Plants and Microbes
388.4K views | +0 today
Follow
 
Rescooped by Kamoun Lab @ TSL from Publications
onto Plants and Microbes
Scoop.it!

YouTube: KamounLab ZAR1 Video (2019)

Commentary by @KamounLab on the structure and activation mechanism of NLR type plant immune receptor ZAR1 solved by teams of scientists led by Jijie Chai, Jian-Min Zhou and Hong-Wei Wang.

 

Check also the commentary by Adachi et al. https://zenodo.org/record/2628967

No comment yet.
Plants and Microbes
Everything related to the science of plant-microbe interactions
Your new post is loading...
Your new post is loading...
Rescooped by Kamoun Lab @ TSL from Publications
Scoop.it!

bioRxiv: The helper NLR immune protein NRC3 mediates the hypersensitive cell death caused by the cell-surface receptor Cf-4 (2021)

bioRxiv: The helper NLR immune protein NRC3 mediates the hypersensitive cell death caused by the cell-surface receptor Cf-4 (2021) | Plants and Microbes | Scoop.it

Cell surface pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) activate immune responses that can include the hypersensitive cell death. However, the pathways that link PRRs to the cell death response are poorly understood. Here, we show that the cell surface receptor-like protein Cf-4 requires the intracellular nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat containing receptor (NLR) NRC3 to trigger a confluent cell death response upon detection of the fungal effector Avr4 in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana. This NRC3 activity requires an intact N-terminal MADA motif, a conserved signature of coiled-coil (CC)-type plant NLRs that is required for resistosome-mediated immune responses. A chimeric protein with the N-terminal α1 helix of Arabidopsis ZAR1 swapped into NRC3 retains the capacity to mediate Cf-4 hypersensitive cell death. Pathogen effectors acting as suppressors of NRC3 can suppress Cf-4-triggered hypersensitive cell-death. Our findings link the NLR resistosome model to the hypersensitive cell death caused by a cell surface PRR.


Via The Sainsbury Lab, Kamoun Lab @ TSL
love story's curator insight, October 31, 5:40 PM

https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/comprar-cianuro-de-sodio/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/golden-teacher-crecer-rapidamente/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-flakka-a-pvp/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-rohypnol-en-ligne/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-du-xanax-vert/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-adipex/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-percocet/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/polvo-de-ketamina/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/morphine/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/comprar-ultram-en-linea/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-norvas-10mg/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-vicodin/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-des-pilules-de-nembutal/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-de-lheroine/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-oxycontin/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/morphine/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-de-loxycodone/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-percocet/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-du-fentanyl/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-du-suboxone/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/injection-de-morphine/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-hydromorphone/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-flakka-a-pvp/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-mdma-crystal/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-demerol/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-oramorph/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-dmt/
comprar cianuro de sodio
golden teacher crecer rapidamente
acheter flakka a-pvp
acheter rohypnol en ligne
acheter du xanax vert
acheter adipex
acheter percocet
polvo-de ketamina
acheter morphine
acheter comprar-ultram en-linea
acheter norvas-10mg
acheter vicodin
acheter des pilules de nembutal
acheter de lheroine
acheter oxycontin
acheter morphine
acheter de loxycodone
acheter percocet
acheter du fentanyl
acheter du suboxone
injection de morphine
acheter hydromorphone
acheter flakka a-pvp
acheter dmt
acheter demerol
acheter oramorph
acheter dmt
Buy morphine

https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/comprar-cianuro-de-sodio/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/golden-teacher-crecer-rapidamente/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-flakka-a-pvp/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-rohypnol-en-ligne/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-du-xanax-vert/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-adipex/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-percocet/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/polvo-de-ketamina/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/morphine/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/comprar-ultram-en-linea/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-norvas-10mg/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-vicodin/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-des-pilules-de-nembutal/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-de-lheroine/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-oxycontin/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/morphine/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-de-loxycodone/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-percocet/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-du-fentanyl/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-du-suboxone/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/injection-de-morphine/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-hydromorphone/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-flakka-a-pvp/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-mdma-crystal/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-demerol/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-oramorph/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-dmt/
comprar cianuro de sodio
golden teacher crecer rapidamente
acheter flakka a-pvp
acheter rohypnol en ligne
acheter du xanax vert
acheter adipex
acheter percocet
polvo-de ketamina
acheter morphine
acheter comprar-ultram en-linea
acheter norvas-10mg
acheter vicodin
acheter des pilules de nembutal
acheter de lheroine
acheter oxycontin
acheter morphine
acheter de loxycodone
acheter percocet
acheter du fentanyl
acheter du suboxone
injection de morphine
acheter hydromorphone
acheter flakka a-pvp
acheter dmt
acheter demerol
acheter oramorph
acheter dmt
Buy morphine

https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/comprar-cianuro-de-sodio/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/golden-teacher-crecer-rapidamente/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-flakka-a-pvp/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-rohypnol-en-ligne/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-du-xanax-vert/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-adipex/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-percocet/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/polvo-de-ketamina/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/morphine/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/comprar-ultram-en-linea/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-norvas-10mg/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-vicodin/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-des-pilules-de-nembutal/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-de-lheroine/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-oxycontin/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/morphine/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-de-loxycodone/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-percocet/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-du-fentanyl/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-du-suboxone/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/injection-de-morphine/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-hydromorphone/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-flakka-a-pvp/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-mdma-crystal/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-demerol/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-oramorph/
https://acheteroxycodone.eu/produit/acheter-dmt/
comprar cianuro de sodio
golden teacher crecer rapidamente
acheter flakka a-pvp
acheter rohypnol en ligne
acheter du xanax vert
acheter adipex
acheter percocet
polvo-de ketamina
acheter morphine
acheter comprar-ultram en-linea
acheter norvas-10mg
acheter vicodin
acheter des pilules de nembutal
acheter de lheroine
acheter oxycontin
acheter morphine
acheter de loxycodone
acheter percocet
acheter du fentanyl
acheter du suboxone
injection de morphine
acheter hydromorphone
acheter flakka a-pvp
acheter dmt
acheter demerol
acheter oramorph
acheter dmt
Buy morphine

sanbel's curator insight, November 7, 6:44 AM

WhatsApp: +380 96 386 6267 ) TOP QUALITY COUNTERFEIT MONEY FOR
SALE. DOLLAR, POUNDS, EUROS AND OTHER CURRENCIES AVAILABLE.
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
VISIT OUR WEBSITE: https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net

https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net

https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net

https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net

 

