts to the AI including relevant terms and keywords, as well as to edit and polish the AI-generated texts. Winners will receive prize money and access to the state-of-the-art AI translation applications.

"Popularizing the use of AI-based translation technology will be an important part of our future work, as without widespread application and authentic feedback from users, the improvement of the technology will slow down," Cheng said.

The evolving technology

"At present, more than 50 percent of the industry's projects have used machine translation along with human translators, and more than 80 percent of enterprises in the sector have embraced the latest trend in translation—the Large Language Models (LLMs)," Huang Yulong, Director of CICG Academy of Translation and Interpretation, said at the conference.

LLM refers to a computational system capable of learning language naturally, allowing it to produce, interpret and process language. This type of model has a large number of parameters and can learn language patterns and professional knowledge from large-scale online text data.

Machine translation has gone through three critical periods, the first (1950s-60s) required humans to input hundreds of specific rules concerning language and translation, which the machine will then strictly enforce. However, this was not cost effective due to the labor needed to input the rules and check the resulting translations.

In the second period (1960s-80s), machines were capable of capturing some knowledge from databases automatically, and the cost was significantly reduced. "However, problems such as a lack of authenticity, cultural awareness and communicative skills emerged," He Zhongjun, Chair of the Baidu Artificial Intelligence Technical Committee, said at the conference, adding that the third and current phase, dominated by LLMs, has greatly improved the quality of translation by automatically capturing grammar, semantics and pragmatic information from the related corpora. Tech giant Baidu is one of China's top AI developers.

For example, the latest version of Baidu Translation service is multi-functional, according to He. Prior to the translation of a text, the user can upload reference materials and input the requirements for the final product. Having perused the materials fed, Baidu Translation will surf the corpus and the Internet to verify the information available and search for additional background knowledge. After translating the text, the service will help with post-editing according to the user's further instructions, and it is also ready to answer any questions about its translation style and use of words. Other customized services include multilingual translation, giving type-setting advice based on contents and switching between language styles or registers.

While highlighting its level of authenticity and cultural awareness, He showcased the improvement Baidu Translation demonstrates compared to previous systems in translating Internet slang. Baidu Translation successfully translated zei6, a Chinese Internet phrase frequently used by Gen Zs that would have been directly translated as thief six by previous translation systems, because zei is the exact pronunciation of the Chinese character that means thief according to China's pinyin romanization system. Actually, its correct meaning is "very good at."

Specific requirements

Wu Juan, Vice President of Cloud Translation Technology, an AI technology company in Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, that focuses on translation and localization solutions, said the company is committed to using machine translation technology based on neural machine translation (NMT) and LLMs to provide extensive application and technical support for the internationalization of businesses, smart teaching in tertiary institutions and simultaneous interpretation.

LLM and NMT are the two core technologies used in translation today. NMT is a form of machine translation that uses an artificial neural network to complete the translation. After more than 20 years of development, it is a mature technology that is widely applied.

"At present, NMT has certain economic advantages over LLMs, but the latter has been used to train translation engines for less than a year. Based on our training outcomes, we've found it can compensate for the shortcomings of NMT in maintaining consistency in understanding long articles, translation of literary works, creative translation, and many other areas. So we believe LLMs will prevail in the future as soon as it is as cost effective as NMT," Wu told Beijing Review.

Cloud Translation Technology has developed a multilingual simultaneous interpreting system for meetings and teaching based on NMT, and they are working toward incorporating LLMs into it.

"The development of AI-based translation and interpreting system will bring benefits for cooperation between countries in a lot of fields, especially education," Wu said. "Since most Chinese students choose English as their foreign language, they might not be prepared to participate in programs delivered in other languages. The AI technology helps students overcome any barriers between languages, and the LLM technology will surely be more helpful."

Wu underscored that future research on machine translation should place more attention on specialization in particular categories and areas where large numbers of technical terms are used. "We believe by working in this direction, the fluency, professionalism and speed of machine translation will improve. And it will better cater to the needs of enterprises," she said.

Cloud Translation Technology's translation engine is being carefully categorized and trained accordingly. At present, it covers 20 fields, including machinery, finance, information and communications technology, politics and diplomacy, and aerospace.

"We will further refine our translation engine according to customer needs, and provide tailored services for different business units." Ding Li, Board Chair of Cloud Translation Technology, told Beijing Review.

In addition to tailor-made services, Wu said the trained, privately deployed translation engines are particularly popular with technology and finance giants, as well as government departments and military agencies, because of their security and confidentiality.

"We train translation engines and help customers set them up on discrete servers. If they don't use privately deployed engines, their intellectual property and trade secrets are at risk of leaking and, in some cases, there are national security concerns," Wu said.

On March 15, Cloud Translation Technology signed a partnership agreement with Huawei, one of China's largest tech firms, to build a traditional Chinese medicine translation model, aiming to facilitate the transformation and overseas promotion of China's centuries-old medical knowledge.

 

A Russian teacher gives a lecture at a vocational college in Zhengzhou, Henan Province, using a simultaneous interpreting system on April 19, 2023 (COURTESY PHOTO)

Way to go

Despite the remarkable accomplishments of Chinese translation institutions, there is a technological gap between China and some developed countries, which started exploring AI earlier than China did, according to Wang Huashu, Secretary General of the Translation Technology Committee of the TAC.

"Some products designed by other countries have advantages over ours in terms of diversity of functions, user experience, the degree of intelligence, and the quality of translation," Wang said, adding that Chinese enterprises need to increase investment in research and development, as well as cultivate more high-caliber professionals.

Participants at the conference also discussed how to address challenges arising from the development of AI to the translation and interpretation community, including technological obstacles, ethical and moral issues, regulations and standards, the protection of intellectual property rights and data security.

For example, one of the major problems with AI translation is AI hallucination, which refers to AI's occasional inclination to provide user with false, irrelevant or confusing information. In some cases, the AI produces rhetorical and flamboyant texts.

Pan Jun, associate head of the Department of Translation, Interpreting and Intercultural Studies at Hong Kong Baptist University, offered her insight on drawbacks of AI translation at the conference. "So far, most popular AI translation products draw from a corpus that mainly consists of texts written by white people, leading to concerns over biased output," Pan said. "We should make full use of our resources in the fields of humanities and sociology to cope with this challenge, and put more effort into the development of AI's analytical and communication skills in dialogues."

Another challenge identified by the participants is the training of future translators. "There is no doubt that future translators should be equipped with the necessary knowledge and skills to use AI-based translation technology in their work, but as teachers, we need to think about when and how to properly introduce the latest technologies to them without dousing their interest in learning basic language knowledge and improving their core skills, as this is likely to happen," Pan said.

Copyedited by G.P. Wilson

Comments to zhangyage@cicgamericas.com"

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4 ways to use Google Search to check facts, images and sources

Apr 02, 2024: "For International Fact-Checking Day, we’re sharing Search features that can help you quickly evaluate content online and expanding a few of those tools to new languages

Nidhi Hebbar
Senior Product Manager
For International Fact-Checking Day, we’re sharing four Search features that can help you quickly evaluate information and get key context to make sense of what you’re seeing online.

And to give more people access to these tools, we’ve expanded two features — About this image and About this page — to 40 additional languages globally.

Learn more about a site in “more about this page”

You may recognize a lot of websites in your search results, but there might be others you don’t. Our About this result feature lets you get context about a website before you click through. Just click the three dots next to a website in search results and tap on the “more about this page” tab. That will bring up information about the website, such as how Wikipedia describes it (when available) and what others on the web have said about the site. With more information about the website, you can make a more informed decision about visiting it.

The “more about this page” feature in About this result is now available in 40 additional languages globally including French, German, Hindi, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Portuguese, Spanish and Vietnamese.

Easily find fact checks in results

Curious about a rumor you heard on a group chat? Independent fact-checking organizations may have already looked into it. We make it easy to find fact checks published by independent, authoritative sources on the web. If a fact-check article is relevant to your query, you might see a preview for it appear in your search results. These results will also display snippets to help you quickly get context about a specific claim that was made.

Dig deeper with Fact Check Explorer

Fact Check Explorer helps journalists and fact-checkers dig deeper into a topic. When you search for a topic, you can easily find fact checks that have been investigated by independent organizations from around the world. And now you can use Fact Check Explorer to find out more about an image. Previously in beta, this feature lets you upload or copy the link of an image into the Fact Check Explorer to see if it’s been used in an existing fact check. Journalists and fact-checkers can also use it through the Fact Check Tools API, which gives them the ability to show relevant fact checks for an image on their own websites.

Get context with About this image

About this image gives you a quick way to check the background and context of images you see online. Simply click on the three dots next to an image in Google Images results to access this tool, or click “more about this page” in the About this result tool on search results.

About this image lets you see:

An image’s history: Find out when an image or similar images may have first been seen by Search, and whether it was previously published much earlier on other webpages.
How other sites use and describe the image: See what other sources, like news and fact-checking sites, have to say about it.
An image’s metadata: When available, check metadata that image creators and publishers have added to an image.

Launched last year in English globally, we’ve now expanded the tool to 40 additional languages around the world, including French, German, Hindi, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Portuguese, Spanish and Vietnamese.

These tools can help you get the context you need to feel more confident about what you’re seeing online — whether it’s checking an image or the online source you’re reading. Try them out today in Search."
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Google Search Gets 4 New Tools For Verifying Facts, Images And Sources: All Details

"Google Search adds new tools that can help you verify news and content on the web including decoding images that may seem fake.

Last Updated: APRIL 06, 2024, 13:30 IST

Delhi, India

Google is helping you verify facts in Search

Google Search adds new tools that can help you verify news and content on the web including decoding images that may seem fake.

Google has got some massive updates in recent times. Apart from the optimisation of the application, several new features have been added. In a recent update, Google has introduced four new options for its online search engine. These features will no doubt help users go into the depth of any topic and under the main context.

Also, more language options have been included in two existing features– “About this image” and “About this page”. Now, these options can be accessed in a total of 40 languages. Let's see what's new Google is offering:

MORE ABOUT THIS PAGE

When users submit their quarry in the Google search box, the result page shows a long list of websites. While some of them are widely popular, there can be a few, which are not quite familiar. In this case, users mostly hesitate to click on the link, considering it to be malicious.

To resolve this issue, Google has now come up with the “About this result” feature which is available in the three-dot menu next to a website. By tapping on this option, users will get to know more about a particular website before visiting it. Detailed information about any particular website will be available in 40 languages including Hindi, Bengali, German, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese.

