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This topic is focusing mainly on fundamental systemic immunology.

 

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Tissue-resident macrophages: then and now - Davies - 2015 - Immunology - Wiley Online Library

Tissue-resident macrophages: then and now - Davies - 2015 - Immunology - Wiley Online Library | immunology | Scoop.it
RT @britsocimm: Tissue‐resident macrophages: then and now http://t.co/DWMIZJc53k #immunology http://t.co/XeRmqReMzV
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Macrophages are often viewed as terminally differentiated monocytic phagocytes. They infiltrate tissues during inflammation, and form polarized populations that perform pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory functions. Tissue-resident macrophages were regarded as differentiated monocytes, which seed the tissues to perform immune sentinel and homeostatic functions. However, tissue-resident macrophages are not a homogeneous population, but are in fact a grouping of cells with similar functions and phenotypes. In the last decade, it has been revealed that many of these cells are not terminally differentiated and, in most cases, are not derived from haematopoiesis in the adult. Recent research has highlighted that tissue-resident macrophages cannot be grouped into simple polarized categories, especially in vivo, when they are exposed to complex signalling events.

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Immunology

 

Review Article

Tissue-resident macrophages: then and nowAuthorsLuke C. Davies, Philip R. Taylor First published: 9 March 2015Full publication historyDOI: 10.1111/imm.12451View/save citation
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T Cells Integrate Local and Global Cues to Discriminate between Structurally Similar Antigens: Cell Reports

T Cells Integrate Local and Global Cues to Discriminate between Structurally Similar Antigens: Cell Reports | immunology | Scoop.it

 

 

Summary

T lymphocytes’ ability to discriminate between structurally related antigens has been attributed to the unique signaling properties of the T cell receptor. However, recent studies have suggested that the output of this discrimination process is conditioned by environmental cues. Here, we demonstrate how the IL-2 cytokine, collectively generated by strongly activated T cell clones, can induce weaker T cell clones to proliferate. We identify the PI3K pathway as being critical for integrating the antigen and cytokine responses and for controlling cell-cycle entry. We build a hybrid stochastic/deterministic computational model that accounts for such signal synergism and demonstrates quantitatively how T cells tune their cell-cycle entry according to environmental cytokine cues. Our findings indicate that antigen discrimination by T cells is not solely an intrinsic cellular property but rather a product of integration of multiple cues, including local cues such as antigen quality and quantity, to global ones like the extracellular concentration of inflammatory cytokines.


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Highlights•Strongly activated T cell clones induce weaker clones to proliferate through IL-2•IL-2-induced PI3K activation mediates the co-optation of weak T cell clones•A quantitative model shows how antigen and IL-2 signal additively to activate T cells•Co-optation is set by cell number, antigen load, and competition with T-reg cells
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Krishan Maggon 's curator insight, May 29, 6:48 AM
Cell Reports  Volume 11, Issue 8, p1208–1219, 26 May 2015 T Cells Integrate Local and Global Cues to Discriminate between Structurally Similar AntigensGuillaume Voisinne, Briana G. Nixon, Anna Melbinger, Georg Gasteiger, Massimo Vergassola, Grégoire Altan-BonnetOpen AccessDOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2015.04.051 | Article Info
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Capping protein integrates multiple MAMP signal...

Capping protein integrates multiple MAMP signal... | immunology | Scoop.it
Plants and animals perceive diverse microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) via pattern recognition receptors and activate innate immune signalling.
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same in lymphocyte capping?

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Individual Human Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Exhibit Intraclonal Heterogeneity during Sustained Killing: Cell Reports

Individual Human Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Exhibit Intraclonal Heterogeneity during Sustained Killing: Cell Reports | immunology | Scoop.it
Highlights

 

•Sustained killing activity allows CTLs to control an excess of target cells•The multiple killing performance of individual CTLs is highly heterogeneous•High-rate killing is delayed in time and requires strong antigenic stimulation

 

Summary

The killing of antigen-bearing cells by clonal populations of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) is thought to be a rapid phenomenon executed uniformly by individual CTLs. We combined bulk and single-CTL killing assays over a prolonged time period to provide the killing statistics of clonal human CTLs against an excess of target cells. Our data reveal efficiency in sustained killing at the population level, which relied on a highly heterogeneous multiple killing performance at the individual level. Although intraclonal functional heterogeneity was a stable trait in clonal populations, it was reset in the progeny of individual CTLs. In-depth mathematical analysis of individual CTL killing data revealed a substantial proportion of high-rate killer CTLs with burst killing activity. Importantly, such activity was delayed and required activation with strong antigenic stimulation. Our study implies that functional heterogeneity allows CTL populations to calibrate prolonged cytotoxic activity to the size of target cell populations.