WhatsApp: +380 96 386 6267 ) GET 100% UNDETECTABLE BANK NOTES AND
QUALITY DOCUMENTS. https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
HIGH QUALITY UNDETECTABLE COUNTERFEIT MONEY FOR SALE IN ALL
CURRENCIES. WHATSAPP us +38096386 6267

Whats-app Number:: +380 96 386 6267

Whats-app Number:: +380 96 386 6267

Whats-app Number:: +380 96 386 6267

Whats-app Number:: +380 96 386 6267

https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net

https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
We use latest technology to produce our notes so that it looks 100%
identical to the real note. This thus implies all security features
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
present in the real notes are present in the note we make. Our team is
made up of Quality IT technicians from Morocco, US, Russia, India,
Korea and China etc We offer high quality counterfeit NOTES for all
currencies. https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net

VISIT OUR WEBSITE: https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net

https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net

https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net

https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net

 

FOR MORE INFORMATION'S, CONTACT US BELOW>>>>>

Whats-app Number:: +380 96 386 6267

Whats-app Number:: +380 96 386 6267

Whats-app Number:: +380 96 386 6267

Whats-app Number:: +380 96 386 6267

Email: globalcurrency22@gmail.com
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net

 

VISIT OUR WEBSITE: https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net

https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net

https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net

Why would you buy from us? https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
Our banknotes contain the following security features that make
it to be genius and we have the best grade counterfeit in the world
both Euro and Dollar and any bills of your choice you want.
Security features of our bank notes below :https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
Intaglio printing
Watermarks
Security thread
See-through register
Special foil/special foil elements
Iridescent stripe / shifting colors.
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
Our banknotes are printed on 80% cotton 20% cellulose paper which
differs substantially from normal paper. By using a special printing
technique, several picture elements on the front of the banknote are
identifiable by touch. The guidelines on detecting counterfeit
currency give a comparison of genuine and falsified security features.
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net

https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net

- Our bills/notes bypass everything, counterfeit pens and machines.
- Can be used in banks but can be used else where same like normal money
- We have the best HOLOGRAMS AND DUPLICATING MACHINES
- UV: YES. https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net

VISIT OUR WEBSITE: https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net

https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net

https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net

FOR MORE INFORMATION'S, CONTACT US BELOW>>>>>

 

Whats-app Number:: +380 96 386 6267

Whats-app Number:: +380 96 386 6267

Whats-app Number:: +380 96 386 6267

Whats-app Number:: +380 96 386 6267

 

Email: globalcurrency22@gmail.com
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net

 

VISIT OUR WEBSITE: https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net

https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net

https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net

EUR - Euro
USD - US Dollar
DNR - DINAR
GBP - British Pound
INR - Indian Rupee
AUD - Australian Dollar
CAD - Canadian Dollar
AED - Emirati Dirham
ZAR - Rand
CHF - Swiss Franc
CNY - Chinese Yuan Renminbi
MYR - Malaysian Ringgit
THB - Thai Baht
NZD - New Zealand Dollar
SAR - Saudi Arabian Riyal
QAR - Qatari Riyal

VISIT OUR WEBSITE: https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net

https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net

https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
Tags:
counterfeit cash, counterfeiting
High Quality Undetectable Counterfeit Banknotes For Sale.
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
HIGH QUALITY UNDETECTABLE COUNTERFEIT BANKNOTES FOR SALE
BUY SUPER HIGH QUALITY FAKE MONEY ONLINE GBP, DOLLAR, EUROS
BUY 100% UNDETECTABLE COUNTERFEIT MONEY £,$,€
BEST COUNTERFEIT MONEY ONLINE, DOLLARS, GBP, EURO NOTES AVAILABLE
BUY TOP GRADE COUNTERFEIT MONEY ONLINE, DOLLARS, GBP, EURO NOTES
AVAILABLE. https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
TOP QUALITY COUNTERFEIT MONEY FOR SALE. DOLLAR, POUNDS, EUROS AND
OTHER CURRENCIES AVAILABLE
Counterfeit money for sale
money, banknotes, fake money, prop money,
EUROS,DOLLARS AND POUNDS AND NOVELTY DOCUMENTS LIKE PASSPORTS,ID
CARDS,GREEN CARDS AND DRIVERS LICENSE
counterfeit money for sale, buy fake money online, fake dollars, fake
pounds, fake euro, buy money online, fake money for sale. Buy Fake
Dollars, Buy Fake British Pounds, Buy Fake Euro, Money, where can i
buy counterfeit money?. https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net

https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net

FOR MORE INFORMATION'S, CONTACT US BELOW>>>>>

 

Whats-app Number:: +380 96 386 6267

Whats-app Number:: +380 96 386 6267

Whats-app Number:: +380 96 386 6267

 

Email: globalcurrency22@gmail.com

 

VISIT OUR WEBSITE: https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net

https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net

https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net
https://www.gobalcurrencyint.net

Scooped by Kamoun Lab @ TSL
Scoop.it!

The Biochemist: How to trick a plant pathogen? (2020)

The Biochemist: How to trick a plant pathogen? (2020) | Plants and Microbes | Scoop.it

Plants can get sick too. In fact, they get infected by all types of microbes and little critters. But plants have evolved an effective immune system to fight off pathogen invasion. Amazingly, nearly every single plant cell is able to protect itself and its neighbours against infections. The plant immune system gets switched on when one of its many immune receptors matches a ligand in the pathogen. As a consequence of a long evolutionary history of fighting off pathogens, immune receptors are now encoded by hundreds of genes that populate the majority of plant genomes. Understanding how the plant immune system functions and how it has evolved can give invaluable insights that would benefit modern agriculture and help breeding disease-resistant crops.