 

FACT-CHECKING OPTION

Google has now come up with a new feature to help users double-check any fact. There is no shortage of rumours on the internet. But in the Google search engine, there is an option from where people can re-assess any claim.

“We make it easy to find fact checks published by independent, authoritative sources on the web. If a fact-check article is relevant to your query, you might see a preview for it appear in your search results,” Google wrote in its official statement."

#metaglossia_mundus: https://www.news18.com/tech/google-search-gets-4-new-tools-for-verifying-facts-images-and-sources-all-details-8838143.html

 

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The Poet and the Universe of Thought ~

By Glenn Arbery|April 8th, 2024| "The poet relies upon on a shared understanding that gives his imagination the oxygen to sustain it. The world lacks certitude about its direction, and we want most of all to awaken the poetic powers urgently necessary for the long rebuilding that lies ahead.

For the past month or so, I have been doing daily recordings of various poems—whatever strikes me that day—and my comments have been largely unpremeditated responses to the poems. Some of the poems have been decidedly minor, others just as decidedly great. Lately, in reading poems by T.S. Eliot, W.B. Yeats, and Wallace Stevens, I have been impressed by how deeply the great poets of a century ago sensed their responsibility to deal with the cultural cataclysm in which we still live. Late in the 19th century, Nietzsche called this phenomenon the “death of God,” by which he meant that Western civilization had shifted its ground from religious faith to scientific verifiability, gradually abandoning the synthesis of biblical narrative and philosophy by which it had known itself for almost two millennia. A greater knowledge of how things work in the natural world supplanted confidence in the intentionality of existence and the presence of divine meaning in the world itself.

This loss had immense cultural consequences. World War I laid waste to the last survivals of the organic order of Christendom, which the Reformation had already begun to erode centuries before. In The Waste Land, published in 1922, Eliot writes in a prophetic voice that “you know only / A heap of broken images.” What had once existed whole now lay in fragments. “Things fall apart,” W.B. Yeats wrote at the same time. “The center cannot hold.” The intelligible and coherent cosmos of previous ages had become, as Stevens puts it, “a souvenir.” The poet attempting to write for the modern reader a century ago had no coherent system of thought about the world to draw upon, nothing of the sort that made possible Dante’s Divine Comedy or that sustained the generations of builders in the long decades required for constructing the cathedrals of Chartres or Notre Dame in Paris. He or she did not know what to assume.

“Brightness falls from the air,” wrote Thomas Nashe during a recurrence of black plague in London in 1593. “Queens have died young and fair; / Dust hath closed Helen’s eye.” At least twenty centuries of cultural inheritance go into those two words, “Helen’s eye,” and Nashe knows it. But suppose that the modern poet, like the modern teacher, cannot assume any such understanding of who Helen is. A professor going into a class with seniors at Wyoming Catholic College can take for granted a massive weave of references from the Western tradition—Helen gazing out at the Greek army from the walls of Troy while the old men wonder at her beauty, Achilleus dragging the body of Hector, the Allegory of the Cave, Dido’s suicide, Dante’s meeting with Beatrice in the Purgatorio, the proofs in Euclid, the proportions of Vitruvius, and so on.

The same teacher going into a senior class at a public university could take nothing of that for granted. It would be a mistake, possibly even one construed as arrogant, to assume that a single student in the class had read the Iliad or Plato’s Republic or the Bible.

Dana Gioia writes of an “intimate patois” that develops between husband and wife in marriage, a “lexicon” that “defies translation into common speech,” and a similar patois (if not so intimate) develops in vital cultures. The poet, like any good teacher, needs to be able to draw confidently upon whole lexicons of cultural reference to express the joyful subtleties of an unfolding thought. “What matters to poetry in a close and direct manner,” writes Jacques Maritain in Creative Intuition in Art and Poetry, “are certain extremely simple but basic presences or existential certainties, assured by the universe of thought which constitutes the vital environment of poetic intuition.” In other words, the poet relies upon on a shared understanding that gives his imagination the oxygen to sustain it. What Maritain says about this “universe of thought” also describes beautifully, exactly, and with characteristic density of expression why Wyoming Catholic College exists.

Maritain says that four certitudes are the necessary conditions for strong poetic life:

a certitude both of the mysterious irrefragable existence and the exigency of intelligibility involved in things; a certitude of the interiority of the human being, and of its importance; a certitude that between man and the world there is an invisible relationship deeper than any material interconnection; a certitude that the impact of his freedom on his destiny gives his life a movement which is oriented, and not lost in the void, and which has to do, in one way or another, with the whole fabric of being.

Irrefragable sent me to the dictionary, but I can hardly conceive of a more cogent statement of the universe of thought we try to give our students. First, we introduce them to the natural world around us, which is real and urgently intelligible, mysteriously but indisputably given its existence. Second, we understand the students themselves—and they understand each other—not as mere behaviors to be manipulated but as immortal embodied souls with profound interior depth. Third, we demonstrate, from instruction in horsemanship to the highest reaches of metaphysics, that we have a connatural relationship to the world that allows us to understand ourselves better through knowing it and to understand it better by knowing ourselves. And lastly, we know that our action in the world is free and consequential, oriented toward God and responsible to “the whole fabric of being.”

When we speak of Wyoming Catholic as “poetic education,” we mean an education whose ends are to find the fresh air of hope. The world lacks certitude about its direction, and we want most of all to awaken the poetic powers urgently necessary for the long rebuilding that lies ahead.

Republished with gracious permission from Wyoming Catholic College’s weekly newsletter.

This essay was first published here in May 2020.

The Imaginative Conservative applies the principle of appreciation to the discussion of culture and politics as we approach dialogue with magnanimity rather than with mere civility. Will you help us remain a refreshing oasis in the increasingly contentious arena of modern discourse? Please consider donating now.

The featured image is courtesy of Pixabay."

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Toward linguistic justice and inclusion for multilingual learners: Implications of selective translanguaging in English-medium instruction classrooms 

Pramod K. Sah aGuofang Li b

Highlights

  • 1.Selective translanguaging reproduces the language ideology of elite bilingualism.

  • 2.Translanguaging doesn't always level power hierarchies or combat social inequities.

  • 3.Caution against thin inclusion of languages without questioning power dynamics.

  • 4.Adoption of inclusive translanguaging to counter unequal language ideologies.

Abstract

Background and aims

English-medium instruction (EMI) mainly mandates teaching all subjects in English only, but evidence shows teachers and students use local languages alongside English, commonly known as translanguaging. This has been proposed as a transformative pedagogy, especially for ethnic/Indigenous children, but research on its impact on the lived experiences of ethnic minority students in EMI multilingual classrooms is lacking. This paper fills the gap by studying the discursive use of translanguaging in EMI classrooms in a multilingual school in Nepal.

Methods

Drawing on an ethnographic study in an EMI school located in a multilingual ethnic minority community where mother tongues (i.e., Bhojpuri) other than Nepali were spoken, this paper reports on interviews, focus group discussions, and classroom observations in Grades 6 and 9 over 4 months.

Results

Data analysis reveals that both teachers and students recognized a need to negotiate the English-only policy to accommodate their limited English proficiency and used Nepali but not their mother tongues as a supplementary language. While English-Nepali translanguaging seemed to facilitate a better delivery and understanding of content knowledge, this selective, excluding practice did not guarantee equity and equality due to excluding students’ mother tongues (i.e., Bhojpuri) in content classes and school language policy.

Conclusions

Our findings highlight how such “selective translanguaging” practices and their related ideologies stigmatize mother tongues, causing linguistic injustice for ethnic minority students. The study proposes “inclusive translanguaging,” countering unequal language ideologies and embracing historically marginalized languages, cultures, and identities.

 

Introduction

Based on a global mapping of the future of English, the British Council recently claimed that “English will be repositioned in models of education within which indigenous languages are increasingly valued” (Patel et al., 2023, p. 57), indicating the changing linguistic ecology that recognizes the value of local and Indigenous languages in education. However, in many countries in the Global South, English has been (re)positioned as a medium of instruction in both basic and higher education, requiring the delivery of content-area subjects (e.g., social studies, math, and science) primarily in English, further weakening the education in local and Indigenous languages. Notwithstanding, regardless of the prevailing expectation for English to serve as the exclusive medium of instruction, a burgeoning body of evidence indicates that teachers and students frequently engage in a dynamic and flexible language practice within English-medium instruction (EMI) classrooms, commonly referred to as “translanguaging,” where all of students’ linguistic repertoire in local languages are seamlessly integrated with English to facilitate various classroom tasks and interactions (Lu et al., 2023; Sah & Kubota, 2022; Sah & Li, 2022; Tai, 2022). In alignment with the assertions regarding translanguaging as a transformative and decolonial approach (Li & García, 2022; Tyler, 2023; Wang, 2022), some researchers have proposed translanguaging as a promising avenue to maintain equity and promote social justice in EMI practices (Phyak et al., 2022; Rafi & Morgan, 2022; Tai, 2022).

The concept of translanguaging is rooted in the ability of multilinguals to fluidly navigate between languages, treating their diverse linguistic repertoire as an integrated system (Canagarajah, 2011). Furthermore, it is seen as a means to break free from the linguistic legacies of colonialism and global capitalism. Thus, the central question revolves around the ways translanguaging can dismantle colonial and capitalist ideologies in language practices within English classrooms, especially those of EMI, and whether it “[always] flattens the power hierarchies” (García, 2023, p. 13). While translanguaging represents a potential shift away from the monolingual EMI model by acknowledging the value of local languages and cultures in the learning process, its transformative and decolonial promises in the context of EMI are not straightforward (Jaspers, 2018; Mendoza et al., 2023; Mendoza, 2023; Sah & Kubota, 2022). It is because “translanguaging has as much potential to exclude as well as include languages” (Mendoza, 2023, p. 6) in linguistically complex and diverse contexts, requiring researchers and educators to unpack the power hierarchies leading to social inequities critically. In this regard, Li (2022) argues that “a translanguaging pedagogy wants to centre sociolinguistic realities and sensitivities of the community in which the educational program is located, including the everyday practices of the learners and their lived experiences, in teaching and learning, not to exclude them” (p. 300).

