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Formative Assessment Works

by Mel Riddile


Formative assessment or assessment for learning is a proven strategy to improve student achievement.

Mel Riddile's insight:

“Formative assessment is a planned process in which teachers or students use assessment-based evidence to adjust what they're currently doing.

• Formative assessment is a planned process in which assessment-elicited evidence of students' status is used by teachers to adjust their ongoing instructional procedures or by students to adjust their current learning tactics.

• Because formative assessment has been shown to improve students' in-class learning, many educators have adopted it in the hope that it will also raise their students' performances on accountability tests.

• The expanded use of formative assessment is supported not only by instructional logic but also by the conclusions of a well-conceived and skillfully implemented meta-analysis by Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam.” (Popham, 2008)After synthesizing over 250 publications, Black and Wiliam, concluded that formative assessment is perhaps the most effective educational practice when it comes to improving academic achievement. In addition, formative assessment has a disproportionately beneficial impact on low‐achieving students. http://www.hanoverresearch.com/media/The-Impact-of-Formative-Assessment-and-Learning-Intentions-on-Student-Achievement.pdfIn 

 

In 2009, John Hattie published a meta-meta-analysis of education research called Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. In that study, Hattie found that formative assessment, when done correctly, had the highest effect size on student learning compared with other classroom strategies.

 

In recent years, neuroscientists have reported that retrieval practice—recalling and applying previously learning—had a huge impact (as much as 50%) on student retention of learned content. Combining retrieval practice and formative assessment can significantly reduce forgetting and increase retention of lesson content.

 

Each school’s instructional framework provides teachers with numerous opportunities to use formative assessments in the beginning and ending of a lesson as well as when engaging students and during student practice in the body of the lesson. Teachers use formative assessment to see if the students have mastered the content of the lesson—did they get it?

 

Note that mastery means that the students can demonstrate both that they ‘know’ the content and that they can apply what they learned to future or past learning.

 

Formative Assessment in the Beginning and Ending of the Lesson

 

• Purposeful Learning – The expectation that all activities be purposeful means that teachers always have something to check on or assess for understanding.

• Focusing (Beginning) – Ask students to demonstrate mastery of the previous lesson through bell ringer, do now, or warm up.

• Knowing the Lesson’s Purpose (Beginning) – Ask students to repeat the learning target or essential question in their own words

• Ask students to predict (“prediction effect”) the “why” of the learning target/essential question (Beginning).

• Use a closure activity or ‘exit ticket’ that asks more than comprehension level, regurgitation questions. Ask students to both recall (retrieval practice) and apply what they learned to future or past learning (Ending).

• Purposeful reading, writing, and discussion - Reflection of some kind that addresses learning using evidence from the lesson that connects the learning to something else (Ending).

 

Formative Assessment in the Body of the Lesson (Practicing and Engagement)

 

• Connection activities that ask students to link new learning to older learning• Visualization activities where students draw some concept that has been learned

• Question design - ask kids to write their own questions with different levels of Bloom's involved

• Game play where appropriate can be a great tool as well• Blog writing as a reflective or questioning tool

• Mentor activities that ask the student to create something original using the learning as a model

• Problem solving activities where students apply skills to arrive at a solutionIf students can complete any or all of the above, then we know they have demonstrated proficiency on some level. As we seek to move kids to mastery, we need to be acutely aware of their progress.


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LET Team's curator insight, March 19, 2016 6:44 PM

“Formative assessment is a planned process in which teachers or students use assessment-based evidence to adjust what they're currently doing.


• Formative assessment is a planned process in which assessment-elicited evidence of students' status is used by teachers to adjust their ongoing instructional procedures or by students to adjust their current learning tactics.


• Because formative assessment has been shown to improve students' in-class learning, many educators have adopted it in the hope that it will also raise their students' performances on accountability tests.


• The expanded use of formative assessment is supported not only by instructional logic but also by the conclusions of a well-conceived and skillfully implemented meta-analysis by Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam.” (Popham, 2008)After synthesizing over 250 publications, Black and Wiliam, concluded that formative assessment is perhaps the most effective educational practice when it comes to improving academic achievement. In addition, formative assessment has a disproportionately beneficial impact on low‐achieving students. http://www.hanoverresearch.com/media/The-Impact-of-Formative-Assessment-and-Learning-Intentions-on-Student-Achievement.pdfIn 


 


In 2009, John Hattie published a meta-meta-analysis of education research called Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. In that study, Hattie found that formative assessment, when done correctly, had the highest effect size on student learning compared with other classroom strategies.


