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Scooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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January 24, 2014 12:48 PM
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Facing the Intelligence Explosion: There is Plenty of Room Above

Facing the Intelligence Explosion: There is Plenty of Room Above | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

Why are AIs in movies so often of roughly human-level intelligenceOne reason is that we almost always fail to see non-humans as non-human. We anthropomorphize. That’s why aliens and robots in fiction are basically just humans with big eyes or green skin or some special power. Another reason is that it’s hard for a writer to write characters that are smarter than the writer. How exactly would a superintelligent machine solve problem X?


The human capacity for efficient cross-domain optimization is not a natural plateau for intelligence. It’s a narrow, accidental, temporary marker created by evolution due to things like the slow rate of neuronal firing and how large a skull can fit through a primate’s birth canal. Einstein may seem vastly more intelligent than a village idiot, but this difference is dwarfed by the difference between the village idiot and a mouse.


As Vernor Vinge put it: The best answer to the question, “Will computers ever be as smart as humans?” is probably “Yes, but only briefly.”[1 How could an AI surpass human abilities? Let us count the ways:


  • Speed. Our axons carry signals at seventy-five meters per second or slower. A machine can pass signals along about four million times more quickly.
  • Serial depth. The human brain can’t rapidly perform any computation that requires more than one hundred sequential steps; thus, it relies on massively parallel computation.[2More is possible when both parallel and deep serial computations can be performed.
  • Computational resources. The brain’s size and neuron count are constrained by skull size, metabolism, and other factors. AIs could be built on the scale of buildings or cities or larger. When we can make circuits no smaller, we can just add more of them.
  • Rationality. As we explored earlier, human brains do nothing like optimal belief formation or goal achievement. Machines can be built from the ground up using (computable approximations of) optimal Bayesian decision networks, and indeed this is already a leading paradigm in artificial agent design.
  • Introspective access/editability. We humans have almost no introspective access to our cognitive algorithms, and cannot easily edit and improve them. Machines can already do this (read about EURISKO and metaheuristics). A limited hack like the method of loci greatly improves human memory; machines can do this kind of thing in spades.


REFERENCES:

1Vernor Vinge, “Signs of the Singularity,” IEEE Spectrum, June 2008, http://spectrum.ieee.org/biomedical/ethics/signs-of-the-singularity.

2J. A. Feldman and Dana H. Ballard, “Connectionist Models and Their Properties,” Cognitive Science 6 (3 1982): 205–254, doi: 10.1207/s15516709cog0603_1.

Steffi Tan's curator insight, March 24, 2015 5:43 AM

Vernor Vinge answered the question, "Will computers ever be as smart as humans?" with the simple sentence of "Yes, but only briefly."

 

For only a short period of time as technology ever develops, will technology be on the same intellectual playing field before it is able to surpass and exponentially grow in its capabilities. Emphasis again on how controlled setting need to be taken if an intelligence explosion were to occur. However, even if everyone agrees on the priority of safety, it only requires a single group of people to blindly walk into such circumstance for the event to cause issues for everyone.

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Unlimited, at-home coronavirus testing for your organization | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

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June 17, 3:04 PM
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Gemini, a family of multimodal models demonstrating strong capabilities across image, audio, video, and text domains

Gemini, a family of multimodal models demonstrating strong capabilities across image, audio, video, and text domains | Amazing Science | Scoop.it
 

Google has introduced a family of multimodal models, called Gemini, that exhibit remarkable capabilities across image, audio, video, and text understanding. The Gemini family consists of Ultra, Pro, and Nano sizes, suitable for applications ranging from complex reasoning tasks to on-device memory-constrained use-cases. Evaluation on a broad range of benchmarks shows that the most-capable Gemini Ultra model advances the state of the art in 30 of 32 of these benchmarks - notably being the first model to achieve human-expert performance on the well-studied exam benchmark MMLU, and improving the state of the art in every one of the 20 multimodal benchmarks we examined. Thus, Google believes that the new capabilities of the Gemini family in cross-modal reasoning and language understanding will enable a wide variety of use cases. In this article the authors discuss their approach toward post-training and deploying Gemini models responsibly to users through services including Gemini, Gemini Advanced, Google AI Studio, and Cloud Vertex AI.

 

Google has been rigorously testing all their Gemini models and evaluating their performance on a wide variety of tasks. From natural image, audio and video understanding to mathematical reasoning, Gemini Ultra’s performance exceeds current state-of-the-art results on 30 of the 32 widely-used academic benchmarks used in large language model (LLM) research and development.

 

With a score of 90.0%, Gemini Ultra is the first model to outperform human experts on MMLU (massive multitask language understanding), which uses a combination of 57 subjects such as math, physics, history, law, medicine and ethics for testing both world knowledge and problem-solving abilities. This new benchmark approach to MMLU enables Gemini to use its reasoning capabilities to think more carefully before answering difficult questions, leading to significant improvements over just using its first impression.

 

In summary, Gemini surpasses state-of-the-art performance on a range of benchmarks including text and coding. Gemini Ultra also achieves a state-of-the-art score of 59.4% on the new MMMU benchmark, which consists of multimodal tasks spanning different domains requiring deliberate reasoning. With the image benchmarks we tested, Gemini Ultra outperformed previous state-of-the-art models, without assistance from optical character recognition (OCR) systems that extract text from images for further processing. These benchmarks highlight Gemini’s native multimodality and indicate early signs of Gemini's more complex reasoning abilities.

 

See more details in Google's Gemini technical report.

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Scooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
June 15, 10:49 PM
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Leopold Aschenbrenner: Ex-OpenAI Employee Reveals TERRIFYING Future of AI which is around the corner

 

https://situational-awareness.ai/

 

The AGI race has begun. We are building machines that can think and reason. By 2025/26, these machines will outpace many college graduates. By the end of the decade, they will be smarter than any human being; we will have superintelligence, in the true sense of the word. Along the way, national security forces not seen in half a century will be unleashed, and before long, The Project will be on. If we’re lucky, we’ll be in an all-out race with the CCP; if we’re unlucky, an all-out war.

 

Everyone is now talking about AI, but few have the faintest glimmer of what is about to hit them. Nvidia stock analysts still think 2024 might be close to the peak. Mainstream pundits are stuck on the willful blindness of “it’s just predicting the next word”. They see only hype and business-as-usual; at most they entertain another internet-scale technological change. 