On the ground, English teachers and students, including EMI teachers, may choose to both include and exclude specific languages due to the different language ideologies they hold toward English and local languages (Li, 2022; Mendoza, 2023; Sah & Kubota, 2022; Sah & Li, 2022). For example, their language practices may be guided by “nationalist and neoliberal ideologies that position languages and their users unequally” (Sah & Kubota, 2022, p. 143), ultimately excluding certain languages and language varieties from the linguistic hybridity. Some teachers and students, such as those documented in Jonsson (2017) and Sahan and Rose (2021), may conform to the English monolingualism policy and/or native English speakerism in these classrooms, which may lead to what we call selective translanguaging between English and another dominant or official local language; and, therefore, serves to endorse the existing language hierarchies and devalue multilingual learners' non-dominant languages and identities (Li, 2022). Such selective translanguaging pedagogy can “fall short of what is needed in linguistically complex societies” in the Global South (García, 2023, p. 13). Examining teachers' and students’ language ideologies, as well as their impact on the ground-level language policies and practices, in multilingual practices in EMI classrooms is, thereby, essential.

A critical gap exists in the research regarding the extent to which translanguaging practices can empower multilingual teachers and students in EMI programs and what impacts such practices make on the lived experiences of ethnic minority students in multilingual classrooms. There needs to be more exploration in terms of how teachers' and students' language ideologies share their translanguaging practices and how they navigate ideological and structural issues underpinning the power hierarchies of English and local languages in an EMI environment. This article aims to contribute to this gap in research on translanguaging in the context of EMI. It begs to address the question: In what ways do multilingual teachers' and students' language ideologies influence their translanguaging practices in English-medium instruction classrooms in Nepal? To answer this question, we analyzed teachers' and students’ (a) language practices through classroom observations (b) and their beliefs about those practices in the context of EMI through interviews and focus group discussions. By examining the translanguaging practices and ideologies of teachers and students in EMI classrooms in Nepal, we intend to offer valuable insights into the intricate interplay between translanguaging and EMI, particularly within the overarching goal of fostering inclusive and equitable education. Our primary focus is examining underlying language ideologies and practices to challenge the uncritical adoption of translanguaging within EMI classrooms.

 

Section snippets

Language ideology, elite bilingualism, and translanguaging

Wortham (2003) argues that “a society's beliefs about language— as a symbol of nationalism, a marker of difference, or a tool of assimilation—are often reproduced and challenged through educational institutions” (p. 2). Therefore, examining teachers' and students' language ideologies is of great significance, as it can unveil their political and ideological stances regarding the various languages present within their immediate linguistic ecology (Bartolomé, 2002; Sah & Uysal, 2022). These

Research context

The research was conducted in the metropolitan city of Birgunj, situated in the southern region of Nepal within the Madhes Province. With a total population of about ten million, Nepal is characterized by a multitude of languages (n = 124) spoken as mother tongues across its 142 caste/ethnic groups. According to Nepal's 2021 census data, the ten most widely spoken mother tongues in the country are Nepali (44.86%), Maithili (11.05%), Bhojpuri (6.24%), Tharu (5.88%), Tamang (4.88%), Bajjika

“Bhojpuri is not allowed”: Ms. Mandal's social studies lesson in Grade 6

Ms. Mandal, a Bhojpuri-speaking social studies teacher from the Madhesi ethnic community, had taught in the EMI track for about two years when the data were collected. Based on the observation data presented in Vignette 1, it was evident that Ms. Mandal and her students were adept at using both Nepali and English during classroom activities, such as providing instruction and asking concept-checking questions. Despite Bhojpuri being the home language of Ms. Mandal and her students, it was not

Discussions

The findings of this study illuminate the intricate relationship between language ideologies, translanguaging practices, and social justice for ethnolinguistic minority children within the EMI classroom. As illustrated in the classroom vignettes above, teachers and students used Nepali alongside English for classroom instruction but preferred not to use Bhojpuri, their mother tongue. They were selective in their language practices rather than drawing on their fullest linguistic repertoire.

In conclusion

This research explored the ideological and political complexities of translanguaging in EMI classrooms in linguistically complex contexts like Nepal. The findings show that while teachers and students engaged in negotiating the monolingual space (i.e., English-only) in the EMI classroom, their translanguaging practices that used two dominant named languages (Nepali and English) and excluded their home language (e.g., Bhojpuri) demonstrated a selective nature of translanguaging. Such a

Funding

This work was supported by Killam Trust (Izzak Walton Memorial Pre-Doctoral Fellowship) and the University of British Columbia, Canada.

CRediT authorship contribution statement

Pramod K. Sah: Writing – review & editing, Writing – original draft, Resources, Project administration, Methodology, Investigation, Funding acquisition, Formal analysis, Data curation, Conceptualization. Guofang Li: Writing – review & editing, Writing – original draft, Supervision, Conceptualization.

Pramod K. Sah is an Assistant Professor of English Language Education at The Education University of Hong. His primary area of scholarly focus revolves around investigating how colonial and liberal ideologies and discourses in language and literacy policy and practices create socioemotional and educational disparities among diverse students, with a goal to conceptualize anti-oppressive and asset-based alternatives for pedagogies (e.g., critical translanguaging), research, and policies....

References (48)

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    The transformative limits of translanguaging

    Language & Communication

    (2018)
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    Unbiased but ideologically unclear: Teacher beliefs about language practices of emergent bilingual students in the U.S

    Linguistics and Education

    (2022)
  • L.I. Bartolomé

    Creating an equal playing field: Teachers as advocates, border crossers, and cultural brokers

  • P. Bourdieu

    Social space and symbolic power

    Sociological Theory

    (1989)
  • S. Canagarajah

    Codemeshing in academic writing: Identifying teachable strategies of translanguaging

    The Modern Language Journal

    (2011)
  • L.C. Chávez–Moreno

    Racist and raciolinguistic teacher ideologies: When bilingual education is “inherently culturally relevant” for Latinxs

    The Urban Review

    (2022)
  • C.K. Chang-Bacon

    Monolingual language ideologies and the idealized speaker: The “new bilingualism” meets the “old” educational inequities

    Teachers College Record

    (2021)
  • O. García

    Bilingual education in the 21st century: A global perspective

    (2009)
  • O. García

    Translanguaged TESOL in transit

    NYS TESOL Journal

    (2023)
  • O. García et al.

    Translanguaging in bilingual education

Pramod K. Sah is an Assistant Professor of English Language Education at The Education University of Hong. His primary area of scholarly focus revolves around investigating how colonial and liberal ideologies and discourses in language and literacy policy and practices create socioemotional and educational disparities among diverse students, with a goal to conceptualize anti-oppressive and asset-based alternatives for pedagogies (e.g., critical translanguaging), research, and policies. His research has appeared in many international journals and edited volumes.

Guofang Li is a Professor and Canada Research Chair (Tier 1) in Transnational/Global Perspectives of Language and Literacy Education of Children and Youth in the Department of Language and Literacy Education, University of British Columbia, Canada. Her recent research interests are longitudinal studies of immigrant children's bicultural and bi-literacy development through the educational systems, immigrant children's new literacies practices in and out of school, technology-infused ESL/EFL instructional approaches, diversity and equity issues, and teacher education.

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25 places other than France where speaking French is helpful

"By Sydney Baker
Speaking another language is always helpful, especially if you love to travel. And French, commonly thought of as one of the most beautiful in the world, is also more useful than you might realize. Here are 25 destinations outside of France where you can put your French language skills to good use!


1 of 25Belgium
Belgium
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Home to delicious beer, chocolate, waffles, and fries (no, they actually didn’t originate in France), Belgium is also a French-speaking country. The language is one of three officially spoken in the country; the other two are Dutch and German. French is mostly spoken in the capital, Brussels, and in the south of the country.


2 of 25Luxembourg
Luxembourg
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Another multilingual state that borders France, the Grand Duchy has French, German, and Luxembourgish as official languages. However, French is one most commonly used on signs and in written communication in the country. You’ll also find it most helpful for small talk and chatting with residents.


3 of 25Switzerland
Switzerland
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Yet another European country with French as one of the official languages (the others are German, Italian, and Rhaeto-Romance). You’ll find French most useful in Geneva and the surrounding area, although it’s used throughout Switzerland.


4 of 25Monaco
Monaco
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Many people make the mistake of assuming that this tiny state is a part of France. And while Monaco is surrounded by its’ much larger neighbor and uses the French language, it is a sovereign city-state with a monarchy. There is also a Monégasque language that has official status.


5 of 25Aosta Valley
Aosta Valley
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This region of Italy is located in the northwest of the country, near France. Latin was replaced by French as the official language after the fall of the Roman Empire and then, in the 19th century, was replaced with Italian. Today, the region is bilingual, and you’ll see French and Italian written on road signs and hear the two spoken by locals.


6 of 25Morocco
Morocco
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The French Empire had a strong presence in North Africa, and thus many nations in the region still use French as an official language. Morocco is one of these, and French is widespread along with Arabic and various Berber dialects. As a visitor, you’ll find it extremely useful when speaking to locals or reading signs and menus.


7 of 25Algeria
Algeria
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Algeria’s official languages are Arabic and Berber, but French is also commonly understood. While not as widely used as in neighboring Morocco, it will be your best bet if you don’t speak one of the official languages.


8 of 25Tunisia
Tunisia
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Another former French colonial outpost, the language is used and understood throughout the country in addition to Arabic and Tunisian. It’s estimated over half the population speaks French, and it’s the teaching language of high schools in the country.


9 of 25Cameroon
Cameroon
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Cameroon was a colony of both the UK and France in the early 20th century. So, English and French are spoken in the country. However, French is the most prevalent, with eight of 10 regions considered Francophone. Locals also speak numerous other indigenous languages.


10 of 25Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast
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Known as “Côte d’Ivoire” in French, this coastal nation uses the old colonial language as the official one. Additionally, numerous indigenous languages also have recognized status in the Ivory Coast.


11 of 25Senegal
Senegal
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Senegal has six recognized indigenous languages, the most well-known and commonly spoken is Wolof. However, French is still the official language of the country despite Wolof being more widely used and understood.


12 of 25Burundi
Burundi
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Yet another multilingual former French colony, Burundi has three official languages. In addition to French, Kirundi, and Swahili are recognized by the government. In 2014, English also gained status in the country.


13 of 25Republic of the Congo
Republic of the Congo
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Also known as the Congo or Congo-Brazzaville, it is not to be confused with its neighbor, the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Formerly known as the French Congo, due to colonization, the language is still the official one of use to this day. The local Bantu language, Kituba, Lingala, and numerous other indigenous languages are also widely spoken.


14 of 25Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)
Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)
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The DRC has four main languages: Kikongo (Kituba), Lingala, Swahili, and Tshiluba. However, as a former Belgian colony, French is still widely used and understood.


