Mucosal Immunity
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Ebola Immunopathology and the Outbreak in West Africa - PLoS Blogs (blog)

Ebola Immunopathology and the Outbreak in West Africa - PLoS Blogs (blog) | Mucosal Immunity | Scoop.it
PLoS Blogs (blog)
Ebola Immunopathology and the Outbreak in West Africa
PLoS Blogs (blog)
Ebola virus is carried by fruit bats, and is transmitted to and among humans and other primates by blood and bodily fluids at skin and mucosal surfaces.
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Mucosal Immunity
The largest immune tissue in the body
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Mucosal Immunity

is the most recent part of Immunology!

It appeared less than 40 years ago, while systemic immunity exploded 60  years ago.

It is still a minor part of Immunology teaching and research, while the mucosal immune system is at the frontline of encounters with germs, antigens... in other words the environment.

 

major keywords:

IgA http://www.scoop.it/t/mucosal-immunity?q=IgA

tolerance http://www.scoop.it/t/mucosal-immunity?q=tolerance

microbiome http://www.scoop.it/t/mucosal-immunity?q=microbiome

 

 

july 2015: almost 2100 scoops, >1700 visitors, >3900 views

november 2016, more than 7,2K views more than 2750 scoops

november 2017 >10K views of >3300 scoops

june 2020 >17.6K views, >5.5K visitors,  >4.5K scoops

Gilbert C FAUREs insight:

This topic complements the more general Immunology topic.

 http://www.scoop.it/t/immunology

 

It includes also reproductive immunology searchable on

http://www.scoop.it/t/mucosal-immunity?q=reproductive

https://www.scoop.it/t/mucosal-immunity/?&tag=REPRODUCTION

 

and  also covers lung immunology

http://www.scoop.it/t/mucosal-immunity?q=lung

 

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COVID-19 vaccine candidate, tested at UAB, will start Phase 1 clinical trial

COVID-19 vaccine candidate, tested at UAB, will start Phase 1 clinical trial | Mucosal Immunity | Scoop.it
Preclinical tests at UAB last year showed potent systemic and mucosal immune responses in mice after a single intranasal dose. The vaccine candidate was developed by Maryland-based Altimmune Inc. Credit: UAB BIRMINGHAM, Ala.
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SARS-CoV-2 Shedding Dynamics Across the Respiratory Tract, Sex, and Disease Severity for Adult and Pediatric COVID-19 | medRxiv

medRxiv - The Preprint Server for Health Sciences
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Niche-specific MHC II and PD-L1 regulate CD4+CD8αα+ intraepithelial lymphocyte differentiation | Journal of Experimental Medicine | Rockefeller University Press

Niche-specific MHC II and PD-L1 regulate CD4+CD8αα+ intraepithelial lymphocyte differentiation | Journal of Experimental Medicine | Rockefeller University Press | Mucosal Immunity | Scoop.it
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R848 or influenza virus can induce potent innate immune responses in the lungs of neonatal mice

Innate immune responses are important to protect the neonatal lung, which becomes exposed to commensal and pathogenic microorganisms immediately after birth, at a time when both the lung and the adaptive immune system are still developing. How immune cells in the neonatal lung respond to innate immune stimuli, including toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists, or viruses, is currently unclear. To address this, adult and neonatal mice were intranasally administered with various innate immune stimuli, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) or influenza virus and cytokine and chemokine levels were quantified. The neonatal lungs responded weakly to RSV and most stimuli but more strongly than adult mice to R848 and influenza virus, both of which activate TLR7 and the inflammasome. Notably, neonatal lungs also contained higher levels of cAMP, a secondary messenger produced following adenosine receptor signaling, than adult lungs and increased responsiveness to R848 was observed in adult mice when adenosine was coadministered. Our data suggest that the neonatal lung may respond preferentially to stimuli that coactivate TLR7 and the inflammasome and that these responses may be amplified by extracellular adenosine. Improved understanding of regulation of immune responses in the neonatal lung can inform the development of vaccine adjuvants for the young.
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Patrolling Alveolar Macrophages Conceal Bacteria from the Immune System to Maintain Homeostasis - ScienceDirect

Patrolling Alveolar Macrophages Conceal Bacteria from the Immune System to Maintain Homeostasis - ScienceDirect | Mucosal Immunity | Scoop.it
During respiration, humans breathe in more than 10,000 liters of non-sterile air daily, allowing some pathogens access to alveoli. Interestingly, alve…
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Early innate and adaptive immune perturbations determine long-term severity of chronic virus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis coinfection - ScienceDirect