 

Before long, the world will wake up. But right now, there are perhaps a few hundred people, most of them in San Francisco and the AI labs, that have situational awareness. Through whatever peculiar forces of fate, I have found myself amongst them. A few years ago, these people were derided as crazy—but they trusted the trendlines, which allowed them to correctly predict the AI advances of the past few years. Whether these people are also right about the next few years remains to be seen. But these are very smart people and they are the ones building this technology. Perhaps they will be an odd footnote in history, or perhaps they will go down in history like Szilard and Oppenheimer and Teller. If they are seeing the future even close to correctly, we are in for a wild ride. [Leopold Aschenbrenner]

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June 7, 6:22 PM
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COVID can cause new health problems even 3 years after infection, new study finds

COVID can cause new health problems even 3 years after infection, new study finds | Amazing Science | Scoop.it
 

A new report reinforces that the virus is not going away. Even as national institutions struggle to coordinate meaningful trials for possible long COVID treatments, researchers continue to tally the damage. New findings suggest that the disease’s reach isn’t merely long—it’s still growing. Three years after their initial bouts with COVID-19, patients who’d once been hospitalized with the virus remained at “significantly elevated” risk of death or worsening health from long COVID complications, according to a paper published May 30, 2024 in Nature Medicine. Even among those whose initial cases didn’t require a hospital stay, the threat of long COVID and several of its associated issues remained real, the researchers found. And cumulatively, at three years, long COVID results in 91 disability-adjusted life years (DALY) per 1,000 people—DALYs being a measure of years lost to poor health or premature death. That is a higher incidence than either heart disease or cancer.

 

“People are developing new-onset disease as the result of an infection that they had three years ago,” says Dr. Ziyad Al-Aly, a clinical epidemiologist at Washington University in St. Louis and lead author of the study. “It challenges the notion that these viruses are sort of self-contained or that after the acute first phase, they become inconsequential.” With more than 130,000 patients, the study is by far the largest so far to track the progress of the virus over a full three-year period. It expands on work by Al-Aly and others at the two-year mark that found patients had elevated risk for long-COVID-related conditions that included diabetes, lung problems, fatigue, blood clots, and gastrointestinal and musculoskeletal disorders. At three years, Al-Aly tells Fortune, the primary complications among those with mild initial COVID cases were found in the neurological, GI, and pulmonary systems. The persistent risk among those who’d been hospitalized, meanwhile, extended to seven organ systems and included severe conditions such as strokes, heart attacks, heart failure, and even Alzheimer’s disease. The study included nationally recognized researchers Al-Aly and coauthor Dr. Eric Topol, executive vice president and professor of molecular medicine at Scripps Research. It drew from patients within the Veterans Affairs St. Louis Health Care system. As such, the scientists note, the demography skews more male, white, and slightly older than other patient studies might. “The data are encouraging in that there were no new-onset adverse health problems found in the third year after infection,” says Akiko Iwasaki, director of the Center for Infection and Immunity at the Yale University School of Medicine. But Iwasaki, who was not involved in the study, cautioned that some post-acute infection illnesses can turn up years later: “We will need to keep this type of long-term follow-up studies for extended periods.”

More health challenges for hospitalized patients

Perhaps unsurprisingly, those whose initial COVID cases required hospitalization faced the greatest challenges over the course of the three-year study, a grim reminder that interventions like vaccinations and antivirals are critical, Al-Aly says. “The story in hospitalized people is more stark,” the researcher says. “They have greater risk and longer risk horizon, with a burden of disease that is astronomically higher than non-infected people and higher than non-hospitalized individuals. Preventing hospitalization is very important.” The risk of new long COVID complications declined over time for both hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients, the study found. “That’s the good news story,” says Al-Aly. The risk of death, meanwhile, became “insignificant” after the first year among those who didn’t have to go to a hospital—that is, most of us who’ve ever been infected by COVID. For those whose cases required hospitalization, though, the threat of death “remained persistently elevated even in the third year,” the researchers said. That group also faced far greater burden of health—about 90 DALYs per 1,000 people, compared to about 10 DALYs per 1,000 for the non-hospitalized group. (For context, both heart disease and cancer cause about 50 DALYs per 1,000 people.) “The difference in DALYs between the two groups should not be interpreted to mean that people with long COVID from less severe acute disease are not suffering greatly as a result of their long COVID symptoms,” says Dr. David Putrino, director of the Cohen Center for Recovery from Complex Chronic Illness at Mt. Sinai School of Medicine. “It only means that at three years out, they’re experiencing less overtly life-threatening sequelae” than those who initially required hospitalization. The stubborn presence of long COVID reinforces the notion that this is no ordinary virus. Viral persistence, chronic inflammation, and immune system dysfunction are all thought by scientists to come into play, though more study is needed.

What is the outlook for tackling long COVID?

As for the question of what the term long COVID actually means—that is, how long it lasts—the science is still developing, Al-Aly says. He describes long COVID as “this sort of complex web of 80 or more different health problems,” some of which, like stroke or heart disease, could negatively affect patients for the rest of their lives. “We don’t know what we don’t know,” says Al-Aly. “This is only at three years… We don’t know what’s going to happen at 10 years.” The research group is hoping to persuade its funders to continue following the patient cohort for at least that long, he said. For these and other reasons, researchers have led the charge to accelerate the pace of trials for long COVID treatments, the early efforts at which have been criticized for wasting money and critical time. Appearing before a U.S. Senate committee in January, Al-Aly told committee members that at least 20 million people in the country have been hit with long COVID. Globally, that number is estimated to be at least 65 million. That meeting was noteworthy in part because it represented the first Congressional hearing on long COVID since the start of the pandemic. Researchers hope that this latest study will again focus attention on a disease with a long tail and an unknowable future, and perhaps prod the National Institutes of Health to take a bigger swing at the issue. “We need to be much bolder and much more ambitious with our trials,” Al-Aly says. “At the glacial pace that they’re going, we’re unlikely to get any definitive answers for decades to come.”

 
Published in Nat. Medicine (May 30 2024):
 

Via Juan Lama
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May 28, 12:10 AM
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Parasitoid Wasps Use Viruses as Biological Weapons

Parasitoid Wasps Use Viruses as Biological Weapons | Amazing Science | Scoop.it
 

To protect and rear their young, some insects have transformed wild viruses into tiny biological weapons. If you puncture the ovary of a wasp called Microplitis demolitor, viruses squirt out in vast quantities, shimmering like iridescent blue toothpaste. “It’s very beautiful, and just amazing that there’s so much virus made in there,” says Gaelen Burke, an entomologist at the University of Georgia. M. demolitor  is a parasite that lays its eggs in caterpillars, and the particles in its ovaries are “domesticated” viruses that have been tuned to persist harmlessly in wasps and serve their purposes. The virus particles are injected into the caterpillar through the wasp’s stinger, along with the wasp’s own eggs. The viruses then dump their contents into the caterpillar’s cells, delivering genes that are unlike those in a normal virus. Those genes suppress the caterpillar’s immune system and control its development, turning it into a harmless nursery for the wasp’s young.