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lymphocyte subpopulations more heterogeneous

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Krishan Maggon 's curator insight, May 29, 6:42 AM

Cell Reports

Individual Human Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Exhibit Intraclonal Heterogeneity during Sustained KillingZilton Vasconcelos, Sabina Müller, Delphine Guipouy, Wong Yu, Claire Christophe, Sébastien Gadat, Salvatore Valitutti8,Loïc Dupré88Co-senior authorPublication stage: In Press Corrected ProofOpen AccessDOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2015.05.002 Article Info
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Bringing Statistics Up to Speed with Data in Analysis of Lymphocyte Motility

Bringing Statistics Up to Speed with Data in Analysis of Lymphocyte Motility | immunology | Scoop.it
Two-photon (2P) microscopy provides immunologists with 3D video of the movement of lymphocytes in vivo. Motility parameters extracted from these videos allow detailed analysis of lymphocyte motility in lymph nodes and peripheral tissues.
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The role of complement factor C3 in lipid metabolism

The role of complement factor C3 in lipid metabolism http://t.co/Hb7ltMDkcW
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Abstract

Abundant reports have shown that there is a strong relationship between C3 and C3a-desArg levels, adipose tissue, and risk factors for cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome and diabetes. The data indicate that complement components, particularly C3, are involved in lipid metabolism. The C3 fragment, C3a-desArg, functions as a hormone that has insulin-like effects and facilitates triglyceride metabolism. Adipose tissue produces and regulates the levels of complement components, which promotes generation of inflammatory initiators such as the anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a. The anaphylatoxins trigger a cyto/chemokine response in proportion to the amount of adipose tissue present, and induce inflammation and mediate metabolic effects such as insulin resistance. These observations support the concept that complement is an important participant in lipid metabolism and in obesity, contributing to the metabolic syndrome and to the low-grade inflammation associated with obesity.

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IRF5: a rheostat for tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte trafficking in breast cancer? - Nature.com

IRF5: a rheostat for tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte trafficking in breast cancer? - Nature.com | immunology | Scoop.it
Immunology and Cell Biology focuses on the general functioning of the immune system in its broadest sense, with a particular emphasis on its cell biology.
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Krishan Maggon 's curator insight, May 28, 2:10 PM

Immunology and Cell Biology (2015) 93, 425–426; doi:10.1038/icb.2015.39; published online 26 May 2015

IRF5 regulates lymphocyte infiltration in tumorsIRF5: a rheostat for tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte trafficking in breast cancer?

Soizic Garaud1 and Karen Willard-Gallo1

1Molecular Immunology Unit, Institut Jules Bordet, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium

Correspondence: K Willard-Gallo, E-mail: kwillard@ulb.ac.be or karen.willard-gallo@bordet.be

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The Cell-Intrinsic Circadian Clock Is Dispensable for Lymphocyte Differentiation and Function

The Cell-Intrinsic Circadian Clock Is Dispensable for Lymphocyte Differentiation and Function | immunology | Scoop.it
The Cell-Intrinsic Circadian Clock Is Dispensable for Lymphocyte Differentiation and Function - http://t.co/YKaDvFzJ8v
#circadian
Gilbert Faure au nom de l'ASSIM's insight:
Summary

Circadian rhythms regulate many aspects of physiology, ranging from sleep-wake cycles and metabolic parameters to susceptibility to infection. The molecular clock, with transcription factor BMAL1 at its core, controls both central and cell-intrinsic circadian rhythms. Using a circadian reporter, we observed dynamic regulation of clock activity in lymphocytes. However, its disruption upon conditional Bmal1 ablation did not alter T- or B-cell differentiation or function. Although the magnitude of interleukin 2 (IL-2) production was affected by the time of bacterial infection, it was independent of cell-intrinsic expression of BMAL1. The circadian gating of the IL-2 response was preserved in Bmal1-deficient T cells, despite a slight reduction in cytokine production in a competitive setting. Our results suggest that, contrary to the prevailing view, the adaptive immune response is not affected by the cell-intrinsic clock but is likely influenced by cell-extrinsic circadian cues operating across multiple cell types.