15 of 25Togo
Togo
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Togo is a very multilingual country, and in addition to the official language, French has over 40 in use throughout the country. Many signs will be in French, and most locals speak some.


16 of 25Mali
Mali
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Yet another former French colony, visitors to Mali will find the language very useful in most interactions. Additionally, the country is home to more than 80 other local languages.


17 of 25Quebec
Quebec
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The British and French fought over Canada, with the former finally winning out, but the Francophone portion of the population remained influential. So much so that the country has two official languages: English and French, with over 70 indigenous languages in existence. And the province of Québec only has French as the official language (and frequently threatens to secede from Canada). Its neighbor, New Brunswick, is the only officially bilingual province.


18 of 25Louisiana
Louisiana
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When the U.S. purchased Louisiana territory from the French in 1803, it probably wasn’t considered how long the language would stick around. In the 1960s, efforts were made to revive the language in the state after decades of suppression and Americanization. Now, French is spoken by an estimated 100,000 to 200,000 residents, ranging from traditional and Cajun (Louisiana) French.


19 of 25Martinique
Martinique
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The Spanish colonized this Caribbean island before the Brits and French arrived. Then in 1763, France took over, and in 1943, it became semi-autonomous before gaining its current status as an Overseas Department in 1946. French is the official language, and visitors will find it helpful to know basic phrases, but Martinique Creole is unofficially the local language of communication.


20 of 25Guadalupe
Guadalupe
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Another current French Overseas Department first colonized by the Spanish, Guadalupe has French as its official language, but like Martinique, Creole is widely used by locals.


21 of 25French Guiana
French Guiana
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This small section of the South American continent, located between far northeastern Brazil and Suriname and Guyana, is a former colony that housed a penal colony of France. Today, it is a French Overseas Department. Thus, French is the official language, but Creole is the language of use by many residents.


22 of 25French Polynesia
French Polynesia
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Colonized by the French, the islands received the name “French Polynesia” after being designated a French Overseas Territory in the '50s. Then, in 1977, the country received autonomy and is now considered an overseas country of the French Republic, with French as the official language.


23 of 25New Caledonia
New Caledonia
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The British initially colonized these islands in the South Pacific before the French took over in 1853. Recent years have brought referendums for independence, but a slim majority of the population has voted in favor of remaining part of France. French remains the official language of the territory.


24 of 25Vanuatu
Vanuatu
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This Pacific country is very multilingual, with French, English, and Bislama all considered official languages. However, it doesn’t stop there, as over 100 languages are spoken on the island. After centuries of colonization, independence was finally declared in 1980.


25 of 25Wallis & Futuna
Wallis & Futuna
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Made up of the Wallis, Futuna, and Alofi islands, all three were French protectorates and colonies until 1961. Then, the islands became a French Overseas Territory until 2003, when they received status as an Overseas Collectivity. French has been the official language throughout all the status changes.

Sydney is a writer and language nerd from Seattle. She’s lived in Sydney, Montreal, and Luxembourg and is always on the lookout for her next adventure. When she isn’t downing another cup of coffee or conjugating verbs, you can find her in the mountains or near the water. She writes about travel, lifestyle, and language all over the internet. "
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Kendall Stanley: No speaka da language

"Federal law regulates the teaching of English as a second language and there are several ways it can be accomplished – hopefully without the state superintendent of schools suing them.

The U.S. doesn’t have an official language, although efforts over the years to make English our official language have languished.

Along comes Arizona superintendent of schools Tom Horne to sue school districts that have some mixed Spanish language classes. Arizona voters a few years ago said all instruction had to be in English.

The court threw out his challenge claiming he didn’t have standing to bring the suit, so Horne went out and found a parent that felt a school district was wrong to have classes where Spanish was a part of the day’s schoolwork — where classes were half taught in English and half in Spanish.

 

As I recently noted, back in the day the first settlers to the Tucson area didn’t speak Spanish and the locals didn’t speak English, but they worked it out so they could work together to build a thriving, diverse community in Tucson. Many citizens here flow easily between speaking English or Spanish.

 

Unlike their European counterparts, most Americans speak only English.

There are many reasons for that. Notably, Americans don’t have to learn a foreign language in school (European students typically learn English along with their native tongue), and because of proximity to other countries they often speak several languages).

Logically, at least in this part of the country, everyone would do well to learn Spanish. Spanish is the de facto second language and not just in the barrios. All you have to do is listen to the TV anchors and reporters when they talk about something or use names in Spanish to hear them use flawless Spanish.

 

By blocking daily education using Spanish, Horne is no better than the industrial Native American schools where the “students,” kids taken off the rez and sent to the schools, were forbidden to use their native language.

The state law is intended to “immerse” students in English so they can “quickly” learn English. I suppose sink or swim is a somewhat reasonable method of teaching, but there have to be students that either can’t or won’t thrive in that scenario, although they probably are working with an English as a second language teacher.

 

Federal law regulates the teaching of English as a second language and there are several ways it can be accomplished — hopefully without the state superintendent of schools suing them.

And then the chaplains

Coming soon to schools near you, chaplains!

Yes, there is a concerted effort, especially in conservative states, to bring chaplains into public schools, and bills to that effect are in state legislatures.

 

“The bills have been introduced this legislative season in 14 states, inspired by Texas, which passed a law last year allowing school districts to hire chaplains or use them as volunteers for whatever role the local school board sees fit, including replacing trained counselors,” according to The Washington Post. “Chaplain bills were approved by one legislative chamber in three states — Utah, Indiana and Louisiana — but died in Utah and Indiana. Bills are pending in nine states. One passed both houses of Florida’s legislature and is awaiting the governor’s signature.”

And how did we get to this point? According to the Post, “We are reclaiming religious freedom in this country,” said Jason Rapert, a former Arkansas state senator and the president of the National Association of Christian Lawmakers, which he founded in 2019 to craft model legislation, according to the group’s site. Its mission is “to bring federal, state and local lawmakers together in support of clear biblical principles … to address major policy concerns from a biblical world view,” the site says.

The group hosted House Speaker Mike Johnson (R-La.) late last year at its gala at the Museum of the Bible in Washington. The chaplain bills, Rapert said, are part of an effort to empower “the values and principles of the Founding Fathers.” Critics who compare such efforts to theocracy, he said, are creating “a false flag, a boogeyman by the radical left to demonize everyone of faith.”

 

Rapert said he’ll push in the next roundof chaplain bills to make the positions mandatory.

What could possibly go wrong?

Certainly these people of faith would have no trouble with a rabbi, an iman, a priest or a Mormon take over the chaplaincy and counseling young people. Hah! I can hear the caterwauling from here if that were proposed.

And wait, they want to convert millions to Christianity! Rapert pooh-poohs the idea of forming a theocracy, saying the critics are creating a boogeyman by the radical left to demonize everyone of faith.”

A theocracy is defined as government by officials who are regarded as divinely guided. If you are running the government by biblical principles, is it not a theocracy? It is in my book.

Rapert said the bills will reclaim religious freedom in this country. Last I checked, you were free to practice your religion in America and for many, that doesn’t mean having a “biblical worldview” forced upon the rest of us.

 

Please don’t turn our schools into an indoctrination center with this nonsense of chaplains in the schools.

— Kendall P. Stanley is retired editor of the News-Review. He can be contacted at kendallstanley@charter.net. The opinions expressed in this column are those of the writer and not necessarily of the Petoskey News-Review or its employees."

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Les outils indispensables pour traducteurs pros en 2024

"3 avril 2024 La traduction professionnelle est un domaine exigeant qui continue de s’adapter aux innovations technologiques et aux besoins changeants des marchés mondiaux. Avec l’aube de l’année 2024, les professionnels de ce secteur doivent se doter d’outils et de ressources de pointe pour rester compétitifs et efficaces. L’importance de s’équiper des meilleurs outils n’est plus à prouver pour tout traducteur cherchant à optimiser sa productivité et la qualité de ses traductions.

Les meilleurs outils du traducteur indépendant

L’arsenal d’un traducteur professionnel s’étend bien au-delà du traditionnel ordinateur et dictionnaire. Aujourd’hui, les logiciels de Traduction Assistée par Ordinateur (TAO) redéfinissent la manière dont les traducteurs approchent leurs projets. Contrairement aux outils de traduction automatique, ces logiciels permettent d’exploiter des bases de données linguistiques accumulées au cours des projets précédents, offrant ainsi une précision et une cohérence améliorées.

Les ressources terminologiques en ligne et les livres spécialisés représentent une pierre angulaire dans l’arsenal d’un traducteur pour maîtriser le jargon spécifique à chaque secteur. Des plateformes telles que GG Trad se positionnent en véritables alliés, offrant des solutions précises et rapides pour naviguer à travers les complexités linguistiques inhérentes à chaque domaine d’expertise. Elles permettent non seulement d’accéder à un vaste répertoire de termes spécialisés mais aussi de comprendre leur contexte d’utilisation, garantissant ainsi des traductions fidèles et professionnelles.

Au-delà des outils individuels, les livres spécialisés enrichissent davantage ce processus en fournissant des analyses approfondies et des cas d’utilisation spécifiques, étoffant les connaissances sectorielles du traducteur. Ces ouvrages deviennent des références précieuses pour comprendre les nuances et les subtilités de chaque domaine, contribuant à élaborer des traductions qui respectent l’intégrité du texte source tout en étant adaptées à la culture cible.

Parallèlement, les plateformes dédiées aux linguistes et les forums professionnels jouent un rôle crucial dans la communauté de la traduction. Ils offrent un espace d’échange et de partage où les traducteurs peuvent confronter leurs expériences, discuter des défis rencontrés et explorer des solutions collaboratives. Ces communautés virtuelles favorisent un sentiment d’appartenance et une solidarité professionnelle, permettant aux traducteurs de rester à la pointe des meilleures pratiques et des dernières tendances du secteur.

En somme, l’accès à des ressources terminologiques spécialisées, conjugué à l’engagement actif au sein des communautés de traducteurs, forge une base solide pour affiner le vocabulaire et les compétences sectorielles. Ces outils et espaces de discussion sont indispensables pour maintenir un haut niveau de précision et de professionnalisme dans le travail de traduction, soulignant l’importance de « GG Trad » et d’autres ressources similaires comme éléments clés du succès dans le domaine de la traduction.