No comment yet.
Scooped by Kamoun Lab @ TSL
Scoop.it!

bioRxiv: A bacterial effector protein prevents MAPK-mediated phosphorylation of SGT1 to suppress plant immunity (2020)

bioRxiv: A bacterial effector protein prevents MAPK-mediated phosphorylation of SGT1 to suppress plant immunity (2020) | Plants and Microbes | Scoop.it

Nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat-containing (NLR) proteins function as sensors that perceive pathogen molecules and activate immunity. In plants, the accumulation and activation of NLRs is regulated by SUPPRESSOR OF G2 ALLELE OF skp1 (SGT1). In this work, we found that an effector protein named RipAC, secreted by the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum, associates with SGT1 to suppress NLR-mediated SGT1-dependent immune responses, including those triggered by another R. solanacearum effector, RipE1. RipAC does not affect the accumulation of SGT1 or NLRs, or their interaction. However, RipAC inhibits the interaction between SGT1 and MAP kinases, and the phosphorylation of a MAPK target motif in the C-terminal domain of SGT1. Such phosphorylation is enhanced upon activation of immune signaling, leads to the release of the interaction between SGT1 and NLRs, and contributes to the activation of NLR-mediated responses. Additionally, SGT1 phosphorylation contributes to resistance against R. solanacearum, and this is particularly evident in the absence of RipAC. Our results shed light onto the mechanism of activation of NLR-mediated immunity, and suggest a positive feedback loop between MAPK activation and SGT1-dependent NLR activation.

No comment yet.
Scooped by Kamoun Lab @ TSL
Scoop.it!

Nature Plants: Perception of Agrobacterium tumefaciens flagellin by FLS2 XL confers resistance to crown gall disease (2020)

Nature Plants: Perception of Agrobacterium tumefaciens flagellin by FLS2 XL confers resistance to crown gall disease (2020) | Plants and Microbes | Scoop.it

Bacterial flagella are perceived by the innate immune systems of plants1and animals2 alike, triggering resistance. Common to higher plants is the immunoreceptor FLAGELLIN-SENSING 2 (FLS2)3, which detects flagellin via its most conserved epitope, flg22. Agrobacterium tumefaciens, which causes crown gall disease in many crop plants, has a highly diverged flg22 epitope and evades immunodetection by plants so far studied. We asked whether, as a next step in this game of ‘hide and seek’, there are plant species that have evolved immunoreceptors with specificity for the camouflaged flg22Atum of A. tumefaciens. In the wild grape species Vitis riparia, we discovered FLS2XL, a previously unknown form of FLS2, that provides exquisite sensitivity to typical flg22 and to flg22Atum. As exemplified by ectopic expression in tobacco, FLS2XL can limit crown gall disease caused by A. tumefaciens.

No comment yet.
Scooped by Kamoun Lab @ TSL
Scoop.it!

bioRxiv: Impact of a resistance gene against a fungal pathogen on the plant host residue microbiome: the case of the Leptosphaeria maculans-Brassica napus pathosystem (2020)

bioRxiv: Impact of a resistance gene against a fungal pathogen on the plant host residue microbiome: the case of the Leptosphaeria maculans-Brassica napus pathosystem (2020) | Plants and Microbes | Scoop.it

Oilseed rape residues are a crucial determinant of stem canker epidemiology, as they support the sexual reproduction of the fungal pathogen Leptosphaeria maculans. The aim of this study was to characterise the impact of a resistance gene against L. maculans infection on residue microbial communities and to identify micro-organisms interacting with this pathogen during residue degradation. We used near-isogenic lines to obtain healthy and infected host plants. The microbiome associated with the two types of plant residues was characterised by metabarcoding. A combination of linear discriminant analysis and ecological network analysis was used to compare the microbial communities and to identify micro-organisms interacting with L. maculans. Fungal community structure differed between the two lines at harvest, but not subsequently, suggesting that the presence/absence of the resistance gene influences the microbiome at the base of the stem whilst the plant is alive, but that this does not necessarily lead to differential colonisation of the residues by fungi. Direct interactions with other members of the community involved many fungal and bacterial ASVs (amplicon sequence variants). L. maculans appeared to play a minor role in networks, whereas one ASV affiliated to Plenodomus biglobosus (synonym Leptosphaeria biglobosa) from the Leptosphaeria species complex was considered a keystone taxon in the networks at harvest. This approach could be used to identify and promote micro-organisms with beneficial effects against residue-borne pathogens, and more broadly, to decipher the complex interactions between multi-species pathosystems and other microbial components in crop residues.

No comment yet.
Scooped by Kamoun Lab @ TSL
Scoop.it!

Twitter: "I think we finally fixed the problems with #taxonomy of bacteria that cause #Xanthomonas Wilt on #banana and #enset and Bacterial Leaf Streak on #maize" (2020)

No comment yet.
Scooped by Kamoun Lab @ TSL
Scoop.it!

Cell: A Bacterial Effector Mimics a Host HSP90 Client to Undermine Immunity (2019)

Cell: A Bacterial Effector Mimics a Host HSP90 Client to Undermine Immunity (2019) | Plants and Microbes | Scoop.it
• The bacterial effector HopBF1 adopts a minimal protein kinase fold
• HopBF1 phosphorylates and inactivates eukaryotic HSP90
• HopBF1 mimics an HSP90 client to achieve specificity
• HopBF1 is sufficient to induce disease symptoms in plants

The molecular chaperone HSP90 facilitates the folding of several client proteins, including innate immune receptors and protein kinases. HSP90 is an essential component of plant and animal immunity, yet pathogenic strategies that directly target the chaperone have not been described. Here, we identify the HopBF1 family of bacterial effectors as eukaryotic-specific HSP90 protein kinases. HopBF1 adopts a minimal protein kinase fold that is recognized by HSP90 as a host client. As a result, HopBF1 phosphorylates HSP90 to completely inhibit the chaperone’s ATPase activity. We demonstrate that phosphorylation of HSP90 prevents activation of immune receptors that trigger the hypersensitive response in plants. Consequently, HopBF1-dependent phosphorylation of HSP90 is sufficient to induce severe disease symptoms in plants infected with the bacterial pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae.Collectively, our results uncover a family of bacterial effector kinases with toxin-like properties and reveal a previously unrecognized betrayal mechanism by which bacterial pathogens modulate host immunity.