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Innate lymphoid cells: A new paradigm in immunology

Innate lymphoid cells: A new paradigm in immunology http://t.co/myvFCQ6HJO
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As with B cells and T cells, ILCs develop from the common lymphoid progenitor, but dedicated transcription factors supress the B and T cell fates and direct the generation of the different types of ILCs. ILC precursors may migrate from their primary site of production into infected and injured tissues, where they complete their maturation, similar to the differentiation of naïve T cells into TH effectors. Cytokines produced by local cells as well as stress ligands and bacterial and dietary compounds regulate the maturation and activation of ILCs into effectors that play a major role in early immune responses to pathogens and symbionts, helminths, and allergen. The cytokines they produce induce innate responses in stromal, epithelial, and myeloid cells and regulate the activity of dendritic cells (DCs), which play a central role in the cross-talk between ILCs and T cells. In particular, ILCs activate tissue-resident DCs to migrate to lymph nodes, where they elicit specific T cell responses, which in turn regulate ILCs. ILCs also directly regulate T cells through the presentation of peptide antigens on major histocompatibility complex II. However, ILCs are also involved in immunopathology, during which their production of cytokines exacerbates the inflammatory process.

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TRAF3IP3, a novel autophagy-upregulated gene, is involved in MZ B lymphocyte development and survival - Peng - Clinical & Experimental Immunology - Wiley Online Library

TRAF3IP3, a novel autophagy-upregulated gene, is involved in MZ B lymphocyte development and survival - Peng - Clinical & Experimental Immunology - Wiley Online Library | immunology | Scoop.it
Immunology: TRAF3IP3, a novel autophagy‐upregulated gene, is involved in MZ B lymphocyte development and survival http://t.co/TKtviFfIgn
Gilbert Faure au nom de l'ASSIM's insight:
Abstract

TRAF3 interacting protein 3 (TRAF3IP3; also known as T3JAM) is specifically expressed in immune organs and tissues. To investigate the impact of TRAF3IP3 on immunity, we generated Traf3ip3 knockout (KO) mice. Interestingly, these mice exhibited a significant reduction in the number of common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs) and inhibition of B cell development in the bone marrow. Furthermore, Traf3ip3 KO mice lacked marginal zone (MZ) B cells in the spleen. Traf3ip3 KO mice also exhibited a reduced amount of serum natural antibodies and impaired T cell-independent type II (TI-II) responses to TNP-Ficoll antigen. Additionally, our results showed that Traf3ip3 promotes autophagy via an ATG16L1-binding motif, and MZ B cells isolated from mutant mice showed a diminished level of autophagy and a high rate of apoptosis. These results suggest that TRAF3IP3 contributes to MZ B cell survival by upregulating autophagy, thereby promoting the TI-II immune response.

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Foodies of Innate Immunity - FullText - Journal of Innate Immunity 2015, Vol. 7, No. 4 - Karger Publishers

Immunology: Foodies of Innate Immunity - J Innate Immun 2015;7:331-332 (Source: Journal of Innate Immunity) MedWor... http://t.co/RGgOHDwtW3
Gilbert Faure au nom de l'ASSIM's insight:

In this issue of the Journal of Innate Immunity, Márkus et al. [3] demonstrate that a hitherto unrecognized cell type, called a multinucleated giant hemocyte, of a Drosophila species (see cover picture), encapsulates and kills parasites without melanization. Such cells are derived from the phagocytic cells of the sessile tissue and the circulation. Unexpectedly, it was found that they do not exhibit phagocytic activity, but rather fuse around their target. Multinucleated giant hemocytes are highly motile and share several features with mammalian multinucleated giant cells, a syncytium of macrophages formed during granulomatous inflammation. As observed in invertebrates, phagocytosis is also part of the conserved innate defense in early vertebrates. However, functional fine-tuning is achieved through specific cell-bound receptors, such as the leukocyte immune-type receptor [4].

In humans, neutrophils are key players in host defense, executing several effector functions including phagocytosis, the production of reactive oxygen species, the release of cytotoxic granule proteins and the mobilization of neutrophil extracellular traps [5,6]. In this issue, Carlsen et al. [7] demonstrate differential neutrophil responsiveness to distinct species of Leishmania amastigotes, the cause of cutaneous leishmaniasis in South America. Their findings suggest that different species possess specific mechanisms of resistance against neutrophil effector functions, and that this should be subject to further research. In another study, Braem et al. [8] show that neutrophil killing of the important fungal pathogen Aspergilus fumigatus is dependent on complement rather than specific antibodies. This will have consequences with respect to future therapeutic strategies, not least for vaccination.