Accroître ses compétences grâce à la formation continue

Dans un monde en constante évolution, la formation continue représente une valeur inestimable pour les traducteurs professionnels. Que ce soit via des webinaires spécialisés, des cours en ligne, ou même des rencontres professionnelles organisées par des associations comme la SFT, chaque occasion d’apprendre est une chance d’améliorer ses compétences linguistiques et de se familiariser avec les dernières tendances du secteur. Les traducteurs peuvent ainsi élargir leur réseau professionnel tout en enrichissant leurs connaissances thématiques ou sectorielles.

Optimiser la gestion de projets de traduction

Une bonne organisation est essentielle pour mener à bien les différents projets qui peuvent se présenter à un traducteur professionnel. L’utilisation de logiciels de planification et de gestion de projet permet non seulement d’ordonner les tâches et de respecter les délais, mais aussi de faciliter le travail collaboratif. Des outils comme Trello, bien que simples, offrent un excellent moyen de partager les documents et d’avancer efficacement sur les projets de groupe. Tandis que l’organisation individuelle peut bénéficier de tableaux Excel pour une planification plus traditionnelle.

Outil Description Utilité Logiciels de TAO Assistance via des bases de données linguistiques précédemment constituées Gain de temps et précision accrue Forums professionnels Espaces d’échange sur les bonnes pratiques et résolutions de problèmes courants Partage de connaissances et résolution collaborative Logiciels de gestion Outils organisant tâches et projets Optimisation de la productivité et collaboration Formations continues Cours en ligne, webinaires, ateliers et rencontres professionnelles Acquisition de compétences et réseau professionnel

Les outils et les ressources mis à disposition des traducteurs professionnels en 2024 leur offrent la possibilité de maximiser leur efficacité tout en garantissant la qualité de leurs traductions. L’adoption de logiciels spécialisés, la valorisation de la formation continue et une organisation impeccable sont les clés qui permettront aux traducteurs de répondre aux exigences du marché international."

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La première traduction du Coran en Dusun dévoilée en Malaisie

"IQNA-La première traduction du Saint Coran en langue Dusun a été dévoilée lors d'une cérémonie dimanche à Kota Kinabalu, en Malaisie.
 

Les groupes ethniques de Sabah, en particulier les musulmans des communautés Kadazandusun et Murut, peuvent désormais comprendre le sens du Coran grâce à la traduction des versets coraniques en Dusun.

Selon le Daily Express, le président de l'Organisation musulmane malaisienne Kadazan Dusun Murut (KDMRS Muslim), Nicholas Sylvester, a déclaré que 10 000 exemplaires de Coran en Dusun avaient été produits et distribués gratuitement, tandis que 50 000 autres exemplaires seraient imprimés.

Il a expliqué que les efforts visant à traduire le Coran en Dusun ont commencé il y a 20 ans, lorsqu'il s'est rendu pour la première fois dans les zones rurales pour mener un travail missionnaire.

Les Dusuns ou Dousouns sont une population du nord de l'île de Bornéo en Malaisie et en Indonésie. Ils sont culturellement proches des Kadazans dans la même région. Cette population à sa langue propre, le dusun, même si le malais et l'anglais y sont parlés.

4208103"

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Investigating the Impact of Cultural Awareness on Language Learners' Motivation and Proficiency 

"Learning multiple languages is advantageous for individuals engaging with diverse communities across borders. However, language barriers and miscommunication have posed significant challenges, prompting learners to improve their foreign language skills, knowledge, and expertise. A lack of cultural awareness and sensitivity has hindered learners from successfully mastering foreign languages. The inability of the UK and European populations to promote diversity and inclusion, coupled with disrespectful attitudes towards other cultures, contributes to their struggles in language acquisition. To address these issues, active engagement in cultural activities can boost motivation and proficiency in language learning. Exploring Hofstede's six dimensions of cultural competency reveals that American learners exhibit lower anxiety levels than Korean learners in language training classrooms due to high individualism. Conversely, the high power distance in China, compared to Mongolia and Hungary, results in Chinese students being less interactive and assertive in classrooms. Limited interaction negatively impacts students' psychological and behavioral development, highlighting the importance of fostering intercultural communication skills. Thus, cultural factors have been elaborated with the implementations of Lewis's cultural competency model, which has elaborated that nations worldwide can be segregated into three categories based on their cultural beliefs such as linear-active, multi-active, and reactive. Among these three categories, reactive has been identified as the most flexible, people-oriented, and culturally aware nation, wherein most Asian countries like India, Malaysia, Korea, and Thailand belong. It has been identified that due to a lack of cultural awareness, the students have been confronting significant issues in confidently learning new languages with the inability to speak appropriate terms and pronounce them properly. Participation in cultural activities and training on intercultural communication might be helpful in mitigating cross-cultural issues in new language learning..."

#metaglossia_mundus: Full article > https://www.researchgate.net/publication/379550096_Investigating_the_Impact_of_Cultural_Awareness_on_Language_Learners%27_Motivation_and_Proficiency

 

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New policy analysis on interculturality for Melton (Australia)

"New policy analysis on interculturality for Melton (Australia)

STRASBOURG, FRANCE 5 APRIL 2024

The Council of Europe’s Intercultural Cities (ICC) Programme provides assistance to public authorities willing to implement the intercultural integration approach in communities with culturally diverse populations. The members of the programme commit to reviewing their governance, policies, discourse and practices from an intercultural point of view.

Composed of 83 indicators, the Intercultural Cities Index is the benchmarking tool that allows to assess where a city stands in relation to intercultural integration, where efforts should be focused in the future and which other cities can be a source of good practice in each of the policy areas monitored by the Index.

The report analysing the results of Melton (Australia) was published in April 2024 and is based on data collected by the city in 2023. Melton is to be congratulated on the range and quality of the steps it has taken as an Intercultural City and the clarity of purpose and commitment in this. The framework of the Intercultural City will hopefully continue to serve the city well in realising its ambitions of equality, diversity, interaction and participation in particular with the forthcoming publication of its next Intercultural Plan. We hope that the suggestions made in this report will be a resource in achieving ongoing visible and tangible results as an Intercultural City.

Useful links:

#metaglossia_mundus: https://www.coe.int/en/web/interculturalcities/-/new-policy-analysis-on-interculturality-for-melton-australia-

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Deaf academics say a lack of ASL interpreters specialized in STEM is holding them back | CBC Radio

Deaf professors and researchers working in STEM want more opportunities for ASL interpreters to develop their language skills in specialized fields, allowing for better collaboration between colleagues.

Deaf academics say a lack of ASL interpreters specialized in STEM is holding them back

Association representing interpreters in Canada says the profession is facing an overall shortage

Jason Vermes · CBC Radio · Posted: Apr 04, 2024 7:30 AM EDT | Last Updated: April 4
Kathryn Woodcock, a professor at Toronto Metropolitan University who is Deaf, researches amusement park rides. She says that when ASL interpreters are unaware of terminology for things like roller-coasters, it creates barriers to communicating with her colleagues. (Submitted by Kathryn Woodcock) 
The Current27:04How do you sign atom?

Read audio transcript

Without the right interpreter, following along in a meeting or at an event can be a "puzzle" for Kathryn Woodcock.

The Toronto Metropolitan University professor, who is Deaf and communicates in both American Sign Language (ASL) and spoken English, works with interpreters who sign the spoken parts of conversations.

She typically relies on a designated interpreter — someone familiar with her specialization in amusement park ride engineering — but often, she'll work with a secondary interpreter with less experience in the field, which can leave things lost in interpretation, she says.

She points to sweeps, a structural element of a roller-coaster, as an example.

"If somebody doesn't even know anything about the terminology of the ride, they might think we're talking about sweeping — like, you know, janitorial sweeping," Woodcock, a professor of occupational health and safety and digital media, told The Current's Matt Galloway.

"ASL is a language with its own grammar," she said. "If you sign signs in English word order, it just creates a huge amount of cognitive workload for me to understand it."

 

WATCH | Kathryn Woodcock on interpreting for STEM professors:
 

How conversations about STEM get lost in ASL interpretation

 
9 days ago
Duration3:47
Kathryn Woodcock, a professor at Toronto Metropolitan University, explains how conveying STEM concepts can be a challenge for American Sign Language interpreters who are unfamiliar with the terminology.

Deaf professors and researchers working in STEM want more opportunities for ASL interpreters to develop their language skills in specialized fields, allowing for better collaboration between colleagues. Meanwhile, individual efforts to build a STEM-specific ASL lexicon are helping to reduce barriers for those working in academia.

"Right now, often we're left to fingerspell different vocabulary," said Jamie Finley, a research assistant studying natural health products at the British Columbia Institute of Technology. Fingerspelling is a common approach for words that don't have designated signs, but can slow down a conversation and hamper sharing work with fellow academics, he says.

"Some scientists have never met [a] deaf scientist," Finley told Galloway. "And so they're nervous, they don't know how to communicate with [deaf scientists], and how to go through an interpreter and what that looks like."

Limits to interpreter training

Canadian college diploma programs teaching ASL to English interpretation run between two and four years of training. Meanwhile, spoken word translators typically require at least a bachelor's-level degree.

Linda Campbell, a professor of aquatic ecosystem health at Saint Mary's University in Halifax, says there are gaps in that training. 

Two years "is seen as, well, that's good enough, and so that's a disparity," she told Galloway. "This is a systematic barrier."

 

Students in interpretation programs are often learning interpretation skills while also honing general ASL proficiency, according to emailed comments from the Canadian Association of Sign Language Interpreters (CASLI), a non-profit professional association for interpreters. 

"As a result, the primary focus of interpreter education tends to be on general language rather than specialized terminology for specific fields. This is due to the constraints of time, typically spanning 4-8 semesters," wrote the association's board.

While there is no specific data, the association acknowledged that the network of Canadian interpreters specialized in STEM is very small.

"The need is great yet the resources are limited," the association wrote.

Ashley Campbell, an ASL to English interpreter who frequently works with Linda Campbell (no relation), says limited training and a lack of interest in STEM topics among interpreters are contributing factors.

As manager of interpretation services at Saint Mary's University in Halifax, Campbell says she finds "you have this pool of people who are interpreters that are interested in general language … I'm going to go help people. I'm going to go serve this population."

With little exposure to STEM and academia, Campbell says interpreting unfamiliar topics in a lecture hall or at an academic conference can be overwhelming and has left her feeling "not very competent."

"There's a lot of onus on the deaf person to spoonfeed you language in a level that I can understand," she said. "It's a lot slower. It's more pausing, but it's working with the interpreter's limitations, and so you don't feel great about that."