 


In recent years, neuroscientists have reported that retrieval practice—recalling and applying previously learning—had a huge impact (as much as 50%) on student retention of learned content. Combining retrieval practice and formative assessment can significantly reduce forgetting and increase retention of lesson content.


 


Each school’s instructional framework provides teachers with numerous opportunities to use formative assessments in the beginning and ending of a lesson as well as when engaging students and during student practice in the body of the lesson. Teachers use formative assessment to see if the students have mastered the content of the lesson—did they get it?


 


Note that mastery means that the students can demonstrate both that they ‘know’ the content and that they can apply what they learned to future or past learning.


 


Formative Assessment in the Beginning and Ending of the Lesson


 


• Purposeful Learning – The expectation that all activities be purposeful means that teachers always have something to check on or assess for understanding.


• Focusing (Beginning) – Ask students to demonstrate mastery of the previous lesson through bell ringer, do now, or warm up.


• Knowing the Lesson’s Purpose (Beginning) – Ask students to repeat the learning target or essential question in their own words


• Ask students to predict (“prediction effect”) the “why” of the learning target/essential question (Beginning).


• Use a closure activity or ‘exit ticket’ that asks more than comprehension level, regurgitation questions. Ask students to both recall (retrieval practice) and apply what they learned to future or past learning (Ending).


• Purposeful reading, writing, and discussion - Reflection of some kind that addresses learning using evidence from the lesson that connects the learning to something else (Ending).


 


Formative Assessment in the Body of the Lesson (Practicing and Engagement)


 


• Connection activities that ask students to link new learning to older learning• Visualization activities where students draw some concept that has been learned


• Question design - ask kids to write their own questions with different levels of Bloom's involved


• Game play where appropriate can be a great tool as well• Blog writing as a reflective or questioning tool


• Mentor activities that ask the student to create something original using the learning as a model


• Problem solving activities where students apply skills to arrive at a solutionIf students can complete any or all of the above, then we know they have demonstrated proficiency on some level. As we seek to move kids to mastery, we need to be acutely aware of their progress.


Andy Fetchik's curator insight, March 21, 2016 11:34 AM

“Formative assessment is a planned process in which teachers or students use assessment-based evidence to adjust what they're currently doing.

• Formative assessment is a planned process in which assessment-elicited evidence of students' status is used by teachers to adjust their ongoing instructional procedures or by students to adjust their current learning tactics.

• Because formative assessment has been shown to improve students' in-class learning, many educators have adopted it in the hope that it will also raise their students' performances on accountability tests.

• The expanded use of formative assessment is supported not only by instructional logic but also by the conclusions of a well-conceived and skillfully implemented meta-analysis by Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam.” (Popham, 2008)After synthesizing over 250 publications, Black and Wiliam, concluded that formative assessment is perhaps the most effective educational practice when it comes to improving academic achievement. In addition, formative assessment has a disproportionately beneficial impact on low‐achieving students. http://www.hanoverresearch.com/media/The-Impact-of-Formative-Assessment-and-Learning-Intentions-on-Student-Achievement.pdfIn ;


In 2009, John Hattie published a meta-meta-analysis of education research called Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. In that study, Hattie found that formative assessment, when done correctly, had the highest effect size on student learning compared with other classroom strategies.


In recent years, neuroscientists have reported that retrieval practice—recalling and applying previously learning—had a huge impact (as much as 50%) on student retention of learned content. Combining retrieval practice and formative assessment can significantly reduce forgetting and increase retention of lesson content.


Each school’s instructional framework provides teachers with numerous opportunities to use formative assessments in the beginning and ending of a lesson as well as when engaging students and during student practice in the body of the lesson. Teachers use formative assessment to see if the students have mastered the content of the lesson—did they get it?


Note that mastery means that the students can demonstrate both that they ‘know’ the content and that they can apply what they learned to future or past learning.


Formative Assessment in the Beginning and Ending of the Lesson


• Purposeful Learning – The expectation that all activities be purposeful means that teachers always have something to check on or assess for understanding.

• Focusing (Beginning) – Ask students to demonstrate mastery of the previous lesson through bell ringer, do now, or warm up.

• Knowing the Lesson’s Purpose (Beginning) – Ask students to repeat the learning target or essential question in their own words

• Ask students to predict (“prediction effect”) the “why” of the learning target/essential question (Beginning).

• Use a closure activity or ‘exit ticket’ that asks more than comprehension level, regurgitation questions. Ask students to both recall (retrieval practice) and apply what they learned to future or past learning (Ending).

• Purposeful reading, writing, and discussion - Reflection of some kind that addresses learning using evidence from the lesson that connects the learning to something else (Ending).