 

The insect world is full of species of parasitic wasps that spend their infancy eating other insects alive. And for reasons that scientists don’t fully understand, they have repeatedly adopted and tamed wild, disease-causing viruses and turned them into biological weapons. Half a dozen examples already are described, and new research hints at many more. By studying viruses at different stages of domestication, researchers today are untangling how the process unfolds.


Via Juan Lama
Scooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
May 21, 1:33 AM
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AI could help to reveal yet undiscovered particles within data from the Large Hadron Collider

AI could help to reveal yet undiscovered particles within data from the Large Hadron Collider | Amazing Science | Scoop.it
 

Scientists used a neural network, a type of brain-inspired machine learning algorithm, to sift through large volumes of particle collision data.

 

For over two decades, the ATLAS particle detector has recorded the highest energy particle collisions in the world within the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) located at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research. Beams of protons are accelerated around the LHC at close to the speed of light, and upon their collision at ATLAS, they produce a cascade of new particles, resulting in over a billion particle interactions per second.

 

Particle physicists are tasked with mining this massive and growing store of collision data for evidence of undiscovered particles. In particular, they’re searching for particles not included in the Standard Model of particle physics, our current understanding of the universe’s makeup that scientists suspect is incomplete.

 

As part of the ATLAS collaboration, scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory and their colleagues recently used a machine learning approach called anomaly detection to analyze large volumes of ATLAS data. The method has never before been applied to data from a collider experiment. It has the potential to improve the efficiency of the collaboration’s search for something new. The collaboration involves scientists from 172 research organizations.

 

The team leveraged a brain-inspired type of machine learning algorithm called a neural network to search the data for abnormal features, or anomalies. The technique breaks from more traditional methods of searching for new physics. It is independent of — and therefore unconstrained by — the preconceptions of scientists.

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April 15, 11:26 AM
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First AI outperforming international math olympiad gold medalist

 

Proving geometric theorems constitutes a hallmark of visual reasoning combining both intuitive and logical skills. Therefore, automated theorem proving of Olympiad-level geometry problems is considered a notable milestone in human-level automated reasoning. The introduction of AlphaGeometry, a neuro-symbolic model trained with 100 million synthetic samples, marked a major breakthrough. It solved 25 of 30 International Mathematical Olympiad (IMO) problems whereas the reported baseline based on Wu’s method solved only ten.

 

In this paper, the IMO-AG-30 Challenge introduced with AlphaGeometry was revisited, and the researchers found that Wu’s method is surprisingly strong. Wu’s method alone can solve 15 problems, and some of them are not solved by any of the other methods. This leads to two key findings: (i) Combining Wu’s method with the classic synthetic methods of deductive databases and angle, ratio, and distance chasing solves 21 out of 30 methods by just using a CPU-only laptop with a time limit of 5 minutes per problem. Essentially, this classic method solves just 4 problems less than AlphaGeometry and establishes the first fully symbolic baseline, strong enough to rival the performance of an IMO silver medalist. (ii) Wu’s method even solves 2 of the 5 problems that AlphaGeometry failed to solve. Thus, by combining AlphaGeometry with Wu’s method a new state-of-the-art for automated theorem proving on IMO-AG-30, solving 27 out of 30 problems, the first AI method which outperforms an IMO gold medalist is finally achieved.

MBUNPI BAKOUE MARIUS OLIVIER's curator insight, April 21, 8:18 PM
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Rescooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald from Virus World
April 5, 4:25 PM
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Analysis of the Proteomic Atlas of SARS-CoV-2 Infected cells 

Analysis of the Proteomic Atlas of SARS-CoV-2 Infected cells  | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

The COVID-19 pandemic was initiated by the rapid spread of a SARS-CoV-2 strain. Though mainly classified as a respiratory disease, SARS-CoV-2 infects multiple tissues throughout the human body, leading to a wide range of symptoms in patients. To better understand how SARS-CoV-2 affects the proteome from cells with different ontologies, this work generated an infectome atlas of 9 cell models, including cells from brain, blood, digestive system, and adipocyte tissue.

 

Our data shows that SARS-CoV-2 infection mainly trigger dysregulations on proteins related to cellular structure and energy metabolism. Despite these pivotal processes, heterogeneity of infection was also observed, highlighting many proteins and pathways uniquely dysregulated in one cell type or ontological group. These data have been made searchable online via a tool that will permit future submissions of proteomic data (https://reisdeoliveira.shinyapps.io/Infectome_App/) to enrich and expand this knowledgebase.

 

Published in Scientific Reports (March 28, 2024):

https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-024-56328-3 


Via Juan Lama
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February 21, 3:27 PM
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NVIDIA Brings Generative AI to Millions, With Tensor Core GPUs, LLMs, Tools for RTX PCs and Workstations

NVIDIA Brings Generative AI to Millions, With Tensor Core GPUs, LLMs, Tools for RTX PCs and Workstations | Amazing Science | Scoop.it
 

NVIDIA recently announced GeForce RTX™ SUPER desktop GPUs for supercharged generative AI performance, new AI laptops from every top manufacturer, and new NVIDIA RTX™-accelerated AI software and tools for both developers and consumers.

 

Building on decades of PC leadership, with over 100 million of its RTX GPUs driving the AI PC era, NVIDIA is now offering these tools to enhance PC experiences with generative AI: NVIDIA TensorRT™ acceleration of the popular Stable Diffusion XL model for text-to-image workflows, NVIDIA RTX Remix with generative AI texture tools, NVIDIA ACE microservices and more games that use DLSS 3 technology with Frame Generation.

 

AI Workbench, a unified, easy-to-use toolkit for AI developers, will be available in beta later this month. In addition, NVIDIA TensorRT-LLM (TRT-LLM), an open-source library that accelerates and optimizes inference performance of the latest large language models (LLMs), now supports more pre-optimized models for PCs. Accelerated by TRT-LLM, Chat with RTX, an NVIDIA tech demo also releasing this month, allows AI enthusiasts to interact with their notes, documents and other content.

 

“Generative AI is the single most significant platform transition in computing history and will transform every industry, including gaming,” said Jensen Huang, founder and CEO of NVIDIA. “With over 100 million RTX AI PCs and workstations, NVIDIA is a massive installed base for developers and gamers to enjoy the magic of generative AI.”

 

Running generative AI locally on a PC is critical for privacy, latency and cost-sensitive applications. It requires a large installed base of AI-ready systems, as well as the right developer tools to tune and optimize AI models for the PC platform. To meet these needs, NVIDIA is delivering innovations across its full technology stack, driving new experiences and building on the 500+ AI-enabled PC applications and games already accelerated by NVIDIA RTX technology.