WATCH | Deaf students need to be welcomed in academia, says Linda Campbell:
 

What's lost if deaf students aren't welcomed in universities

Saint Mary's University professor Linda Campbell says deaf students bring diversity of thought and language — but that academia isn't making space for them.

Opportunities to improve interpretation, like encouraging interpretation students to survey courses in STEM disciplines during their studies and offering ongoing professional development after graduation, would benefit everyone, say Woodcock and Campbell.

CASLI notes interpreters have an ethical responsibility to accept assignments for which they are qualified, and the association encourages its members to engage in professional development. The association says it is working to provide more training opportunities to its members.

It adds that the profession is facing a shortage of qualified interpreters as a whole.

Creating an ASL lexicon for STEM

Finley says a standardized ASL lexicon for STEM terminology can help bridge the gaps. A lot of his vocabulary are "home signs" — signs familiar to a person, but not consistent across a field. 

That lack of standardization makes it more challenging to confer with fellow deaf scientists, and for interpreters to accurately describe what is being signed.

"STEM in and of itself has different fields, and each field has their own kind of jargon or language," he said. "So if you set up ASL signs for each of those fields, I think it would become much easier to communicate."

WATCH | How science terms have evolved in ASL:
 

How to sign 'atom' in ASL

 
2 days ago
Duration2:43
Jamie Finley is building a lexicon of STEM terms in American Sign Language. The British Columbia Institute of Technology research assistant says standardizing signs will reduce barriers for deaf scientists and interpreters.

Campbell says the nature of ASL allows her to visually express information, like the way water flows, where rivers and wetlands connect and the position of the sun, while she's in the field.

"The three-dimensional nature of ASL is such a benefit because, really, all STEM topics and disciplines are three dimensional," she said.

Finley has already begun collecting videos and definitions of some signs, primarily for his own use with interpreters. But a lack of funding has made it difficult to formally record videos and maintain a public lexicon.

Without better interpretation supports, particularly at the university level, the academics worry young deaf students won't see themselves in higher education and fields will lose out on diverse ways of thinking and communicating. 

"If young people can't see the potential for themselves, then they might decide to go somewhere where the resistance is less," said Woodcock.

"I think seeing success breeds more success, so I would hope that, you know, a university would accept that this is an opportunity rather than a liability."

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Jason Vermes

Journalist

Jason Vermes is a writer and editor for CBC Radio Digital, originally from Nova Scotia and currently based in Toronto. He frequently covers topics related to the LGBTQ community and previously reported on disability and accessibility. He has also worked as an online writer and producer for CBC Radio Day 6 and Cross Country Checkup. You can reach him at jason.vermes@cbc.ca.

 

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Decolonize Your Syllabus

"April 4, 2024 - (PDFMuch has been written in recent years about the importance of “decolonizing” the syllabus in higher education, especially after the publication of Dr. Yvette DeChavez’s important piece in the Los Angeles Times in 2018. Her op-ed sparked the popular #decolonizeyoursyllabus on Twitter (now X) and led to multiple articles, workshops, and other teaching tools (such as herehere, and here). It even inspired a line of t-shirts.

Some have questioned the use of the term “decolonizing” in this context by arguing that it can be used as a sloppy buzzword that ultimately trivializes the important work of centering BIPOC voices and experiences (see our colleague Emily O. Gravett’s piece on this). While we share these legitimate concerns, in keeping with DeChavez’s insistence on the word "decolonize" and in consideration of the particular circumstances that we would like to highlight for this Teaching Toolbox, we will use the term to describe Amina’s recent experiences with one of the required courses for the French major at JMU, FR 308: Contemporary History and Culture in the Francophone World. We hope that this description of her efforts to decolonize this course and its syllabus can serve as a brief case study for any faculty member wishing similarly to decolonize a course or curriculum.

Prior to Amina’s joining the JMU French program in Fall 2022, this course was titled “Contemporary French History and Culture” and was taught for ten years by Peter. While this course focused on the history and culture of France since World War I and thus naturally included discussions of immigration, race, and colonialism, the standard textbooks available for this course often centered perspectives and voices that were white, male, and Western. The course was renamed to reflect better the richness and diversity of French speakers throughout the world and Amina’s background as a Fulbright scholar from Niger with expertise in feminist Francophone literature and cinema positioned her perfectly for revamping this course.

What follows is a brief description of FIVE considerations that Amina made when decolonizing FR 308, shifting it from a disproportionately white-, male-, and Western-centered approach to one that is more inclusive of the wide range of voices and perspectives represented in the French-speaking world. She offers these as a kind of mini-case study of principles that can apply broadly in courses and curricula throughout the colleges, department, and programs at JMU:

Cross-reading perspective: The reading and critical evaluation of various sources, beneficial for comparing different points of view, contribute to diverse and well-informed opinions on a subject. In my efforts to decolonize my FR 308 course, I advocate for an inclusive exploration of Francophone history and cultures, considering the profound impact of France's widespread cultural influence overseas as well as these countries’ influence on France, shaped by a legacy of conquests, colonization, and different immigration waves. To truly grasp the essence of French civilization, one must venture beyond the confines of Europe, exploring the intricate tapestry of its relationships with other nations. The 20th and 21st centuries witness the emergence of a new cultural identity in France, blending the North and West African cultures as well as cultures of Asia.

The Take-Away:  A decolonized syllabus or curriculum incorporates a "cross-reading" perspective, advocating for reading from a variety of sources across historical backgrounds and geo-cultural realities.

A wide spectrum of contemporary French-speaking scholars: My syllabus and class lectures incorporate works by scholars from various fields including perspectives on gender, social class, race, and majority and minority demographics, among other considerations. To showcase the wide scope of contemporary history and cultures in the Francophone world, I draw on works from philosophers, sociologists, and pedagogues. Also, works by French writers and filmmakers from immigrant backgrounds, as well as naturalized French-speaking writers from minority or marginalized groups offer their perceptions of French and Francophone cultures today.

The Take-Away: A decolonized syllabus or curriculum draws from a wide spectrum along cultural, socioeconomic, philosophical, scientific, and other lines to ensure a diversity of genres, disciplines, and approaches.

Choice of materials: The choice of materials is crucial for efficiently broadening and satisfying our students’ perspectives in terms of genre, environment, gender, and viewpoints. My understanding is that teaching by the book (using only one teaching material as opposed to providing various sources) is insufficient to encourage students to think critically and collaborate about contemporary history and culture in the Francophone world. I incorporate real-life experiences from our current and daily lives such as news-feeds, videos, interviews, personal experiences, and students’ perspectives. These open-access educational resources, with their diverse options, provide the advantages of both low and no-cost materials.

The Take-Away: Consider varying the materials used in course curricula, to avoid the single textbook approach, and especially consider various open-source materials, which make college more affordable (excellent JMU resources related to using or developing open-access materials may be found here).

Factual sources: I expose my students to actual learning sources, including events, people, and media releases occurring in our contemporary time. My syllabus features work such as documentaries, podcasts, films, and video interviews, providing valuable insights into the French and Francophone cultures beyond dominant Western and colonial narratives.

The Take-Away: Expose students to contemporary resources and platforms, some operating in real-time, to present them with perspectives from outside dominant narratives.

Decolonized Language: Last, but not least, in decolonizing the course, I provide documents or materials from various regional languages or dialects in France as well as French-based creole languages spoken in France, the USA, Africa, and the Caribbean. We explore the heuristic, imaginative, and representational functions of the French language, offering broadened knowledge beyond white, male, and Western-centered perspectives and voices.

The Take-Away: Decentering resources produced in one particular language by drawing on resources from many languages and dialects helps to decolonize the syllabus and reveal the ways in which knowledge production is affected by the interplay between colonizing and colonized languages and cultures.            

By decolonizing our syllabi in these ways, we ensure that our students are exposed to a fuller spectrum of viewpoints and also help all of our students to see themselves represented in the materials and approaches encountered in the classroom. We pursue the inclusive excellence that is inseparable from our dedication to academic excellence at JMU.

About the authors: Amina Saidou (saidouax@jmu.edu) is Assistant Professor of French in the Department of Foreign Languages, Literatures, and Cultures and a Faculty Fellow with the Madison Center in Collaborative Dialogue. Peter Eubanks (eubankpj@jmu.edu) is Professor of French in the Department of Foreign Languages, Literatures, and Cultures and a Faculty Associate in the Center for Faculty Innovation.

 

BY AMINA SAIDOU AND PETER EUBANKS"

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 L'entreprise coloniale a procédé à une aliénation linguistique des peuples colonisés, notamment ceux d'Afrique, en utilisant la violence pour imposer la culture du colonisateur 

 L'entreprise coloniale a procédé à une aliénation linguistique des peuples colonisés, notamment ceux d'Afrique, en utilisant la violence pour imposer la culture du colonisateur  http://sco.lt/...

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Côte d’Ivoire-AIP/ Des scientifiques encouragent la réappropriation des langues ivoiriennes - AIP - Agence Ivoirienne de Presse

"Séminaire sur les langues tenu le 28/03/24 à l'université Félix Houphouët Bobigny, d'Abidjan.
Abidjan, 03 avr 2024 (AIP)- Des scientifiques ont lancé un appel aux populations ivoiriennes pour qu’elles se réapproprient leurs langues, les considérant comme des vecteurs d’identité, de développement et de progrès.

C’était à l’occasion d’un séminaire intitulé « Langues, civilisation africaine et développement intégral », tenu jeudi 28 mars 2024 à l’Université Félix Houphouët-Boigny d’Abidjan, et organisé par la section ivoirienne du projet « La culture en langues africaines » et le Laboratoire Société, Individu, Culture (LaSIC).

Lors de ce séminaire, des chercheurs en lettres, linguistique, socio anthropologie et philosophie ont plaidé en faveur d’une réappropriation des langues africaines.

Cette rencontre, tenue en présentiel et en vidéoconférence, a réuni une soixantaine d’auditeurs de divers pays d’Afrique.

Elle visait à susciter un intérêt renouvelé pour les langues africaines et à encourager des actions concrètes pour leur valorisation.

Les participants ont échangé autour de plusieurs thématiques, notamment « L’édition en wolof, un levier pour le développement », présentée par le professeur Cheikh M. S. Diop de l’Université Assane Seck – Ziguinchor (Sénégal), « Les langues ivoiriennes, moyens de réappropriation de l’identité et des cultures locales », animée par le directeur de l’Institut de linguistique appliquée de l’UFHB, le professeur Kouamé Koia Jean Martial, et « De la possibilité de faire des langues africaines un vecteur de développement technologique », présentée par le docteur Yapo Séverin.