Early innate and adaptive immune perturbations determine long-term severity of chronic virus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis coinfection - ScienceDirect | Mucosal Immunity | Scoop.it
Chronic viral infections increase severity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) coinfection.Here, we examined how chronic viral infections alter the p…...
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Interleukin-33 activates regulatory T cells to suppress innate γδ T cell responses in the lung

Interleukin-33 activates regulatory T cells to suppress innate γδ T cell responses in the lung | Mucosal Immunity | Scoop.it
Foxp3<sup>+</sup> regulatory T (T<sub>reg</sub>) cells expressing the interleukin (IL)-33 receptor ST2 mediate tissue repair in response to IL-33. Whether T<sub>reg</sub> cells also respond to the alarmin IL-33 to regulate specific aspects of the immune response is not known.
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University of Tasmania scientists explain the mystery behind square wombat poo

University of Tasmania scientists explain the mystery behind square wombat poo | Mucosal Immunity | Scoop.it
Scientists have stumbled across the reason for wombats’ unique cube-shaped poo, finding proof you can fit a square peg through a round hole.
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En Chine, le test Covid anal est jugé plus fiable, mais ne sera pas généralisé

En Chine, le test Covid anal est jugé plus fiable, mais ne sera pas généralisé | Mucosal Immunity | Scoop.it
La Chine recourt de façon croissante aux dépistages rectaux pour tester les sujets à risque et les voyageurs arrivant de l'étranger. La méthode rebute.
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https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/mucosal-immunity-feces-covid-19-gilbert-faure/

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The microbiota in pneumonia: From protection to predisposition | Science Translational Medicine

The microbiota in pneumonia: From protection to predisposition | Science Translational Medicine | Mucosal Immunity | Scoop.it
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Making "Edible Vaccines" in Plants

Making “Edible Vaccines” in Plants Some scientists believe that vaccines could be produced in edible plants, such as bananas or potatoes, which would then provide the delivery vehicle. This approach would yield vaccines that are needle-free and require no adjuvants, chemicals that stimulate the immune response. When the plant is ingested, the plant cell walls would protect the vaccine antigens from degradation by stomach acid and digestive enzymes. Then in the intestine, the antigens would be released and transported into the circulatory system. Edible vaccines would stimulate both mucosal and systemic immunity, providing a higher level of protection than traditional vaccines. Advocates claim that vaccines produced in edible plants would be low-cost and would not require refrigeration, making them more accessible to poor people in developing countries. But although several edible vaccines have entered clinical trials, none has yet been approved for marketing.5 Indeed, many technical questions remain to be answered before edible vaccines will become a viable option. Although a potato may express vaccine antigens, how many people will eat a raw potato? If the potato is cooked, will the vaccine remain effective? How does one ensure a uniform product or determine the appropriate dose? Some scientists are now thinking of producing edible vaccines in bananas or potatoes and processing them into a powder, which would be more usable and consistent. It is not yet clear, however, if this approach is commercially viable. In any event, regulatory safeguards will be required to protect consumer health and the environment.
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Group 1 innate lymphoid-cell-derived interferon-γ maintains anti-viral vigilance in the mucosal epithelium

Group 1 innate lymphoid-cell-derived interferon-γ maintains anti-viral vigilance in the mucosal epithelium | Mucosal Immunity | Scoop.it
ILC1s provide antiviral protection at initial sites of viral encounter, but how these
cells accomplish this spatially in the tissue remains unexplored. Shannon et al. show
that ILC1s patrol the uninfected epithelium of the oral mucosa and provide protection
even before infection through the production of IFN-γ.
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Cells | Free Full-Text | Epithelial Cells and Inflammation in Pulmonary Wound Repair | HTML

Cells | Free Full-Text | Epithelial Cells and Inflammation in Pulmonary Wound Repair | HTML | Mucosal Immunity | Scoop.it
Respiratory diseases are frequently characterised by epithelial injury, airway inflammation, defective tissue repair, and airway remodelling. This may occur in a subacute or chronic context, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or occur acutely as in pathogen challenge and...
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Vaccines | Free Full-Text | Conjugation of Human β-Defensin 2 to Spike Protein Receptor-Binding Domain Induces Antigen-Specific Protective Immunity against Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavi...