 

This is NVIDIA's first and very important step towards the vision of "LLM as Operating System" - a locally running, heavily optimized AI assistant that can deeply integrate with all your local files, but at the same time preserving privacy. NVIDIA is going local even before OpenAI!

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Rescooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald from Virus World
February 19, 3:10 AM
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Rare Retrovirus Genomic Insertion: Gibbon Ape Leukaemia Virus Integrates into New Guinea Rodent Genome

Rare Retrovirus Genomic Insertion: Gibbon Ape Leukaemia Virus Integrates into New Guinea Rodent Genome | Amazing Science | Scoop.it
 

Retroviruses are viruses that multiply by incorporating their genes into the genome of a host cell. If the infected cell is a germ cell, the retrovirus can then be passed on to the next generation as an “endogenous” retrovirus (ERV) and spread as part of the host genome in that host species. In vertebrates, ERVs are ubiquitous and sometimes make up 10 per cent of the host genome. However, most retrovirus integrations are very old, already degraded and therefore inactive – their initial impact on host health has been minimized by millions of years of evolution. A research team led by the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research (Leibniz-IZW) has now discovered a recent case of retrovirus colonization in a rodent from New Guinea, the white-bellied mosaic-tailed rat. In a PNAS paper they describe this new model of virus integration. The observations on this process will help to improve our understanding how retroviruses rewrite host genomes.

Retroviruses, such as the pathogen responsible for AIDS (HIV-1), integrate into the genome of the host cells they infect during their life cycle. When this happens in the germline (egg cells or cells that produce sperm) of the host, the retrovirus can actually become a gene of the host itself. This process is apparently common, as up to 10 percent of the genomes of most vertebrates consist of the remnants of such ancient infections. One of the best studied models of this process is the koala retrovirus (KoRV), which is currently colonizing the koala genome. „What happens to the virus and the host during this process of genome colonization we do not know, as most such events occurred millions of years ago and we only see the leftover ‘fossils’ of the retrovirus”, says Prof Alex Greenwood, head of the Leibniz-IZW Department of Wildlife Diseases. “Nor do we know what the host suffered health-wise during the infection process. The koala retrovirus (KoRV) is one of the few models of this process that occurs in real time and where we can observe the effects of genome colonization on the host animal.”

There is now some evidence that KoRV-related viruses are circulating in rodents and bats in Papua New Guinea and Indonesia. A group led by Greenwood and Dr Saba Mottaghinia, former PhD student in Greenwood’s department, analyzed 278 samples from seven bat and one rodent family endemic to Australia and New Guinea. They discovered a retrovirus that is currently colonizing the genome of an endemic rodent from New Guinea, the white-bellied mosaic-tailed rat (Melomys leucogaster). This is only the second example from the Australo-Papuan region, after KoRV, of a retrovirus that has colonized a genome while retaining a functional viral life cycle. The gibbon ape leukaemia viruses (GALV), a group of viruses discovered in gibbons and woolly monkeys at a research facility in Thailand in the 1960s, are very closely related to KoRV. This is a curious and surprising relationship, as there is a geographical barrier, known as the Wallace lineage, which separates the fauna of Southeast Asia from Indonesia, Papua New Guinea and Australia's fauna. However, there is evidence that the gibbons and woolly monkeys at the research facility in Thailand have been infected with viruses from Papua New Guinea. „The discovery of GALV-like viruses in rodents and bats in Indonesian and Australian rodents and bats from New Guinea suggests that these viruses, and possibly also KoRV, originated in New Guinea”, says Greenwood, who initiated the research project funded by the German Research Foundation.

The Leibniz-IZW team, together with scientists from the Charité, the Robert Koch Institute, the Max Delbrück Center, the University of Nicosia, California State University Fullerton, the South Australian Museum and Museum Victoria, examined 278 bat and rodent samples from Australia and New Guinea for KoRV and GALV-like viruses. They detected a GALV, the Woolly Monkey Virus (WMV) in a population of the white-bellied mosaic-tailed rat, an endemic rodent from New Guinea. In five of the rats from two New Guinea collection sites, WMV was integrated into the genome at the same location, indicating that it has spread as a gene and not by infection, i.e. it has become part of the genome. However, in other white-bellied mosaic-tailed rat populations the virus was absent – similar to KoRV in koalas, where all koalas in northern Australia have KoRV in their genome, whereas there are koalas in southern Australia that do not have intact KoRV. The virus, now called the “complete Melomys woolly monkey virus” (cMWMV), was able to infect cell lines, produce new viral progeny, was visible by electron microscopy as viral particles that detached from the cell membrane, and was even sensitive to the antiretroviral drug AZT.


„The virus has all the characteristics of an exogenous infectious retrovirus, but is endogenous. It is probably a very recent colonization event, much younger than KoRV", says Dr Saba Mottaghinia, the lead author of the paper. The results suggest that cMWMV is a new model for retroviral colonization of the host genome that occurs in real time, as in KoRV, and they also suggest that GALVs like WMV originated in the diverse fauna of New Guinea. The discoveries in New Guinea have certainly not been exhausted. “There are hundreds of mammalian species from this region that have not yet been studied, suggesting that many more viruses and models exist in this region”, says Greenwood.

 

Published in PNAS (Feb. 1, 2024):

https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2220392121


Via Juan Lama
Sos's curator insight, February 15, 8:04 PM

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Surgery in space: Tiny remotely operated robot completes first simulated procedure at the space station

Surgery in space: Tiny remotely operated robot completes first simulated procedure at the space station | Amazing Science | Scoop.it
 
The first surgery demonstration in space performed by a robot — controlled by surgeons on Earth — has marked a technological milestone for long-term spaceflight.

 

The robot, known as spaceMIRA — which stands for Miniaturized In Vivo Robotic Assistant — performed several operations on simulated tissue at the orbiting laboratory while remotely operated by surgeons from approximately 250 miles (400 kilometers) below in Lincoln, Nebraska.

 

The milestone is a step forward in developing technology that could have implications not just for successful long-term human space travel, where surgical emergencies could happen, but also for establishing access to medical care in remote areas on Earth.

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A star like a Matryoshka doll: New theory for gravastars as alternative to black holes

A star like a Matryoshka doll: New theory for gravastars as alternative to black holes | Amazing Science | Scoop.it
 

The interior of black holes remains a conundrum for science. In 1916, German physicist Karl Schwarzschild outlined a solution to Albert Einstein's equations of general relativity, in which the center of a black hole consists of a so-called singularity, a point at which space and time no longer exist. Here, the theory goes, all physical laws, including Einstein's general theory of relativity, no longer apply; the principle of causality is suspended.