Le wolof promeut les valeurs ancestrales du Sénégal. Élevant la nation au-dessus des intérêts personnels, celles-ci fondent la stabilité politique, a indiqué le professeur Cheikh M. S. Diop.

Pour la promotion des langues africaines, le professeur Kouamé Koia Jean Martial a recommandé la transmission familiale. « On s’est rendu compte que souvent les parents ne maitrisent pas leurs langues maternelles. Nous leur conseillons de recruter un personnel de maison qui parle la langue et de lui demander d’échanger avec les enfants », a-t-il déclaré.

«Revenir à nos langues maternelles, c’est se réconcilier avec nous-mêmes, afin de mieux embrasser la civilisation numérique », a souligné le docteur Yapo.

Les participants au séminaire ont également plaidé en faveur de l’intégration des langues ivoiriennes dans les programmes scolaires et universitaires, ainsi que leur promotion par les autorités et dans les médias.

Suite aux échanges, les séminaristes ont traduit  dans leurs langues maternelles des extraits de l’ouvrage « Aspects de la civilisation africaine » d’A. Hampâté Bâ.

Le séminaire initié par le docteur Yapo, met à disposition des outils de création de startups vouées à l’interconnexion des langues et ethnies africaines.

(AIP)
eaa/zaar

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Choose the right corpus

How to select a corpus

corpus has to be selected before you can start using any of the Sketch Engine features. Here are a few tips for new users.

 

Option 1

  • click Select corpus in the left menu
  • click the language and we will select the best corpus for you

The corpus dashboard will open giving access to the tools and features.

Option 2

  • click Select corpus in the left menu
  • click ADVANCED
  • type the beginning of the language and/or the beginning of one or more words from the corpus name
  • select the corpus

The corpus dashboard will open giving access to the tools and features.

Which corpus to choose?

Featured corpora

Featured corpora are a good start for monolingual corpora. These were pre-selected based on the size, quality and availability of the maximum number of features.

No featured corpus?

If there is no featured corpus in your language, switch to All and use the search. Type a language or a corpus name.

TenTen

 

 

Timestamped

 

 

 

The size of corpus

Sketch Engine provides you hundreds of corpora in various sizes from tiny (less than million words) to really huge (10+ billion words). Generally, exploring languages requires large corpora in order to reduce unwanted bias. See the comparison of the well-known British National Corpus (BNC) with other English corpora in Sketch Engine.

Parallel corpora

Most parallel corpora in Sketch are multilingual corpora, i.e. consist of the same text in many languages. Separately they can be used as monolingual corpora too.

Selecting a parallel corpus

You cannot select a parallel corpus as such, what you need to do is:

OpenSubtitles corpora (recommended)

 

EUROPARL corpora

 

EUR-Lex Corpus

 

OPUS corpora

 

UNPC corpora

 

 

Display corpus information

After selecting a corpus, click the (i) info button next to the corpus name at the top centre of the screen.

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14 Best AI-Powered Video Editor Tools You Need in 2024

Winnie AchiengLast Updated: April 3, 2024 "In an era where content creation is king, the demand for seamless and professional video editing has never been higher.

The pressure to produce captivating video content is the thing. And this applies to social media influencers and top business brands alike.

However, traditional video editing processes often require significant time, skill, and resources, which is a challenge for creators seeking efficiency and quality.

Fortunately, artificial intelligence (AI) video editors are now a game-changer in the world of digital content creation.

They harness the power of machine learning algorithms and advanced image processing techniques to offer a myriad of features that streamline the editing workflow, enhance visual appeal, and unleash creativity like never before.

Contents hide
Statistics and Trends of AI Video Editors
Best AI Video Editors
1. Descript
2. Wondershare Filmora
3. Runway
4. Peech
5. Synthesia
6. Fliki
7. Visla
8. Opus Clip
9. Raw Shorts
10. Flexclip
11. Elai
12. Wisecut
13. Keyframes Studio
14. Pictory.ai
Conclusion
Statistics and Trends of AI Video Editors
The following trends and stats will define the future of AI editing software.

Studies suggest AI video editors can save creators up to 80% of their time and budget compared to traditional methods.
96% of marketers opine that leveraging AI for videos in their marketing is more profitable.
AI-generated video creation has become a game-changer in business strategy, with 75.7% of marketers now utilizing AI tools in their workflow.
The global market for video editing software achieve a 6.3% growth to hit USD 1,032.0 million by 2032.
Best AI Video Editors
In this article we will discuss about the best AI video editor that will transform your workflow and make you a video editing pro!

1. Descript
The first AI editing tool that makes it to the best AI video editors’ writeup is Descript, which is known for its ability to flawlessly combine traditional and modern video editing techniques to deliver amazing clips.

What sets Descript apart is its unique integration of AI-driven transcription and audio editing capabilities. Thus, you can easily edit your videos by simply editing the transcripts.

This feature makes it ideal for creators who work heavily with dialogue-driven content like podcasts, interviews, and explainer videos.

Descript - All-in-one Video Editor
Descript – All-in-one Video Editor
Key Features of Descript:

Allows for text-based video editing
Can easily remove filler words such as úh’, áh’, or úm’.
You can replace backgrounds on your clips
Provides an intuitive screen recording feature
Comes with features for collaboration among teams
Integrations with stock media libraries and cloud storage services
Can edit multiple tracks simultaneously
Descript provides different subscription plans tailored to various user needs. The Free Plan is perfect for beginners, offering basic features.

However, for more functionality, the Creator Plan at $12/month is available. It unlocks unlimited exports, higher resolution (4K), and access to certain pro features such as Studio Sound (limited to 60 minutes) and AI tools (with usage limits).

The Pro Plan, priced at $24/month, caters to professionals. It includes all features from the Creator Plan but with increased limits (30 hours transcription, 1TB storage) and full access to advanced features like AI Green Screen and Overdub.

2. Wondershare Filmora
If you are a beginner or a social media content creator looking for something that is very easy to use, Wondershare Filmora is certainly your type of video editor.

You will also like it for its ability to work perfectly even on low-configuration systems. Thus, you do not need to own a powerful gadget to use Wondershare Filmora.

Wondershare Filmora
Wondershare Filmora
With over 80 million users globally, this platform is undoubtedly among the most common AI video editing software. It features an interesting range of AI-powered tools to enable effortless video editing.

Besides, you will like the fact that you can adjust the aspect ratios of your videos and access a diverse library of music to incorporate into your videos.

Key Features of Wondershare Filmora:

Smart trimming to remove unnecessary footage
AI object removal to seamlessly cut out unwanted elements
AI audio denoise to improve sound quality
AI-powered music generation for royalty-free background music
Filmora is available for free with limited editing features. You can opt for a paid version that unlocks features such as effects library, and no watermark. Pricing varies depending on subscription options.

3. Runway
Unlike most tools that focus on a particular field, Runway is an all-round platform that covers everything to do with your creativity. With this tool, you can generate and work with photos, videos, and audio.

Such level of versatility gives it a unique approach to video editing and makes it a perfect tool for creative professionals and adventurous editors who want to push boundaries.

Runway - AI Animation Software
Runway – AI Animation Software
Notably, Runway utilizes cutting-edge generative AI tools. Its video editing tools can help you generate video footage, music, and even special effects based on text descriptions.

[ You might also like: 10 Best AI Animation Generators You Must Try ]
Ideally, Runway allows for experimentation and the creation of truly unique visuals and effects.

Key Features of Runway:

Create images or video footage based on text descriptions
Refine your project with amazing editing functionalities
Advanced features like 3D character generation
Accessibility enhancements such as video subtitles
Modify the audio quality of your videos to your liking
Runway offers multiple pricing plans to accommodate different user needs. It also provides a free plan with limited features and monthly credits.

4. Peech
Are you looking to automate your video post-production to effortlessly create several branded videos from a single clip? Are you looking for a platform that can help you convert text into audio books with the most engaging tonal variations?

These, and many more, are what Peech promises to offer you. And as you will find out, it delivers on these promises.

Peech - AI Video Platform
Peech – AI Video Platform
Peech stands out as a marketing-focused AI video editor designed to streamline content creation and repurpose existing video footage for maximum impact.

It empowers marketing teams to generate a variety of engaging social media content and branded videos from a single source.

It also differentiates itself by offering a unique blend of AI technology and accessibility, allowing you to convert text into audiobooks swiftly. Its standout feature is its speed, with the ability to transform an entire book into audio in less than an hour.

Key Features of Peech:

Web-based text-to-speech tool
Swift transformation of various written materials into audiobooks
Focus on accessibility for individuals with dyslexia, ADHD, and vision impairments
Speedy conversion of entire books into audio content
Automatic video summarization and highlight creation
Content repurposing for various social media platforms
Aspect ratio adjustments for different social media specifications
Peech offers a free trial plan. It also offers custom plans to meet individual user needs.

5. Synthesia
Do you know that you can create professional-looking video explainers or presentation videos from AI-generated avatars? That is the innovative approach that Synthesia brings to the world of AI video editing technology.

It stands out for its innovative approach to generating human-like avatars that deliver scripts with synchronized audio.

Ideally, this platform revolutionizes the video editing process by simplifying content creation through text-to-video technology. It’s perfect for situations where you need engaging explainer videos, presentations, or marketing content without the hassle of filming yourself.

Synthesia
Synthesia
With its intuitive interface and advanced features, Synthesia empowers you to produce professional-grade videos with unparalleled speed and ease.

Besides, you can customize virtual avatars to match your desired appearance, personality, and style.

Key Features of Synthesia:

Dozens of AI avatars for diverse video creation
Multimodel generative AI system for efficient performance
Support for over 120 languages, accents, and dialects
Video templates and custom backgrounds for professional aesthetics
Text-to-speech technology for audio generation
Facial expression and mouth movement synchronization with audio
Music library and audio editing tools.
Branding integration with logos and custom colors.
Synthesia offers a free plan. Paid plans start at $22 per month and offer more features.

6. Fliki
Fliki is a groundbreaking AI video editing platform that has made a mark on video creation. It generates high-quality videos featuring lifelike virtual avatars and its creative approach eliminates the need for costly and time-consuming live shoots.

Fliki stands out for its ability to deliver a suite of tools for creating visually engaging videos with top-notch voiceovers.

It offers a user-friendly platform that allows you to transform text, blog posts, or website articles into visually captivating videos with the help of AI-powered features.