Scooped by Kamoun Lab @ TSL
Scoop.it!

bioRxiv: Improved control of Septoria tritici blotch in durum wheat using cultivar mixtures (2019)

bioRxiv: Improved control of Septoria tritici blotch in durum wheat using cultivar mixtures (2019) | Plants and Microbes | Scoop.it

Mixtures of cultivars with contrasting levels of disease resistance are capable of suppressing infectious diseases in wheat, as demonstrated in numerous field experiments. Most studies focused on airborne pathogens in bread wheat, while splash-dispersed pathogens have received less attention, and no studies have been conducted in durum wheat. We conducted a field experiment in Tunisia, a major durum wheat producer in the Mediterranean region, to evaluate the performance of cultivar mixtures in controlling the polycyclic, splash-dispersed disease Septoria tritici blotch (STB) in durum wheat. To measure STB severity, we used a novel, high-throughput method based on digital analysis of images captured from 1284 infected leaves collected from 42 experimental plots. This method allowed us to quantify pathogen reproduction on wheat leaves and to acquire a large dataset that exceeds previous studies with respect to accuracy and statistical power. Our analyses show that introducing only 25% of a disease-resistant cultivar into a pure stand of a susceptible cultivar provides a substantial reduction in disease -- down to the level of resistant pure stands -- and a corresponding mitigation of yield loss. However, adding a second resistant cultivar to the mixture did not further improve disease control, contrary to predictions of epidemiological theory. Susceptible cultivars are often agronomically superior to resistant cultivars. Hence, if mixtures with only a moderate proportion of the resistant cultivar provide similar degree of disease control as resistant pure stands, as our analysis indicates, such mixtures are more likely to be accepted by growers.

Rescooped by Kamoun Lab @ TSL from Publications
Scoop.it!

Zenodo: A clone resource of Magnaporthe oryzae effectors that share sequence and structural similarities across host-specific lineages (2019)

Zenodo: A clone resource of Magnaporthe oryzae effectors that share sequence and structural similarities across host-specific lineages (2019) | Plants and Microbes | Scoop.it

We describe a clone resource of 195 effectors of the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. These clones are freely available as Golden Gate compatible entry plasmids. Our aim is to provide the community with an open source effector clone library to be used in a variety of functional studies.

 

Plant pathogens secrete effectors that play central roles in subjugating plants for colonization. Effectors typically have signal peptides, and occasionally carry conserved folds and motifs (Lo Presti et al.,2015; Franceschettiet al., 2017). Magnaporthe oryzae(Syn. Pyricularia oryzae) is an important plant pathogenthat is able to infect around 50 species of both wild and cultivated grasses including important cereals of the Poaceae family. M. oryzaeis mostly known to cause rice blast but can also cause disease on other crops such as barley, wheat, foxtail millet, and finger millet. The global population of Magnaporthe is composed of genetically differentiated lineages which, in some cases, still exhibit a measurable degree of gene flow (Gladieux et al.,2018). Fungal isolates from each of those lineages show a preference for a specific host and also encode distinct repertoires of effector genes (Yoshida et al.,2016). 

 

The first genomic sequence of Magnaporthe oryzaewas released in 2005 for the lab strain 70-15 and allowed to predict a large set of secreted proteins such as enzymes involved in secondary metabolism and virulence-associated factors including putative effectors (Dean et al.,2005). Recently an increasing number of genome sequences of isolates from different lineages have become available, allowing the research community to perform comparative genomic studies (Chiapello et al.,2015; Yoshida et al.,2016). 

 

Many of the validated effectors of M. oryzae are known as the MAX (MagnaportheAVRs and ToxB like) effectors. These effectors, while showing little primary sequence similarity, share a conserved structural fold composed of 6 β-sheets alternating in an anti-parallel manner (de Guillenet al., 2015). The MAX family has been largely expanded in Magnaportheas those effectors account for 5-10% of the effector repertoire and for 50% of the already cloned effectors of Magnaporthe(de Guillenet al., 2015). Indeed, the identification of structural motifs enables more sensitive predictions of effectors from pathogen genomes compared to sequence similarity searches (Franceschettiet al., 2017).

 

The aim of this project was to computationally identify a set of M. oryzaeeffectors from the main host-specific lineages and develop an open access clone resource for functional analyses.

No comment yet.
Rescooped by Kamoun Lab @ TSL from Publications
Scoop.it!

PLOS Biology: Plant health emergencies demand open science: Tackling a cereal killer on the run (2019)

PLOS Biology: Plant health emergencies demand open science: Tackling a cereal killer on the run (2019) | Plants and Microbes | Scoop.it

In this Perspective article, the authors share their personal experience with the appearance in Bangladesh of a destructive new fungal disease called wheat blast and stress the importance of open science platforms and crowdsourced community responses in tackling emerging plant diseases.


Via The Sainsbury Lab, Kamoun Lab @ TSL
No comment yet.
Scooped by Kamoun Lab @ TSL
Scoop.it!

Current Biology: The £15 billion cost of ash dieback in Britain (2019)

Current Biology: The £15 billion cost of ash dieback in Britain (2019) | Plants and Microbes | Scoop.it

Invasive tree pests and diseases present some of the greatest global threats to forests, and the recent global acceleration in invasions has caused massive ecological damage. Calls to improve biosecurity have, however, often lost out to economic arguments in favour of trade. Human activities, such as trade, move organisms between continents, and interventions to reduce risk of introductions inevitably incur financial costs. No previous studies have attempted to estimate the full economic cost of a tree disease, and the economic imperative to improve biosecurity may have been underappreciated. We set out to estimate the cost of the dieback of ash, Fraxinus excelsior, caused by Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, in Great Britain, and investigate whether this may be the case.

No comment yet.
Scooped by Kamoun Lab @ TSL
Scoop.it!

bioRxiv: Chitin perception in plasmodesmata identifies subcellular, context-specific immune signalling in plants (2019)

bioRxiv: Chitin perception in plasmodesmata identifies subcellular, context-specific immune signalling in plants (2019) | Plants and Microbes | Scoop.it

The plasma membrane (PM) that lines plasmodesmata has a distinct protein and lipid composition, underpinning specific regulation of these connections between cells. The plasmodesmal PM can integrate extracellular signals differently from the cellular PM, but it is not known how this specificity is established or how a single stimulus can trigger independent signalling cascades in neighbouring membrane domains. Here we have used the fungal elicitor chitin to investigate signal integration and responses at the plasmodesmal PM. We found that the plasmodesmal PM employs a receptor complex composed of the LysM receptors LYM2 and LYK4 which respectively change their location and interactions in response to chitin. Downstream, signalling is transmitted via a specific phosphorylation signature of an NADPH oxidase and localised callose synthesis that causes plasmodesmata closure. This demonstrates the plasmodesmal PM deploys both plasmodesmata-specific components and differential activation of PM-common components to independently integrate an immune signal.