 

This constitutes a great nuisance for science—after all, it means that no information can escape from a black hole beyond the so-called event horizon. This could be a reason why Schwarzschild's solution did not attract much attention outside the theoretical realm—that is, until the first candidate for a black hole was discovered in 1971, followed by the discovery of the black hole in the center of our Milky Way in the 2000s, and finally the first image of a black hole, captured by the Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration in 2019.

 

In 2001, Pawel Mazur and Emil Mottola proposed a different solution to Einstein's field equations that led to objects that they called gravitational condensate stars, or gravastars. Contrary to black holes, gravastars have several advantages from a theoretical astrophysics perspective.

 

On the one hand, they are almost as compact as black holes and also exhibit a gravity at their surface that is essentially as strong as that of a black hole, hence resembling a black hole for all practical purposes. On the other hand, gravastars do not have an event horizon, that is, a boundary from within which no information can be sent out, and their core does not contain a singularity.

 

Instead, the center of a gravastar is made up of an exotic (dark) energy that exerts a negative pressure to the enormous gravitational force compressing the star. The surface of a gravastar is represented by a wafer-thin skin of ordinary matter, the thickness of which approaches zero.

 

Theoretical physicists Daniel Jampolski and Prof. Luciano Rezzolla of Goethe University Frankfurt have now presented a solution to the field equations of general relativity that describes the existence of a gravastar inside another gravastar. They have given this hypothetical celestial object the name "nestar" (from the English "nested"). The study is published in Classical and Quantum Gravity.

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OpenAI: Building an early warning system for LLM-aided biological threat creation

OpenAI: Building an early warning system for LLM-aided biological threat creation | Amazing Science | Scoop.it
 

As OpenAI and other model developers build more capable AI systems, the potential for both beneficial and harmful uses of AI will grow. One potentially harmful use, highlighted by researchers and policymakers, is the ability for AI systems to assist malicious actors in creating biological threats (e.g., see White House 2023Lovelace 2022Sandbrink 2023). In one discussed hypothetical example, a malicious actor might use a highly-capable model to develop a step-by-step protocol, troubleshoot wet-lab procedures, or even autonomously execute steps of the biothreat creation process when given access to tools like cloud labs (see Carter et al., 2023). However, assessing the viability of such hypothetical examples was limited by insufficient evaluations and data.

 

Following OpenAI's recently shared Preparedness Framework, they are developing methodologies to empirically evaluate these types of risks, in order to understand both where AI models are today and where they might be in the future. Now, OpenAI details a new evaluation which could help serve as one potential “tripwire” signaling the need for caution and further testing of biological misuse potential. This evaluation aims to measure whether models could meaningfully increase malicious actors’ access to dangerous information about biological threat creation, compared to the baseline of existing resources (i.e., the internet).

 

To evaluate this, OpenAI conducted a study with 100 human participants, comprising (a) 50 biology experts with PhDs and professional wet lab experience and (b) 50 student-level participants, with at least one university-level course in biology. Each group of participants was randomly assigned to either a control group, which only had access to the internet, or a treatment group, which had access to GPT-4 in addition to the internet. Each participant was then asked to complete a set of tasks covering aspects of the end-to-end process for biological threat creation.A[A]

 

 

Findings:

This study assessed uplifts in performance for participants with access to GPT-4 across five metrics (accuracy, completeness, innovation, time taken, and self-rated difficulty) and five stages in the biological threat creation process (ideation, acquisition, magnification, formulation, and release). They found mild uplifts in accuracy and completeness for those with access to the language model. Specifically, on a 10-point scale measuring accuracy of responses, they observed a mean score increase of 0.88 for experts and 0.25 for students compared to the internet-only baseline, and similar uplifts for completeness (0.82 for experts and 0.41 for students). However, the obtained effect sizes were not large enough to be statistically significant, and this study highlighted the need for more research around what performance thresholds indicate a meaningful increase in risk. Moreover, OpenAI notes that information access alone is insufficient to create a biological threat, and that this evaluation does not test for success in the physical construction of the threats.

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Vaccine breakthrough means no more chasing strains

Vaccine breakthrough means no more chasing strains | Amazing Science | Scoop.it
 

Scientists at UC Riverside have demonstrated a new, RNA-based vaccine strategy that is effective against any strain of a virus and can be used safely even by babies or the immunocompromised.

 

Every year, researchers try to predict the four influenza strains that are most likely to be prevalent during the upcoming flu season. And every year, people line up to get their updated vaccine, hoping the researchers formulated the shot correctly. The same is true of COVID vaccines, which have been reformulated to target sub-variants of the most prevalent strains circulating in the U.S.

 

This new strategy would eliminate the need to create all these different shots, because it targets a part of the viral genome that is common to all strains of a virus. The vaccine, how it works, and a demonstration of its efficacy in mice is described in a paper  published recently in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). 

 

“What I want to emphasize about this vaccine strategy is that it is broad,” said UC Riverside virologist and paper author Rong Hai. “It is broadly applicable to any number of viruses, broadly effective against any variant of a virus, and safe for a broad spectrum of people. This could be the universal vaccine that we have been looking for.”

 

Traditionally, vaccines contain either a dead or modified, live version of a virus. The body’s immune system recognizes a protein in the virus and mounts an immune response. This response produces T-cells that attack the virus and stop it from spreading. It also produces “memory” B-cells that train your immune system to protect you from future attacks.

 

The new vaccine also uses a live, modified version of a virus. However, it does not rely on the vaccinated body having this traditional immune response or immune active proteins — which is the reason it can be used by babies whose immune systems are underdeveloped, or people suffering from a disease that overtaxes their immune system. Instead, this relies on small, silencing RNA molecules. 

 

“A host — a person, a mouse, anyone infected— will produce small interfering RNAs as an immune response to viral infection. These RNAi then knock down the virus,” said Shouwei Ding, distinguished professor of microbiology at UCR, and lead paper author. The reason viruses successfully cause disease is because they produce proteins that block a host’s RNAi response. “If we make a mutant virus that cannot produce the protein to suppress our RNAi, we can weaken the virus. It can replicate to some level, but then loses the battle to the host RNAi response,” Ding said. “A virus weakened in this way can be used as a vaccine for boosting our RNAi immune system.”

 

When the researchers tested this strategy with a mouse virus called Nodamura, they did it with mutant mice lacking T and B cells. With one vaccine injection, they found the mice were protected from a lethal dose of the unmodified virus for at least 90 days. Note that some studies show nine mouse days are roughly equivalent to one human year. 