Formative Assessment in the Body of the Lesson (Practicing and Engagement)


• Connection activities that ask students to link new learning to older learning• Visualization activities where students draw some concept that has been learned

• Question design - ask kids to write their own questions with different levels of Bloom's involved

• Game play where appropriate can be a great tool as well• Blog writing as a reflective or questioning tool

• Mentor activities that ask the student to create something original using the learning as a model

• Problem solving activities where students apply skills to arrive at a solutionIf students can complete any or all of the above, then we know they have demonstrated proficiency on some level. As we seek to move kids to mastery, we need to be acutely aware of their progress.


K.I.R.M. God is Business " From Day One"'s curator insight, April 24, 2017 6:20 AM

Lord God bless these words and their messengers allow it to be understood by man in the manner that is benefitual and for the good purpose of those that read it and bless them even the more that has is or will share it. Lord God have mercy reveal all those things that need be in Jesus name. Amen


 

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Vocabulary: how to teach tier 2 words

Vocabulary: how to teach tier 2 words | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
1. Example/non-example

When discussing the adjective ‘sleek’, a teacher might share a range of nouns in turn, asking pupils to answer ‘smooth man’ if sleek is an appropriate descriptor and saying nothing if it isn’t. So, for example, the teacher might share this list: a porcupine, a duck, a tree, a car.

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Teachers who believe ability is fixed have larger racial achievement gaps and inspire less student motivation in their classes

Teachers who believe ability is fixed have larger racial achievement gaps and inspire less student motivation in their classes | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
On average, all students performed more poorly in STEM courses taught by faculty who endorsed more fixed (versus growth) mindset beliefs (B = 0.08, P = 0.011). However, consistent with stereotype threat and the cues hypothesis, fixed faculty mindset beliefs were more strongly associated with lower course performance among Black, Latino, and Native American (URM) students (B = 0.12, P = 0.001) than among White and Asian students (non-URM; B = 0.08, P = 0.010; group × faculty mindset interaction: B = 0.04, P = 0.041; Fig. 1
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Why is it important to build up others at work? Leaders Grow Leaders!

Why is it important to build up others at work? Leaders Grow Leaders! | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
It’s up to people who hold positions of privilege to be active allies to those with less access, and to take responsibility for making changes that will help others be successful. Active allies utilize their credibility to create a more inclusive workplace where everyone can thrive, and find ways to make their privilege work for others.

And wielding privilege as an ally doesn’t have to be hard. I’ve seen allies at all levels take action with simple, everyday efforts that made a difference—often a big one!
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Want Students to Attend School Every Day? Make Sure They Feel Safe on the Way

Want Students to Attend School Every Day? Make Sure They Feel Safe on the Way | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
The researchers found that as violent crime increased in areas where students walked or waited for a bus, their attendance dropped. A doubling of the incidents of violent crime was associated with 6 percent higher student absenteeism—roughly an additional day missed for each student per year. Julia Burdick-Will, lead author of the study, noted that because the number of individual crimes is relatively low at any given bus stop, it's not that hard for students to face a sudden doubling of violent incidents during the school year. 
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Do Leaders Really Need to Be Content Experts?

Do Leaders Really Need to Be Content Experts? | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Research shows that instructional leadership has a positive impact on student learning. For example, in Hattie's synthesis of meta-analysis (2009. 2012), which includes over 420 studies on school leadership, he found that instructional leadership was the most impactful way to lead a school (as opposed to transformational leadership, management, etc.) because it helps put a focus on learning. Hattie is far from the only researcher who has come to this finding, which is the direct result of his ability to synthesize over 420 studies on leadership. 
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Scores Were Lower Taking Exams on Computers

Scores Were Lower Taking Exams on Computers | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Massachusetts students who took state exams online in 2015 scored significantly worse than their peers who took the same exams on paper, according to a new study by the American Institutes for Research.

The so-called "mode effect" was particularly pronounced in English/language arts, where the discrepancy amounted to nearly a full year of learning, AIR found. Lower-performing students, special education students, and English language learners suffered particularly sharp penalties when they took the ELA exams online.

In both ELA and math, however, the negative effects of taking the exams online diminished considerably during the second year of testing.
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"Trying to build relationships without teaching is a dead end street." - Doug Lemov

"Trying to build relationships without teaching is a dead end street." - Doug Lemov | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
You’ve probably seen some version of this aphorism if you work in education:   They Don’t Care How Much You Know Until They Know How Much You Care   It’s s often given a sort of hallowed stature-it’s a truism & should shape our every decision in the classroom.   Maybe that’s why it’s attribute
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Learning and Teaching Math with Confidence

Learning and Teaching Math with Confidence | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Lack of confidence in our ability to understand math can affect both students and teachers. Jerry Burkhart looks at some of the reasons why and what we can do.