Vaccines | Free Full-Text | Conjugation of Human β-Defensin 2 to Spike Protein Receptor-Binding Domain Induces Antigen-Specific Protective Immunity against Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavi... | Mucosal Immunity | Scoop.it
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe acute respiratory symptoms. Due to the lack of medical countermeasures, effective and safe vaccines against MERS-CoV infection are urgently required.
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Characterization of SARS-CoV-2 RNA, Antibodies, and Neutralizing Capacity in Milk Produced by Women with COVID-19 | mBio

Characterization of SARS-CoV-2 RNA, Antibodies, and Neutralizing Capacity in Milk Produced by Women with COVID-19 | mBio | Mucosal Immunity | Scoop.it
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The Roles of T cells in Bladder Pathologies

The Roles of T cells in Bladder Pathologies | Mucosal Immunity | Scoop.it
T lymphocytes play important roles in the skin and mucosal surfaces such as the gut
and lung. Until recently the contributions of T cells to mammalian bladder immunity
were largely unknown. With newer techniques, including single-cell RNA sequencing
and reporter mice, an understanding is emerging of T cell roles in bladder diseases
(bacterial infections, bladder cancer, chronic inflammation). In these pathologies,
many bladder T cell responses can be harmful to the host through suboptimal clearance
of bacteria or cancer cells, or by modulating autoinflammation.
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Stronger induction of trained immunity by mucosal BCG or MTBVAC vaccination compared to standard intradermal vaccination

Stronger induction of trained immunity by mucosal BCG or MTBVAC vaccination compared to standard intradermal vaccination | Mucosal Immunity | Scoop.it
Vierboom et al. demonstrate the induction of trained immunity in blood and bone marrow
monocytes after vaccination with live attenuated TB vaccines in nonhuman primates. Mucosal respiratory delivery of BCG or MTBVAC induces trained immunity more efficiently compared to standard intradermal...
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Soil exposure modifies the gut microbiota and supports immune tolerance in a mouse model - ScienceDirect

Soil exposure modifies the gut microbiota and supports immune tolerance in a mouse model - ScienceDirect | Mucosal Immunity | Scoop.it
Sufficient exposure to natural environments, in particular soil and its microbes, has been suggested to be protective against allergies.We aim at gain…...
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Mass cytometry reveals unique subsets of T cells and lymphoid cells in nasal polyps from patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) - Bartemes - - Allergy

Mass cytometry reveals unique subsets of T cells and lymphoid cells in nasal polyps from patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) - Bartemes - - Allergy | Mucosal Immunity | Scoop.it
Click on the article title to read more.
Gilbert C FAUREs insight:

other references on polyps https://www.scoop.it/topic/mucosal-immunity?q=polyps

 

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Leveraging the antiviral type-I interferon system as a first line defense against SARS-CoV-2 pathogenicity

Leveraging the antiviral type-I interferon system as a first line defense against SARS-CoV-2 pathogenicity | Mucosal Immunity | Scoop.it
The host response to SARS-CoV-2 results in significant inflammation. To understand
this biology, Hoagland and Møller et al. utilize infected hamsters to elucidate transcriptional
footprints across tissues longitudinally, showing an inflammatory response beyond
the site of acute replication. Local administration of IFN-I reduces virus load and
improves immune infiltrate.
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Frontiers | Statistical and machine learning techniques in human microbiome studies: contemporary challenges and solutions | Microbiology

Human microbiome has emerged as a central research topic in human biology and biomedicine. Current microbiome studies generate high-throughput omics data across different body sites, populations, and lifetime.
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Aberrant type 1 immunity drives... - Society for Mucosal Immunology (SMI) | Facebook

Aberrant type 1 immunity drives... - Society for Mucosal Immunology (SMI) | Facebook | Mucosal Immunity | Scoop.it
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Microorganisms | Free Full-Text | Fecal Microbiota Transplant from Human to Mice Gives Insights into the Role of the Gut Microbiota in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) | HTML

Microorganisms | Free Full-Text | Fecal Microbiota Transplant from Human to Mice Gives Insights into the Role of the Gut Microbiota in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) | HTML | Mucosal Immunity | Scoop.it
Non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) are associated with changes in the composition and metabolic activities of the gut microbiota. However, the causal role played by the gut microbiota in individual susceptibility to NAFLD and particularly at its early stage is still unclear.
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Comparison of Saliva and Nasopharyngeal Swab Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing for Detection of SARS-CoV-2: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis | Infectious Diseases | JAMA Internal Medicine | J...

Comparison of Saliva and Nasopharyngeal Swab Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing for Detection of SARS-CoV-2: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis | Infectious Diseases | JAMA Internal Medicine | J... | Mucosal Immunity | Scoop.it
This systematic review and meta-analysis assess the diagnostic accuracy of saliva nucleic acid amplification tests for diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019.
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Gut CD4 + T cell phenotypes are a continuum molded by microbes, not by T H archetypes

Gut CD4 + T cell phenotypes are a continuum molded by microbes, not by T H archetypes | Mucosal Immunity | Scoop.it
Helper T cell subsets are characterized functionally by the cytokines they produce. Benoist and colleagues demonstrate that in vivo helper T cells do not manifest as discrete helper subsets but rather form a continuum shaped by microbial exposure.
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