 

There are few vaccines suitable for use in babies younger than six months old. However, even newborn mice produce small RNAi molecules, which is why the vaccine protected them as well. UC Riverside has now been issued a US patent on this RNAi vaccine technology.

 

In 2013, the same research team published a paper showing that flu infections also induce us to produce RNAi molecules. “That’s why our next step is to use this same concept to generate a flu vaccine, so infants can be protected. If we are successful, they’ll no longer have to depend on their mothers’ antibodies,” Ding said.  Their flu vaccine will also likely be delivered in the form of a spray, as many people have an aversion to needles. “Respiratory infections move through the nose, so a spray might be an easier delivery system,” Hai said. 

 

Additionally, the researchers say there is little chance of a virus mutating to avoid this vaccination strategy. “Viruses may mutate in regions not targeted by traditional vaccines. However, we are targeting their whole genome with thousands of small RNAs. They cannot escape this,” Hai said.  Ultimately, the researchers believe they can ‘cut and paste’ this strategy to make a one-and-done vaccine for any number of viruses.  “There are several well-known human pathogens; dengue, SARS, COVID. They all have similar viral functions,” Ding said. “This should be applicable to these viruses in an easy transfer of knowledge.”

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PsiQuantum to Build the World’s First Utility-Scale, Fault-Tolerant Quantum Computer

PsiQuantum to Build the World’s First Utility-Scale, Fault-Tolerant Quantum Computer | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

Photonic components, including single photon sources, single-photon detectors, and an ultra-high-performance optical switch, are fabricated in a high-volume semiconductor foundry on standard silicon wafers. Photonic qubits avoid exotic materials and manufacturing processes and are able to leverage the existing reliability, volume and precision of standard semiconductor manufacturing processes.

 

Photonic qubits are implemented by repurposing integrated photonics technology, originally developed for telecom and datacenter networking applications. Entangled states — specially designed to implement quantum error-correcting codes — are created and measured using fusion gates. Nondeterministic photon sources and gate operations are made scalable via a combination of multiplexing and loss-tolerant error correcting codes.

 

Photonic chips are integrated with cryogenic control electronics into a manufacturable package. Despite the fact that some of these packages must be operated at cryogenic temperature, we are able to predominantly use conventional technologies — PCBs, copper heat sinks and bump bonding. As a result, PsiQuantum can leverage conventional contract manufacturing to build large numbers of packages quickly. Photonic qubits can be networked and modularized using standard optical fiber, without transduction — a huge advantage at scale.

 

Photonic qubits do not feel heat, do not decohere and can be operated at high fidelity at room temperature. While the superconducting detectors needed for high-efficiency readout of photonic qubits do require cryogenic cooling, they operate at ~4K, relative to ~10mK (e.g. superconducting qubits). PsiQuantum is building and testing cryogenic cabinets with thousands of times more cooling power than the largest dilution refrigerators ever built or operated. LINK Because of the higher operating temperature of photonic qubits, these cryostats can also be surprisingly simple and can be built using existing cryogenic technology.

 

Most quantum computing architectures will require a datacenter-like facility in order to deliver enough qubits for commercially useful applications. PsiQuantum has partnered with both Daresbury SFTC in the UK and the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory in California to validate intermediate-scale systems. In April 2024, PsiQuantum announced it will build the first utlity-scale, fault-tolerant quantum computer in Brisbane, Australia as part of an investment and partnership with the Australian Commonwealth and Queensland governments.

 

The applied software enables programming quantum computers using a familiar language: Python. It affords programmers the ability to specify algorithms at a high level using contemporary primitives such as quantum signal processing, qubitization and block encoding, and automates the compilation to individual gate operations. PsiQuantum have a growing library of over 50 proven quantum algorithms and subroutines that are callable by any application, reducing development time and improving the quality of domain-specific applications. While PsiQuantum has a very fast qubit simulator, its main emphasis is optimization of resource requirements for fault-tolerant implementation of quantum algorithms. They are working with partners from industry, academia and government to develop and optimize quantum algorithms for a broad range of valuable applications.

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NVIDIA CEO Jensen Huang Keynote at COMPUTEX 2024

 

NVIDIA founder and CEO Jensen Huang delivers  keynote address at COMPUTEX 2024 on June 2, 2024 at 7 p.m. in Taipei, Taiwan, outlining what’s next for AI and NVIDIA.

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KLING - a new Sora quality AI Video Generator from China

Kling is a video generation model developed by the Kuaishou Big Model Team. It has powerful video generation capabilities, allowing users to easily and efficiently create artistic videos.

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AI Unleashed: The Ongoing Artificial Intelligence Revolution and the Race to AGI

 

Speaker in Paris: Romain Huet, OpenAI, Head of Developer Experience

 

The Viva Technology or VivaTech conference is an annual startup and technology event held in Paris, France. It is the conference that accelerates innovation by connecting major corporations, tech leaders, startups, and investors to the world's biggest challenges.

 

VivaTech organizes the biggest startup and technology event in Europe every year, involving four electrifying days in Paris. It unites the rule-breaking entrepreneurs, tech-related disruptive topics, and the largest technology breakthroughs.

 

VivaTech, on its own, is a global community that involves thousands of investors, visionary startups, researchers, corporations, talent, media, and organizations. That's why the Viva Technology conference is the much-awaited and Europe's biggest technology and startup event.

 

The 2023 Viva Technology event was held in Paris from June 14 to 17. It involved over 150,000 attendees and thousands of exhibitors and startups. Many keynote speakers were present, including Emmanuel Macron (the President of the French Republic), Elon Musk (Head of SpaceX, Tesla, and X), Dan Schulman (president of PayPal), and many more.

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NASA Advances Six Innovative Tech Concepts to New Phase, Including a Lunar Railway System

NASA Advances Six Innovative Tech Concepts to New Phase, Including a Lunar Railway System | Amazing Science | Scoop.it
 

NASA’s Innovative Advanced Concepts program (NIAC) has selected six visionary concept studies for additional funding and development. Each study has already completed the initial NIAC phase, showing their futuristic ideas – like a lunar railway system and fluid-based telescopes – may provide fresh perspectives and approaches as NASA explores the unknown in space.

 

The NIAC Phase II conceptual studies will receive up to $600,000 to continue working over the next two years to address key remaining technical and budget hurdles and pave their development path forward. When Phase II is complete, these studies could advance to the final NIAC phase, earning additional funding and development consideration toward becoming a future aerospace mission.

 

“These diverse, science fiction-like concepts represent a fantastic class of Phase II studies,” said John Nelson, NIAC program executive at NASA Headquarters in Washington. “Our NIAC fellows never cease to amaze and inspire, and this class definitely gives NASA a lot to think about in terms of what’s possible in the future.” 