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FcγR dependent mechanisms of cytotoxic, agonistic, and neutralizing antibody activities: Trends in Immunology

FcγR dependent mechanisms of cytotoxic, agonistic, and neutralizing antibody activities http://t.co/T6E1V2Al8g
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Highlights•CTLA-4-specific antibodies deplete intratumoral regulatory T cells via activating FcγRs.•Broadly neutralizing antibodies require activating FcγRs for their activity.•Agonistic antibodies require higher order crosslinking through the inhibitory FcγRIIb.•Organ-specific FcγRIIb positive cells provide higher order crosslinking for agonistic antibodies.
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Innate Immunity in Host-Pathogen Interactions - 26 - 29 June 2016

Innate Immunity in Host-Pathogen Interactions - 26 - 29 June 2016 | immunology | Scoop.it
This symposium will bring together innate immunity and microbiology to obtain a global view of host-pathogen interactions.
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A Unique Virulence Gene Occupies a Principal Position in Immune Evasion by the Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum

A Unique Virulence Gene Occupies a Principal Position in Immune Evasion by the Malaria Parasite  Plasmodium falciparum | immunology | Scoop.it
Author Summary Many eukaryotic pathogens avoid the immune system of their hosts by switching expression between genes encoding their exposed surface antigens.
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The protein LEM promotes CD8+ T cell immunity through effects on mitochondrial respiration

Imperial Group et al show Lymphocyte Expansion Molecule LEM targets & links T cell metabolism & proliferation: http://t.co/aUOXf0MkqS
Gilbert Faure au nom de l'ASSIM's insight:

LEM : an orphan protein named lymphocyte expansion molecule (LEM) that promoted antigen-dependent CD8+ T cell proliferation, effector function, and memory cell generation in response to infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus.

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Tumour immunology Eosinophils — T cells' little helpers - Nature.com

Tumour immunology Eosinophils — T cells' little helpers
Nature.com
Eosinophilia is frequently observed in cancer and eosinophils are attracted to tumours but it is still unknown whether they play an active part in tumour rejection.
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attractive but too short summary

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Latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection — NEJM

Latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection — NEJM | immunology | Scoop.it
Review Article from The New England Journal of Medicine — Latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection
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it was a free preview

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The Use of Wavelength Modulated Raman Spectroscopy in Label-Free Identification of T Lymphocyte...

The Use of Wavelength Modulated Raman Spectroscopy in Label-Free Identification of T Lymphocyte Subsets, Natural Killer Cells and Dendritic Cells.
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Frontiers | Role of innate T cells in anti-bacterial immunity | T Cell Biology

Innate T cells are a heterogeneous group of αβ and γδ T cells that respond rapidly (<2 hours) upon activation. These innate T cells also share a non MHC class I or II restriction requirement for a...
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Innate T cells are a heterogeneous group of αβ and γδ T cells that respond rapidly (<2 hours) upon activation. These innate T cells also share a non MHC class I or II restriction requirement for antigen recognition. Three major populations within the innate T cell group are recognized, namely Invariant NKT cells (iNKT); Mucosal associated invariant T cells (MAIT) and gamma delta T cells. These cells recognize foreign/self-lipid presented by non-classical MHC molecules, such as CD1d, MR1 and CD1a.
They are activated during the early stages of bacterial infection and act as a bridge between the innate and adaptive immune systems. In this review we focus on the functional properties of these 3 innate T cell populations and how they are purposed for antimicrobial defense. Furthermore we address the mechanisms through which their effector functions are targeted for bacterial control and compare this in human and murine systems. Lastly we speculate on future roles of these cell types in therapeutic settings such as vaccination.

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Single nucleotide polymorphisms of Toll-like receptors and susceptibility to infectious diseases - Skevaki - 2015 - Clinical & Experimental Immunology - Wiley Online Library

Single nucleotide polymorphisms of Toll-like receptors and susceptibility to infectious diseases - Skevaki - 2015 - Clinical & Experimental Immunology - Wiley Online Library | immunology | Scoop.it
RT @britsocimm: Role of TLRs in innate immunity;TLR SNPs link to infectious disease suscept... #immunology http://t.co/x7Riv9gVse http://t.…
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Summary

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the best-studied family of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), whose task is to rapidly recognize evolutionarily conserved structures on the invading microorganisms. Through binding to these patterns, TLRs trigger a number of proinflammatory and anti-microbial responses, playing a key role in the first line of defence against the pathogens also promoting adaptive immunity responses. Growing amounts of data suggest that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the various human TLR proteins are associated with altered susceptibility to infection. This review summarizes the role of TLRs in innate immunity, their ligands and signalling and focuses on the TLR SNPs which have been linked to infectious disease susceptibility.