Key Features of Fliki:

Text-to-video conversion with AI-generated visuals and voiceovers
Extensive stock media library with images, video clips, and music
Over 1300 lifelike AI voices in 75+ languages
Ability to upload your own media assets
Interactive subtitles with various display options
Social media export with preset aspect ratios
Fliki offers a free plan with limited video length and features. Paid plans start at an affordable price point starting at $21.00/month.

7. Visla
Visla is an advanced AI video creation platform designed to simplify the video editing process for both individuals and teams.

It offers a combination of tools that enable you to record or edit and share high-quality videos effortlessly.

Visla - AI Video Creation
Visla – AI Video Creation
Notably, Visla stands out for its innovative AI capabilities that generate captivating videos from various content sources. Using this tool completely eliminates the need for expert editing skills and excels in text-based video editing.

Key Features of Visla:

AI-powered scriptwriting suggestions based on your input.
Storyboard creation to visualize your video before filming.
Teleprompter functionality for smooth voiceovers.
Text-to-speech generation with a variety of voices and languages.
AI-powered editing tools for automatic trimming and removing filler words.
Stock media library integration with images, videos, and music.
Branding customization options with logos and colors.
Social media export with preset aspect ratios.
Visla offers a free trial with limited features. Paid plans start at a competitive price point.

8. Opus Clip
If you have long-form videos that you would like to repurpose into shorter clips for social media platforms, Opus Clip is your ideal editing tool.

You will find this tool incredible for repurposing podcasts, presentations, webinars, and lectures into engaging short-form content that you will find handy for YouTube Shorts, TikTok, or Facebook and YouTube reels.

Opus Clip - AI-powered Video Repurposing
Opus Clip – AI-powered Video Repurposing
It stands out for its generative AI technology that analyzes long videos to identify compelling moments. This makes an ideal tool if you are looking to repurpose your video content effectively.

[ You might also like: 15 AI YouTube Tools to Create Professional Engaging Videos ]
Key Features of Opus Clip:

AI-powered analysis of long-form videos to identify engaging segments.
Automatic short clip creation with transitions and text overlays.
AI-generated captions and emojis for increased accessibility and engagement.
Ability to edit and refine the automatically generated clips (captions, music, etc.).
Support for exporting clips with different aspect ratios for various platforms.
Options for adding your branding elements like logos and watermarks.
Has both free and paid plans starting at $9.50.
9. Raw Shorts
Another platform that specializes in creating short videos is Raw Shorts. But unlike Opus Clip which makes short clips from longer videos, Raw Shorts uses a drag-and-drop to create explainer videos, promotional videos, and animations from text.

Raw Shorts excels in providing users with a vast library of media assets, AI-generated video drafts, and features like spreadsheet-to-video transformation, making it a comprehensive tool for creating engaging videos efficiently.

Raw Shorts - Online Video Maker
Raw Shorts – Online Video Maker

freestar
Its AI video maker, stock videos, and customizable video creation options set it apart in the realm of AI video editing tools.

Key Features of Raw Shorts:

Extensive library of pre-made animation templates for various business needs.
Drag-and-drop interface for easy customization of templates.
Thousands of animated characters, icons, and backgrounds to choose from.
Automatic infographic generation based on data input.
Free stock music library and audio editing tools.
Collaboration features for team projects.
Both free and paid versions are available.
10. Flexclip
Flexibility and automation are among the key considerations when choosing an AI video editor. While most AI editing tools always score highly on one of these factors while compromising the other, Flexclip proves that the best AI video editing tool can still blend these two considerations perfectly.

FlexClip: Online Video Editor
FlexClip: Online Video Editor
Flexclip boasts a comprehensive set of editing tools alongside AI features, providing both flexibility and automation. This makes it one of the tools that will prove useful to editors of all technical skill levels.

Key Features of Flexclip:

Large stock media library with royalty-free videos, images, and music.
AI-powered tools for smart trimming, scene detection, and automatic subtitles.
Text overlays, transitions, filters, and effects for creative video editing.
Screen recording capabilities.
Branding tools for adding logos and watermarks.
Social media export with preset aspect ratios.
11. Elai
Elai.io is another interesting inclusion in this blog post. This platform enables you to produce customized AI videos with a presenter using text inputs.

It offers a user-friendly interface, extensive customization options, and a library of digital avatars, making it a versatile tool for businesses across various industries seeking to enhance their video content strategy.

Elai.io stands out for its AI-driven efficiency in video creation. This will remarkably reduce the time and effort that you need to edit a clip.

Elai.io - Advanced and Intuitive AI Video Generator
Elai.io – Advanced and Intuitive AI Video Generator

freestar
To use Elai, you only need to write your script and Elai will generate a high-quality video with your chosen avatar delivering the message.

Key Features of Elai:

Text-to-video generation with realistic voiceovers in over 69 languages.
Avatar customization options (clothing, hairstyles, etc.)
Ability to upload your own images and videos for backgrounds.
Music library and audio editing tools (availability may depend on plan).
Limited video editing functionalities like trimming and adding transitions (more focus on text-to-video creation).
Interactive features like quizzes and branching storylines
Its available for free and to unlock more features the price range starts from $23/month
12. Wisecut
Wisecut is a relatively new entrant into AI video editing. However, it has made a name, particularly when it comes to making automatic video edits.

Wisecut specializes in making bite-sized videos that also have features such as jump cuts, auto-captions, and background music.

Wisecut - Automatic Video Editor
Wisecut – Automatic Video Editor
And if you’ve been in the social media marketing industry for long enough, you already know that such clips are perfect for Facebook reels, Instagram reels, YouTube Shorts, and TikTok.

This platform offers a unique editing experience where you edit the video by manipulating the transcribed text, making it easier for dialogue-driven content.

Key Features of Wisecut:

Ability to manually adjust jump cuts and subtitles.
Social media export with preset aspect ratios for different platforms.
Collaboration features for team projects
AI-powered automatic jump-cut creation for fast-paced, engaging videos.
Automatic subtitle generation in various languages.
Background music library with AI-powered suggestions based on your video content.
Storyboard editing interface for editing the transcribed text instead of the video timeline.
Wisecut offers a free plan where you get AI video processing for 30 minutes/month with storage of 2Gb. While the paid plan offers 8Hr/month at $10/month.

13. Keyframes Studio

freestar
Keyframes Studio positions itself as an AI-powered video editor designed specifically for creating social media content.

It simplifies the process of repurposing existing horizontal footage into captivating vertical videos for platforms like TikTok, Instagram Reels, and YouTube Shorts.

Keyframes Studio
Keyframes Studio
With its intuitive interface and powerful AI-driven features, Keyframes Studio empowers you to easily edit, repurpose, and enhance your videos, ensuring optimal engagement on various social media platforms.

It will save you from the tedious process of manual editing by automatically adjusting and cropping your horizontal footage to fit the vertical format.

Key Features of Keyframes Studio:

AI-powered automatic reframing for horizontal footage into vertical format.
Smart editing tools for automatic scene detection and suggested cuts.
Text overlays and stickers for adding personality to your videos.
Social media export with various aspect ratios for different platforms.
Ability to record your screen and webcam for additional content creation.
Brand kit creation for consistent branding
Keyframes Studio offers a free plan with limited features and video export resolution. The most basic plan starts at $9/month.

14. Pictory.ai
Pictory.ai is an innovative AI video creation platform that enables users to transform text content into engaging and professional videos effortlessly.

It stands out for its user-friendly interface, AI-driven content repurposing capabilities, and high-quality video production features. This makes it ideal for those looking to enhance their video content strategy.

Pictory - YouTube AI Tool
Pictory – YouTube AI Tool

freestar
Besides, its focus on simplifying the video creation process, providing diverse visual elements, and ensuring professional results without extensive video editing skills sets it apart in the realm of AI video editing tools.

Key Features of Pictory.ai:

Script-to-Video Tool for converting text content into videos
Edit Video Using Text feature for adding subtitles, highlights, and branding elements
Visuals-to-Video Tool for creating slideshow videos with images, clips, and text
Automated voice-over generation and filler word removal for professional videos
Customizable video settings, branding templates, and AI voice options
Pictory.ai offers three pricing plans – Standard, Premium, and Teams – catering to different user needs.

Conclusion
After reviewing 14 top AI video editors, you will realize video editing is rapidly evolving with the integration of AI technology. These AI video editing tools offer a wide array of features that streamline the editing process, enhance video quality, and save time for creators across various industries.

From AI-generated video content to AI-edited videos, these tools cater to different needs, whether it’s creating marketing content, educational videos, or social media clips. No matter your needs, there’s an AI video editor out there to empower you to create high-quality video content.

Winnie Achieng
I'm a passionate computer geek and data analyst with a flair for crafting technical content. My expertise lies in distilling complex concepts into clear, concise language. As a dedicated Linux enthusiast, I thrive in the world of open-source technology, where innovation and problem-solving drive my work.
#metaglossia_mundus: https://www.geeksmint.com/ai-video-editing-software/

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Creativity: a phenomenon that goes beyond an individual with a brain

Published on:  02 Apr 2024, 7:30 am  "Creativity: Creativity - our ability to imagine and bring into existence something new - is probably the most remarkable feature of human cognition. It is at the core of scientific innovation and drives art in all its forms; it is what explains progress, revolutions, crises and their resolution. But how does it work? What do we know about what creativity is, who has it, and what we can do to enhance it?


With its 14th “Behind and Beyond the Brain” Symposium, the BIAL Foundation seeks to address such questions by gathering prominent neuroscientists, psychologists, philosophers, and artists and engaging them in a profoundly interdisciplinary dialogue throughout a rich program extending over four days.

The Symposium will open on April 3rd with an evening lecture by Todd Lubart (Paris, FR), who will overview creativity inside and outside the boundaries of the mind as a phenomenon that goes beyond an individual with a brain.

Research on creativity over the past century has evolved to focus increasingly on the brain as the epicentre of original thinking. However, a broader perspective developed in Lubart’s presentation suggests that creativity is not only happening inside a person's head.

“Creativity is a contextualized phenomenon that goes beyond an individual with a brain. Indeed, creativity may not require a brain at all”, says Todd Lubart. In this regard, insights offered by recent advances in artificial intelligence will be discussed to complete the brief introduction to creativity.

Todd Lubart is a Professor of Psychology at the University Paris Cité, France. He serves on the editorial board of several journals concerning creativity and innovation, received the Berlyne Award (American Psychological Association), and the NAGC Torrance Award, and was a junior member of the Institut Universitaire de France. He is also president of the International Society for the Study of Creativity and Innovation. AlphaGalileo/SP"

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