No comment yet.
Scooped by Kamoun Lab @ TSL
Scoop.it!

bioRxiv: Protein engineering expands the effector recognition profile of a rice NLR immune receptor (21019)

bioRxiv: Protein engineering expands the effector recognition profile of a rice NLR immune receptor (21019) | Plants and Microbes | Scoop.it

Plant NLR receptors detect pathogen effectors and initiate an immune response. Since their discovery, NLRs have been the focus of protein engineering to improve disease resistance. However, this has proven challenging, in part due to their narrow response specificity. Here, we used structure-guided engineering to expand the response profile of the rice NLR Pikp to variants of the rice blast pathogen effector AVR-Pik. A mutation located within an effector binding interface of the integrated Pikp-HMA domain increased the binding affinity for AVR-Pik variants in vitro and in vivo. This translates to an expanded cell death response to AVR-Pik variants previously unrecognized by Pikp in planta. Structures of the engineered Pikp-HMA in complex with AVR-Pik variants revealed the mechanism of expanded recognition. These results provide a proof-of-concept that protein engineering can improve the utility of plant NLR receptors where direct interaction between effectors and NLRs is established, particularly via integrated domains.

No comment yet.
Rescooped by Kamoun Lab @ TSL from Publications
Scoop.it!

YouTube: Plantae Presents--Sophien Kamoun and Phil Carella (2020)

In this video, invited guests Sophien Kamoun and Phil Carella join our global plant science talk series to discuss their research.

Sophien Kamoun's talk is titled "Evolutionary dynamics of NLR immune receptors in plants" Dr. Kamoun is senior scientist at the Sainsbury Laboratory and professor of biology at the University of East Anglia. He grew up in Tunisia, studied at the Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris and then he obtained a PhD at the University of California, Davis. He moved to the Sainsbury Laboratory in Norwich, UK in 2007, where his lab studies the interactions between plants and filamentous pathogens, notably the Irish potato famine organism Phytophthora infestans and the rice and wheat blast fungus Magnaporthe (syn. Pyricularia) oryzae. In 2018, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) and he received the Linnean Medal for his outstanding contributions to plant science. He was an early plant science adopter of Twitter and you’re probably already following him, but just in case: @KamounLab

Phil Carella's talk is titled "Defining the evolutionary framework that underpins host-pathogen interactions in land plants" Dr. Carella completed his PhD at McMaster University (Canada) studying long-distance immune signalling in Dr. Robin K. Cameron’s lab. In 2016, he joined Dr. Sebastian Schornack’s group at the Sainsbury Laboratory (University of Cambridge, UK) as a post-doctoral research associate to study interactions between filamentous microbes and non-vascular early divergent land plants, establishing Marchantia as an insight comparative model for host-oomycete infection research. This past August (2020), Phil started as a group leader in the Department of Cell and Developmental Biology at the John Innes Centre (Norwich, UK). Here, he and his group will continue to explore the origin and evolutionary history of plant immunity in an effort to better understand how the diversity of land plants defend against pathogen infection. You can find him on Twitter @Phil_Carella

This webinar was Moderated by Yasin Dagdas. Dr. Dagdas is a Group Leader at the Gregor Mendel Institute, Vienna Biocenter. His group studies cellular quality control and selective autophagy. He did his PhD at University of Exeter as a Halpin Scholar in Nick Talbot’s Lab. After his PhD, prior to joining the GMI, he was a postdoctoral fellow in Sophien Kamoun’s Lab at The Sainsbury Laboratory. You can find Dr. Dagdas on Twitter @PlantoPhagy

No comment yet.
Scooped by Kamoun Lab @ TSL
Scoop.it!

TSL Summer School Plant Microbe Interactions, 20–29th July 2020 Norwich, UK

TSL Summer School Plant Microbe Interactions, 20–29th July 2020 Norwich, UK | Plants and Microbes | Scoop.it

******CANCELLED DUE TO COVID-19*********

 

The last 20 years have provided a sophisticated understanding of how plants recognise relatively conserved microbial patterns to activate defence. In recent years DNA sequencing allowed genomes and transcriptomes of eukaryotic rusts and mildew pathogens to be studied and imaging permit the study and visualisation of intracellular interactions during pathogenesis and defence.

 

We will present many aspects of plant microbe interactions including:

 

gene discovery
genome analysis
intra-cellular interactions with imaging technology
mechanistic understanding of cellular and molecular processes to translational activities

 

The focus on the dynamic and interactive practical sessions will naturally promote strong interactions between lecturers and participants.

 

Topics

 

Effectors
Effectors and Immunity
Resistance Proteins
Infection Processes
Proteomics
Wheat Genetics and Genomics in Plant Innate Immunity
Translations: Tipping the balance

No comment yet.
Scooped by Kamoun Lab @ TSL
Scoop.it!

Conference: ISCLB 2020 – International Symposium on Cereal Leaf Blights 2020

Conference: ISCLB 2020 – International Symposium on Cereal Leaf Blights 2020 | Plants and Microbes | Scoop.it

The International Symposium on Cereal Leaf Blights is co-organized together with the CRP-Wheat Septoria Platform (CIMMYT; ICARDA) and the Institution of Agricultural Research and Higher Education (IRESA). This year’s symposium coincides with the International Year of Plant Health and continues its tradition in providing a unique platform for students, academicians, researchers and practitioners to exchange their ideas, experiences and research results in various aspects on cereal leaf blight diseases. The Symposium will feature plenary and concurrent sessions embracing the challenges and opportunities facing the scientific and the cereal growers’ communities.