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Krishan Maggon 's curator insight, May 28, 2:15 PM

Clin. Exp. immunology

 

Volume 180, Issue 2
May 2015 
Pages 165–177

 

Review Article

Single nucleotide polymorphisms of Toll-like receptors and susceptibility to infectious diseasesAuthorsC. Skevaki, M. Pararas, K. Kostelidou, A. Tsakris, J. G. Routsias First published: 14 April 2015Full publication historyDOI: 10.1111/cei.12578View/save citation

 

 

Figure 1.

Toll-like receptor (TLR) proteins. GeneBank Accession numbers, chromosomal locations, number of amino acids and molecular weight for each of the TLR proteins are provided. The pictures above the TLRs depict their main known ligands.

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The inflammasome: firing up innate immunity - Kanneganti - 2015 - Immunological Reviews - Wiley Online Library

The inflammasome: firing up innate immunity - Kanneganti - 2015 - Immunological Reviews - Wiley Online Library | immunology | Scoop.it
The inflammasome: firing up innate immunity Kanneganti 2015 Immunological Reviews Wiley Online Library http://t.co/JOawiM1wIt

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Krishan Maggon 's curator insight, April 26, 12:44 AM
The inflammasome: firing up innate immunityThirumala-Devi Kanneganti*

Article first published online: 16 APR 2015

DOI: 10.1111/imr.12297

© 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd

Issue

Immunological Reviews

Special Issue: Inflammasomes

Volume 265, Issue 1, pages 1–5, May 2015

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Candy Anatomy on Twitter

Candy Anatomy on Twitter | immunology | Scoop.it
"The Lem-ph Node" #candyanatomy #medschool #medicine #anatomy #immunology #science pic.twitter.com/Bi2haMJqqd
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sweet!

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Molecular mechanism for antigen-presenting capacity acquisition by human gamma delta T cells (γδ T cells) is clarified | Hokkaido University

Molecular mechanism for antigen-presenting capacity acquisition by human gamma delta T cells (γδ T cells) is clarified | Hokkaido University | immunology | Scoop.it
Read more on the latest tumor research--the secret life of gamma delta cells: http://t.co/OD8FYbPAad
Gilbert Faure au nom de l'ASSIM's insight:

Human lymphocytes contain various kinds of cells. One of these is gamma delta cells, which are known to play an important role in eliminating virally infected cells and tumor cells. Gamma delta T cells (γδ T cells) also have an antigen-presenting capacity (the ability to tell their own T cells and other cells about foreign material) when activated, like that of dendritic cells. However, this molecular mechanism was not fully understood. Using human gamma delta cells, our research team found that these cells not only kill their opponents when mixed with tumor cells, but also take in those antigens and induce antigen-specific T cells (playing the soldier role). We also clarified that gamma delta T cells (γδ T cells) express high rates of the C/EBP alpha (C/EBPα) transcription factor, which is typically high in myeloid cells, and the CD36 scavenger receptor, which works in the uptake of dead cell debris and other material, and that gamma delta T cells (γδ T cells) use the p38 MAPK and NF-kappaB (NF-κB) signaling pathways when presenting antigens to T cells. These findings will serve as basic knowledge in the development of new therapies for tumor immunity.

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Effector lymphocyte-induced lymph node-like vasculature enables naive T-cell entry into tumours and enhanced anti-tumour immunity. - PubMed - NCBI

Effector lymphocyte-induced lymph node-like vasculature enables naive T-cell entry into tumours and enhanced anti-tumour immunity. - PubMed - NCBI | immunology | Scoop.it
Nat Commun. 2015 May 13;6:7114. doi: 10.1038/ncomms8114.
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Abstract

The presence of lymph node (LN)-like vasculature in tumours, characterized by expression of peripheral node addressin and chemokine CCL21, is correlated with T-cell infiltration and positive prognosis in breast cancer and melanoma patients. However, mechanisms controlling the development of LN-like vasculature and how it might contribute to a beneficial outcome for cancer patients are unknown. Here we demonstrate that LN-like vasculature is present in murine models of melanoma and lung carcinoma. It enables infiltration by naive T cells that significantly delay tumour outgrowth after intratumoral activation. Development of this vasculature is controlled by a mechanism involving effector CD8 T cells and NK cells that secrete LTα3 and IFNγ. LN-like vasculature is also associated with organized aggregates of B lymphocytes and gp38(+) fibroblasts, which resemble tertiary lymphoid organs that develop in models of chronic inflammation. These results establish LN-like vasculature as both a consequence of and key contributor to anti-tumour immunity.

  
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