 

The six concepts chosen for 2024 NIAC Phase II awards are:

  • Fluidic Telescope (FLUTE): Enabling the Next Generation of Large Space Observatories would create a large optical observatory in space using fluidic shaping of ionic liquids. These in-space observatories could potentially help investigate NASA’s highest priority astrophysics targets, including Earth-like exoplanets, first-generation stars, and young galaxies. The FLUTE study is led by Edward Balaban from NASA’s Ames Research Center in California’s Silicon Valley.
  • Pulsed Plasma Rocket: Shielded, Fast Transits for Humans to Mars is an innovative propulsion system that relies on using fission-generated packets of plasma for thrust. This innovative system could significantly reduce travel times between Earth and any destination in the solar system.  This study is led by Brianna Clements with Howe Industries in Scottsdale, Arizona.
  • The Great Observatory for Long Wavelengths (GO-LoW) could change the way NASA conducts astronomy. This mega constellation low-frequency radio telescope uses thousands of autonomous SmallSats capable of measuring the magnetic fields emitted from exoplanets and the cosmic dark ages. GO-LoW is led by Mary Knapp with MIT in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
  • Radioisotope Thermoradiative Cell Power Generator is investigating new in-space power sources, potentially operating at higher efficiencies than NASA legacy power generators. This technology could enable small exploration and science spacecraft in the future that are unable to carry bulky solar or nuclear power systems. This power generation concept study is from Stephen Polly at the Rochester Institute of Technology in New York.
  • FLOAT: Flexible Levitation on a Track would be a lunar railway system, providing reliable, autonomous, and efficient payload transport on the Moon. This rail system could support daily operations of a sustainable lunar base as soon as the 2030s. Ethan Schaler leads FLOAT at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California.
  • ScienceCraft for Outer Planet Exploration distributes Quantum Dot-based sensors throughout the surface of a solar sail, enabling it to become an innovative imager. Quantum physics would allow NASA to take scientific measurements through studying how the dots absorb light. By leveraging the solar sail’s area, it allows lighter, more cost-effective spacecraft to carry imagers across the solar system. ScienceCraft is led by NASA’s Mahmooda Sultana at the agency’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland.

 

NASA’s Space Technology Mission Directorate funds the NIAC program, as it is responsible for developing the agency’s new cross-cutting technologies and capabilities to achieve its current and future missions.

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Google AI Could Soon Use a Person’s Cough to Diagnose a Disease

Google AI Could Soon Use a Person’s Cough to Diagnose a Disease | Amazing Science | Scoop.it
 

Machine-learning system trained on millions of human audio clips shows promise for detecting COVID-19 and tuberculosis.  A team led by Google scientists has developed a machine-learning tool that can detect and monitor health conditions by evaluating noises such as coughing and breathing. The artificial intelligence (AI) system, trained on millions of audio clips of human sounds, might one day be used by physicians to diagnose diseases including COVID-19 and tuberculosis and to assess how well a person’s lungs are functioning. This is not the first time a research group has explored using sound as a biomarker for disease. The concept gained traction during the COVID-19 pandemic, when scientists discovered that it was possible to detect the respiratory disease through a person’s cough.

 

What’s new about the Google system — called Health Acoustic Representations (HeAR) — is the massive data set that it was trained on, and the fact that it can be fine-tuned to perform multiple tasks. The researchers, who reported the tool earlier this month in a preprint1 that has not yet been peer reviewed, say it’s too early to tell whether HeAR will become a commercial product. For now, the plan is to give interested researchers access to the model so that they can use it in their own investigations. “Our goal as part of Google Research is to spur innovation in this nascent field,” says Sujay Kakarmath, a product manager at Google in New York City who worked on the project....

 

Preprint available here https://arxiv.org/pdf/2403.02522.pdf 


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Genomic SARS-CoV-2 Journey: from Alpha Variant to Omicron and its Sub-Variants 

Genomic SARS-CoV-2 Journey: from Alpha Variant to Omicron and its Sub-Variants  | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected hundreds of millions of individuals and caused more than six million deaths. The prolonged pandemic duration and the continual inter-individual transmissibility have contributed to the emergence of a wide variety of SARS-CoV-2 variants. Genomic surveillance and phylogenetic studies have shown that substantial mutations in crucial supersites of spike glycoprotein modulate the binding affinity of the evolved SARS-COV-2 lineages to ACE2 receptors and modify the binding of spike protein with neutralizing antibodies.

 

The immunological spike mutations have been associated with differential transmissibility, infectivity, and therapeutic efficacy of the vaccines and the immunological therapies among the new variants. This review highlights the diverse genetic mutations assimilated in various SARS-CoV-2 variants. The implications of the acquired mutations related to viral transmission, infectivity, and COVID-19 severity are discussed. This review also addresses the effectiveness of human neutralizing antibodies induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection or immunization and the therapeutic antibodies against the ascended variants.

 

Published March 30, 2024:

https://doi.org/10.1007/s15010-024-02223-y 


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DNA particles that mimic viruses hold promise as vaccines

DNA particles that mimic viruses hold promise as vaccines | Amazing Science | Scoop.it
 

Using a virus-like delivery particle made from DNA, researchers from MIT and the Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT, and Harvard have created a vaccine that can induce a strong antibody response against SARS-CoV-2.

 

The vaccine, which has been tested in mice, consists of a DNA scaffold that carries many copies of a viral antigen. This type of vaccine, known as a particulate vaccine, mimics the structure of a virus. Most previous work on particulate vaccines has relied on protein scaffolds, but the proteins used in those vaccines tend to generate an unnecessary immune response that can distract the immune system from the target.

 

In the mouse study, the researchers found that the DNA scaffold does not induce an immune response, allowing the immune system to focus its antibody response on the target antigen. “DNA, we found in this work, does not elicit antibodies that may distract away from the protein of interest,” says Mark Bathe, an MIT professor of biological engineering. “What you can imagine is that your B cells and immune system are being fully trained by that target antigen, and that’s what you want — for your immune system to be laser-focused on the antigen of interest.”

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COVID-19 and Flu-Ravaged Lungs Could Be Repaired with mRNA Therapy

COVID-19 and Flu-Ravaged Lungs Could Be Repaired with mRNA Therapy | Amazing Science | Scoop.it
 
Viral infection can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome that damages the lungs and is often lethal. Zhao et al. show that the TGF-β receptor 2 (TGF-βR2) is important for lung endothelial cells to recover after injury due to influenza virus or SARS-CoV-2 infection. The researchers used mice, human organoids, and human endothelial cells to demonstrate how TGF-βR2 interacts with VEGFA specifically in endothelial lung cells to promote tissue regeneration after viral injury. They also developed lung-targeted nanoparticles to deliver Vegfa mRNA to promote lung healing in mice lacking TGF-βR2. This study highlights the potential for targeting TGF-βR2 signaling in lung endothelial cells as a treatment for acute respiratory distress syndrome.
 