 

We are delighted to welcome our distinguished Keynote speakers for the ISCLB2020, and the session Chairs and Co-chairs who will help initiate and guide our discussions across the seven Symposium topics. Presentations, Poster displays, as well as panel discussions, and a networking dinner for all our contributors will open doors to developing long lasting collaborations throughout the world. There will also be an opportunity to participate in a field tour on April 22, 2020 to acquaint participants with Tunisian research platforms, researchers, developers, and farmers; a unique opportunity where we will have public-private sector interactions.

 

The ISCLB 2020 Organizing Committee would like to take this opportunity to thank our generous sponsors and wish you all a wonderful experience.

 

We look forward to your contribution and participation and ultimately meeting you in Yasmine Hammamet!

No comment yet.
Scooped by Kamoun Lab @ TSL
Scoop.it!

MPMI: Focus on Cell Biology of Virus-Plant and Virus-Vector Interactions (2020)

MPMI: Focus on Cell Biology of Virus-Plant and Virus-Vector Interactions (2020) | Plants and Microbes | Scoop.it

A successful viral infection requires complex, compatible molecular interactions between the invading virus and the host. A better understanding of such interactions may assist in the development of novel approaches to control viral diseases for sustainable crop production. In the past decade, the cell biology of virus-host and virus-vector interactions has been one of the most exciting areas of research in the molecular plant-microbe field. This is partially attributed to the availability of powerful cell biology techniques, including imaging tools like confocal microscopy and electron microscopy and tomography. As a result, there has been an unprecedented increase in knowledge in the areas of the bi- and tripartite interactions of virus, host, and vector. We now have a much clearer picture of viral virulence mechanisms, virus-induced host defenses, viral counteracting strategies, and viral circulations in the insect vectors. This Focus Issue highlights molecular virus-plant and virus-vector interactions in the areas of cell biology and closely related disciplines and explores biotechnology-based antiviral strategies using knowledge generated from these research areas.

No comment yet.
Scooped by Kamoun Lab @ TSL
Scoop.it!

Book: Potato late blight in Europe (2020)

Book: Potato late blight in Europe (2020) | Plants and Microbes | Scoop.it

Didier Andrivon from INRA delves into the disease that once killed 1.5 million individuals in Ireland: Potato late blight, also known as Phytophthora Infestans.

 

It would be easy to think that a disease peaking over one hundred years ago is no longer a problem, but potato late blight continues to evolve and emerge in new places – similarly to the insidious reach of anti-microbial resistance.

 

Currently, potato late blight costs the European Union (EU) €1 billion per year.
Andrivon brings us to the essential questions: How can farmers stop the spread of P. Infestans? What is causing the rapid changes in this disease? How can EU legislation help to control the outbreak?


He explains how climate change is actually a factor influencing the increase of susceptible crops, alongside multiple other influences – yet there are only “tentative explanations” for the speed of change in late blight. Latin America, Eastern Asia and Eastern sub-Saharan Africa have seen emergence of a mutated late blight, showing the unpredictability of the disease.


With global food production needed to increase by 70% by 2050, handling this global threat is at the forefront of agricultural minds.


Here, Phil Hogan, former European Commissioner for Agriculture, describes the priorities of the EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) in relation to sustainability and disease. He details encouraging figures, such as €365 billion being poured into CAP. This significant sum could protect 96% of every euro paid to farmers from 2014-2019, up until 2027. Another substantial focus for the EU is research: prioritising food, agriculture, rural development and bioeconomy, which is set to receive €10 billion.


To learn about the hard science behind potato late blight, the exact legislative proposals in the EU and what should happen next for agriculture, read what Didier Andrivon has to say.

No comment yet.
Scooped by Kamoun Lab @ TSL
Scoop.it!

bioRxiv: Optimizing the PBS1 Decoy System to Confer Resistance to Potyvirus Infection in Arabidopsis and Soybean (2020)

bioRxiv: Optimizing the PBS1 Decoy System to Confer Resistance to Potyvirus Infection in Arabidopsis and Soybean (2020) | Plants and Microbes | Scoop.it

The Arabidopsis resistance protein RPS5 is activated by proteolytic cleavage of the protein kinase PBS1 by the Pseudomonas syringae effector protease AvrPphB. We have previously shown that replacing seven amino acids at the cleavage site of PBS1 with a motif cleaved by the NIa protease of turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) enables RPS5 activation upon TuMV infection. However, this engineered resistance conferred a trailing necrosis phenotype indicative of a cell death response too slow to contain the virus. We theorized this could result from a positional mismatch within the cell between PBS1TuMV, RPS5 and the NIa protease. To test this, we re-localized PBS1TuMV and RPS5 to cellular sites of NIa accumulation. These experiments revealed that relocation of RPS5 away from the plasma membrane compromised RPS5-dependent cell death in N. benthamiana, even though PBS1 was efficiently cleaved. As an alternative approach, we tested whether overexpression of plasma membrane-localized PBS1TuMV would enhance RPS5 activation by TuMV. Significantly, over-expressing the PBS1TuMV decoy protein conferred complete resistance to TuMV when delivered by either Agrobacterium or by aphid transmission, showing that RPS5-mediated defense responses are effective against bacterial and viral pathogens. Lastly, we have now extended this PBS1 decoy approach to soybean by modifying a soybean PBS1 ortholog to be cleaved by the NIa protease of soybean mosaic virus (SMV). Transgenic overexpression of this soybean PBS1 decoy conferred immunity to SMV, demonstrating that we can use endogenous PBS1 proteins in crop plants to engineer economically relevant disease resistant traits.

No comment yet.
Scooped by Kamoun Lab @ TSL
Scoop.it!

Tumblr: For the latest on plant-microbe interactions, you must check bioRxiv (2019)

Tumblr: For the latest on plant-microbe interactions, you must check bioRxiv (2019) | Plants and Microbes | Scoop.it

Some of the best work in the plant-microbe interactions field find its way on bioRxiv first. Check this amazing list of e-prints/preprints published just this last month on bioRxiv:

 

CRK2 and C-terminal phosphorylation of NADPH oxidase RBOHD regulate ROS production in Arabidopsis
Sachie Kimura, Kerri Hunter, Lauri Vaahtera, Huy Cuong Tran, Aleksia Vaattovaara, Anne Rokka, Sara Christina Stolze, Anne Harzen, Lena Meißner, Maya Wilkens, Thorsten Hamann, Masatsugu Toyota, Hirofumi Nakagami, Michael Wrzaczek
bioRxiv 618819; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/618819

An N-terminal motif in NLR immune receptors is functionally conserved across distantly related plant species
Hiroaki Adachi, Mauricio Contreras, Adeline Harant, Chih-hang Wu, Lida Derevnina, Toshiyuki Sakai, Cian Duggan, Eleonora Moratto, Tolga O Bozkurt, Abbas Maqbool, Joe Win, Sophien Kamoun
bioRxiv 693291; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/693291

BSU1 family phosphatases mediate Flagellin-FLS2 signaling through a specific phosphocode
Chan Ho Park, Ji-Hyun Youn, Shou-Ling Xu, Jung-Gun Kim, Yang Bi, Nicole Xu, Mary Beth Mudgett, Seong-Ki Kim, Tae-Wuk Kim, Zhi-Yong Wang
bioRxiv 685610; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/685610

Emergence of the Ug99 lineage of the wheat stem rust pathogen through somatic hybridisation
Feng Li, Narayana M. Upadhyaya, Jana Sperschneider, Oadi Matny, Hoa Nguyen-Phuc, Rohit Mago, Castle Raley, Marisa E. Miller, Kevin A.T. Silverstein, Eva Henningsen, Cory D. Hirsch, Botma Visser, Zacharias A. Pretorius, Brian J. Steffenson, Benjamin Schwessinger, Peter N. Dodds, Melania Figueroa
bioRxiv 692640; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/692640

Effector prediction and characterization in the oomycete pathogen Bremia lactucae reveal host-recognized WY domain proteins that lack the canonical RXLR motif
Kelsey Wood, Munir Nur, Juliana Gil, Kyle Fletcher, Kim Lakeman, Ayumi Gothberg, Tina Khuu, Jennifer Kopetzky, Archana Pandya, Mathieu Pel, Richard Michelmore
bioRxiv 679787; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/679787

Plant mixed lineage kinase domain-like proteins limit biotrophic pathogen growth
Lisa Mahdi, Menghang Huang, Xiaoxiao Zhang, Ryohei Thomas Nakano, Leïla Brulé Kopp, Isabel M.L. Saur, Florence Jacob, Viera Kovacova, Dmitry Lapin, Jane E. Parker, James M. Murphy, Kay Hofmann, Paul Schulze-Lefert, Jijie Chai, Takaki Maekawa
bioRxiv 681015; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/681015

A generalist pathogen view of diverse host evolutionary histories through polygenic virulence
Celine Caseys, Gongjun Shi, Nicole Soltis, Raoni Gwinner, Jason Corwin, Susanna Atwell, Daniel Kliebenstein
bioRxiv 507491; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/507491

Oligomerization of NLR immune receptor RPP7 triggered by atypical resistance protein RPW8/HR as ligand
Lei Li, Anette Habring, Kai Wang, Detlef Weigel
bioRxiv 682807; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/682807

A receptor for herbivore-associated molecular patterns mediates plant immunity
Adam D. Steinbrenner, Maria Muñoz-Amatriaín, Jessica Montserrat Aguilar Venegas, Sassoum Lo, Da Shi, Nicholas Holton, Cyril Zipfel, Ruben Abagyan, Alisa Huffaker, Timothy J. Close, Eric A. Schmelz
bioRxiv 679803; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/679803

Genome assembly and characterization of a complex zfBED-NLR gene-containing disease resistance locus in Carolina Gold Select rice with Nanopore sequencing
Andrew C. Read, Matthew J. Moscou, Aleksey V. Zimin, Geo Pertea, Rachel S. Meyer, Michael D. Purugganan, Jan E. Leach, Lindsay R. Triplett, Steven L. Salzberg, Adam J. Bogdanove
bioRxiv 675678; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/675678

Improved control of Septoria tritici blotch in durum wheat using cultivar mixtures
S. Ben M’Barek, P. Karisto, M. Fakhfakh, H. Kouki, A. Mikaberidze, A. Yahyaoui
bioRxiv 664078; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/664078

In-field detection and quantification of Septoria tritici blotch in diverse wheat germplasm using spectral-temporal features
Jonas Anderegg, Andreas Hund, Petteri Karisto, Alexey Mikaberidze
bioRxiv 664011; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/664011

 

Follow the latest bioRxiv plant-microbe interactions papers on the biorxivTwitter feeds for Plant Biology, Microbiology and Genomics. You’ll also find some of the latest bioRxiv papers on the Scoop.it pages Plants and Microbesand  Plant Pathogenomics.

 

Learn more about preprints/e-prints at #ASAPbio.

No comment yet.
Rescooped by Kamoun Lab @ TSL from Publications
Scoop.it!

bioRxiv: An N-terminal motif in NLR immune receptors is functionally conserved across distantly related plant species (2019)

bioRxiv: An N-terminal motif in NLR immune receptors is functionally conserved across distantly related plant species (2019) | Plants and Microbes | Scoop.it

The molecular codes underpinning the functions of plant NLR immune receptors are poorly understood. We used in vitro Mu transposition to generate a random truncation library and identify the minimal functional region of NLRs. We applied this method to NRC4, a helper NLR that functions with multiple sensor NLRs within a Solanaceae receptor network. This revealed that the NRC4 N-terminal 29 amino acids are sufficient to induce hypersensitive cell death. This region is defined by the consensus MADAxVSFxVxKLxxLLxxEx (MADA motif) that is conserved at the N-termini of NRC family proteins and ~20% of coiled-coil (CC)-type plant NLRs. The MADA motif matches the N-terminal α1 helix of Arabidopsis NLR protein ZAR1, which undergoes a conformational switch during resistosome activation. Immunoassays revealed that the MADA motif is functionally conserved across NLRs from distantly related plant species. NRC-dependent sensor NLRs lack MADA sequences indicating that this motif has degenerated in sensor NLRs over evolutionary time.


Via The Sainsbury Lab, Kamoun Lab @ TSL
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Kamoun Lab @ TSL from Publications
Scoop.it!