Disruption of pulmonary vascular homeostasis is a central feature of viral pneumonia, wherein endothelial cell (EC) death and subsequent angiogenic responses are critical determinants of the outcome of severe lung injury. A more granular understanding of the fundamental mechanisms driving reconstitution of lung endothelium is necessary to facilitate therapeutic vascular repair.
 
Now a team of scientists demonstrated that TGF-β signaling through TGF-βR2 (transforming growth factor–β receptor 2) is activated in pulmonary ECs upon influenza infection, and mice deficient in endothelial Tgfbr2 exhibited prolonged injury and diminished vascular repair. Loss of endothelial Tgfbr2 prevented autocrine Vegfa (vascular endothelial growth factor α) expression, reduced endothelial proliferation, and impaired renewal of aerocytes thought to be critical for alveolar gas exchange.
 
Angiogenic responses through TGF-βR2 were attributable to leucine-rich α-2-glycoprotein 1, a proangiogenic factor that counterbalances canonical angiostatic TGF-β signaling. Further, the scientists developed a lipid nanoparticle that targets the pulmonary endothelium, Lung-LNP (LuLNP). Delivery of Vegfa mRNA, a critical TGF-βR2 downstream effector, by LuLNPs improved the impaired regeneration phenotype of EC Tgfbr2 deficiency during influenza injury.
 
These studies defined a role for TGF-βR2 in lung endothelial repair and demonstrated efficacy of an efficient and safe endothelial-targeted LNP capable of delivering therapeutic mRNA cargo for vascular repair in influenza infection.

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Scooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
February 19, 2:56 AM
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Examining viruses that can help 'dial up' carbon capture in the sea

Examining viruses that can help 'dial up' carbon capture in the sea | Amazing Science | Scoop.it
 

Armed with a catalog of hundreds of thousands of DNA and RNA virus species in the world's oceans, scientists are now zeroing in on the viruses most likely to combat climate change by helping trap carbon dioxide in seawater or, using similar techniques, different viruses that may prevent methane's escape from thawing Arctic soil.

 

By combining genomic sequencing data with artificial intelligence analysis, researchers have identified ocean-based viruses and assessed their genomes to find that they "steal" genes from other microbes or cells that process carbon in the sea. Mapping microbial metabolism genes, including those for underwater carbon metabolism, revealed 340 known metabolic pathways throughout the global oceans. Of these, 128 were also found in the genomes of ocean viruses.

 

"I was shocked that the number was that high," said Matthew Sullivan, professor of microbiology and director of the Center of Microbiome Science at The Ohio State University. Having mined this massive trove of data via advances in computation, the team has now revealed which viruses have a role in carbon metabolism and are using this information in newly developed community metabolic models to help predict how using viruses to engineer the ocean microbiome toward better carbon capture would look.

 

"The modeling is about how viruses may dial up or dial down microbial activity in the system," Sullivan said. "Community metabolic modeling is telling me the dream data point: which viruses are targeting the most important metabolic pathways, and that matters because it means they're good levers to pull on."

 
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Scooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
February 16, 1:09 AM
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Intuitive Machines launches first commercial moon mission  with SpaceX launch

Intuitive Machines launches first commercial moon mission  with SpaceX launch | Amazing Science | Scoop.it
 
If fully successful, the IM-1 cargo mission would be the first U.S. lunar landing in more than 50 years.

 

  • Intuitive Machines’ Nova-C lunar lander launched from Florida on SpaceX’s Falcon 9 rocket, beginning the IM-1 mission.
  • If fully successful, the IM-1 cargo mission would be the first U.S. lunar landing in more than 50 years.
  • The Intuitive Machines lander is expected to spend about eight days traveling to the moon before descending to the surface.

 

Intuitive Machines, Inc. is a diversified space company focused on space exploration. It is a provider and supplier of space products and services that enable sustained robotic and human exploration to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. Its products and services are offered through its four business units: Lunar Access Services, Orbital Services, Lunar Data Services and Space Products and Infrastructure. Its Orbital Services segment is designed to support satellites and stations in Earth and lunar orbits. Orbital Services consists of leveraging its technologies and government funds to establish a foothold in capturing the growing orbital services market. Lunar Data Services is designed to allow it to provide lunar network services to National Aeronautics and Space Administration and commercial clients. Space Products and Infrastructure includes propulsion systems, navigation systems, engineering services contracts, lunar mobility vehicles, power infrastructure, and human habitation systems.

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Scooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
February 3, 1:05 PM
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AI just gets it right - synthesizing graphene nearly defect-free

AI just gets it right - synthesizing graphene nearly defect-free | Amazing Science | Scoop.it
 

Graphene has properties almost as if out of a picture book. It is simultaneously strong and flexible, it permeates water but filters gases, it is transparent like glass but at the same time conducts current better than a metal – and on top of it all, it is as thin as can be. Graphene consists just of a single layer of atoms. No surprise that interest in this wonder material (Nobel Prize 2010) explodes. Unfortunately, graphene displays all of these properties only when it is essentially defect free, and this is exactly what limits commercial production today.

Recently, highest-quality graphene films could be produced at copper catalysts. The gist was to melt the copper above 1100° degrees, so that the film growth occurs above the liquid metal surface. Yet, why these extreme conditions favor the formation of defect-free graphene is largely unknown. Not least the high temperatures and gas flows during growth hamper gaining the necessary atomic-level insights. Much hope is therefore placed on methods of AI/machine learning that can accelerate highest-accuracy quantum mechanical predictions to a level that allows so-called molecular dynamics simulations to correctly account for the high mobility of atoms at the liquid copper surface. Up to now, there is very little experience as to the reliability of these AI approaches though.

As an important benchmark, scientists at the Fritz Haber Institute (FHI) predicted the height of a growing graphene layer above the liquid copper catalyst using these novel approaches, and compared it against measurements from high-level synchrotron experiments achieved within a European consortium. The result is striking. The machines were right down to 10-11 m, or within less than one millionth the width of a hair. This high precision, called “sub-Ångstrøm“ in the jargon of the field, demonstrates the impressive capabilities of the novel AI approaches to acquire detailed insights into the microscopic growth process. “Our results nicely show the unprecedented possibilities”, summarizes the leader of the FHI-team Dr. Heenen proudly. “Intriguingly, the data on adsorption height suggest an essentially identical chemical interaction of graphene with solid and liquid copper. This renders the superior synthesis above the liquid metal surface even more mysterious.”

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