Science: A global surveillance system for crop diseases (2019)

Science: A global surveillance system for crop diseases (2019) | Plants and Microbes | Scoop.it

To satisfy a growing demand for food, global agricultural production must increase by 70% by 2050. However, pests and crop diseases put global food supplies at risk. Worldwide, yield losses caused by pests and diseases are estimated to average 21.5% in wheat, 30.0% in rice, 22.6% in maize, 17.2% in potato, and 21.4% in soybean (1); these crops account for half of the global human calorie intake (2). Climate change and global trade drive the distribution, host range, and impact of plant diseases (3), many of which can spread or reemerge after having been under control (4). Though many national and regional plant protection organizations (NPPOs and RPPOs) work to monitor and contain crop disease outbreaks, many countries, particularly low-income countries (LICs), do not efficiently exchange information, delaying coordinated responses to prevent disease establishment and spread. To improve responses to unexpected crop disease spread, we propose a Global Surveillance System (GSS) that will extend and adapt established biosecurity practices and networking facilities into LICs, enabling countries and regions to quickly respond to emerging disease outbreaks to stabilize food supplies, enhancing global food protection.


Via The Sainsbury Lab, Kamoun Lab @ TSL
ThePlanetaryArchives/BlackHorseMedia - San Francisco's curator insight, July 15, 2019 3:38 AM

More diversity and smaller farms is the answer to crop diseases and pests.....

ey39980@gmail.com's comment, August 5, 2019 12:38 AM
http://www.sumtion.com/fatih-escort-otele-gelen-bayan/
Rescooped by Kamoun Lab @ TSL from Publications
Scoop.it!

Current Opinion Plant Biology: NLR singletons, pairs, and networks: evolution, assembly, and regulation of the intracellular immunoreceptor circuitry of plants (2019)

Current Opinion Plant Biology: NLR singletons, pairs, and networks: evolution, assembly, and regulation of the intracellular immunoreceptor circuitry of plants (2019) | Plants and Microbes | Scoop.it

NLRs are modular plant and animal proteins that are intracellular sensors of pathogen-associated molecules. Upon pathogen perception, NLRs trigger a potent broad-spectrum immune reaction known as the hypersensitive response. An emerging paradigm is that plant NLR immune receptors form networks with varying degrees of complexity. NLRs may have evolved from multifunctional singleton receptors, which combine pathogen detection (sensor activity) and immune signalling (helper or executor activity) into a single protein, to functionally specialized interconnected receptor pairs and networks. In this article, we highlight some of the recent advances in plant NLR biology by discussing models of NLR evolution, NLR complex formation, and how NLR (mis)regulation modulates immunity and autoimmunity. Multidisciplinary approaches are required to dissect the evolution, assembly, and regulation of the immune receptor circuitry of plants. With the new conceptual framework provided by the elucidation of the structure and activation mechanism of a plant NLR resistosome, this field is entering an exciting era of research.


Via The Sainsbury Lab, Kamoun Lab @ TSL
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Kamoun Lab @ TSL from Publications
Scoop.it!

Nature Plants: A resistosome-activated ‘death switch’ (2019)

Nature Plants: A resistosome-activated ‘death switch’ (2019) | Plants and Microbes | Scoop.it

Pathogen perception triggers a monomeric nucleotide-binding leucine-rich plant immune receptor to form a pentameric wheel-like complex termed a resistosome, with the N-terminal α helices forming a funnel-shaped structure that may perturb plasma membrane integrity to cause hypersensitive cell death.

 

Nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) proteins are intracellular receptors that detect pathogen molecules and activate a robust immune response that includes the hypersensitive response (HR) cell death in plants1. Although plant NLRs are known to oligomerize through their N-terminal domains, such as the coiled coil (CC) domain2, the molecular mechanisms that underpin plant NLR activation and the subsequent execution of HR cell death have remained largely unknown. In two recent remarkable papers published in Science, Wang et al. have advanced our understanding of both the structural and biochemical bases of NLR activation in plants, creating a new conceptual framework. They reconstituted both the inactive and active complexes of the CC-NLR protein HOPZ-ACTIVATED RESISTANCE1 (ZAR1) with its partner receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases (RLCKs) and used cryo-electron microscopy to show that activated ZAR1 forms a structure called a resistosome — a wheel-like pentamer that can switch conformation to expose a funnel- shaped structure formed by the N-terminal α helices (α1) of the five CC domains. They propose a provocative model in which this funnel-like structure triggers HR cell death by translocating into the plasma membrane and perturbing membrane integrity, similar to pore-forming toxins.

No comment yet.
Scooped by Kamoun Lab @ TSL
Scoop.it!

bioRxiv: Plasma membrane associated Receptor Like Kinases relocalise to plasmodesmata in response to osmotic stress (2019)

bioRxiv: Plasma membrane associated Receptor Like Kinases relocalise to plasmodesmata in response to osmotic stress (2019) | Plants and Microbes | Scoop.it

Plasmodesmata act as key elements in intercellular communication, coordinating processes related to plant growth, development and responses to environmental stresses. While many of the developmental, biotic and abiotic signals are primarily perceived at the plasma membrane (PM) by receptor proteins, plasmodesmata also cluster receptor-like activities and whether or not these two pathways interact is currently unknown. Here we show that specific PM located Leucine Rich Repeat Receptor Like Kinases (LRR RLKs), KIN7 and IMK2, which under optimal growth conditions are absented from plasmodesmata, rapidly relocate and cluster to the pores in response to osmotic stress. This process is remarkably fast, it is not a general feature of PM associated proteins and is independent of sterol and sphingolipid membrane composition. Focusing on KIN7, previously reported to be involved in stress responses, we show that relocalisation upon mannitol depends on KIN7 phosphorylation. Loss-of-function mutation in KIN7 induces delay in lateral root (LR) development and the mutant is affected in the root response to mannitol stress. Callose-mediated plasmodesmata regulation is known to regulate LR development. We found that callose levels are reduced in kin7 mutant background with a root phenotype resembling ectopic expression of PdBG1, an enzyme that degrades callose at the pores. Both the LR and callose phenotypes can be complemented by expression of KIN7 wild type and phosphomimic variants but not by KIN7 phosphodead mutant which fails to relocalise at plasmodesmata. Together the data indicate that re-organisation of RLKs to plasmodesmata is important for the regulation of callose and LR development as part of the plant response to osmotic stress.

No comment yet.