 


When math teachers talk about what they do for a living, the reply is often something like “Oh, I was never very good at math.” In fact, this lack of confidence in math ability seems so pervasive as to be more cultural than personal.


As an experiment, try typing “I used to be good…” into a search engine. “I used to be good at math” will probably show up high (maybe even first) on the list of auto-completions! It appears that even people who start out feeling confident in math often lose this confidence over time.

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How to Differentiate Instruction

How to Differentiate Instruction | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
In an animated video published by Education Week this fall, he explained that differentiating instruction is really about getting to know your students and being flexible with the ways they demonstrate their learning. It is not, in fact, about spending your evenings planning a separate lesson for each student. 

Today, we're publishing two more videos about differentiation featuring Ferlazzo and veteran teacher Katie Hull Sypnieski. (They recently co-authored a book called The ELL Teacher's Toolbox.)

In the video below, Ferlazzo and Hull Sypnieski describe techniques they use to differentiate lessons for English-language learners. Those include strategies like pairing up students of different language levels and playing classroom videos at slower speeds. 
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Breaking words down to uncover meaning helps learning!

Breaking words down to uncover meaning helps learning! | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Breaking words down to uncover meaning helps learning, says Aidan Severs as he offers five ways to introduce etymology

By Aidan Severs
04 February 2019
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"This lesson just got interesting," exclaimed one of my more vocal pupils.  

No, I hadn’t just introduced the latest piece of edtech or revealed laminated resources that took me all evening to prepare.

I wasn’t even crouching in a home-made cage dressed as an elephant (yeah, I did that once).
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Retrieval Tic Tac Toe: A no stakes, no anxiety game for retrieval practice

Retrieval Tic Tac Toe: A no stakes, no anxiety game for retrieval practice | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
The research is clear: Retrieval practice boosts learning. To get students on board, it's critical to emphasize that retrieval practice is a learning opportunity, not an assessment opportunity.

Classroom games, like Jeopardy and various apps (e.g., Kahoot, Quizlet, etc.) are engaging and low stakes – perfect for retrieval practice. But they can increase anxiety, too. When you were a student, did you ever feel pressured to come up with a correct answer to a question, as soon as possible, without disappointing your teammates? Talk about anxiety!
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‘Is It Ever OK to Lecture?’

‘Is It Ever OK to Lecture?’ | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Can’t instructors just lecture sometimes? Can’t we ever just tell students what we know?

Of course we can, but it’s important to know what telling is good for — and what it’s not. If we can better understand the problem with relying too much on lecturing — or "continuous exposition by the teacher," as Derek Bruff, director of Vanderbilt University’s teaching center, called it — then we can better situate lectures within a mix of teaching practices.

When to "tell," and when not to. Say a friend calls to ask how you make that risotto you’re famous for. What do you do in that moment? Start in on the Socratic method and make her work to discover the recipe by herself? Or just tell her how you make it?
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What It Takes to Make Co-Teaching Work

What It Takes to Make Co-Teaching Work | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Co-teaching, in which a special educator and a general educator share the responsibility of instructing and assessing students, has long been a standby in inclusion classrooms, which encompass both general education students and those with disabilities.
When done well, co-teaching should enable students with disabilities to receive the general education curriculum and special services that they need in the same setting, said Sara Cook, an assistant professor at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, who researches special education.
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Teachers Are Not Completely Confident in Their 'Instructional Leader'

Teachers Are Not Completely Confident in Their 'Instructional Leader' | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
What Is Instructional Leadership?
If we truly want to be impactful in our roles as principals, then we have to focus on trying our best to find slices of time in our day to focus on instructional leadership. That may be 45 minutes to one hour per day to allow us to get into classrooms. We also have to understand that there are four main areas of instructional leadership. Those areas are instructional strategies, student engagement, content knowledge (not expertise), and collective efficacy. 

In a recent study I did involving the four areas of instructional leadership, respondents ranked collective efficacy as the #1 priority, instructional strategies as #2, student engagement as #3 and content knowledge as #4 (DeWitt. 2019). If leaders do not spend some time in their day focusing on those four, or one of those four, they are at risk of losing credibility in their role. That loss of credibility will make it very difficult to provide effective feedback during teacher observations or walk-throughs. Yes, that means that not only do we need to find one hour in the day, we also have to make sure that we do everything possible to make that one hour impactful for teachers, staff, and students. 
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To Improve Your Team, First Work on Yourself

To Improve Your Team, First Work on Yourself | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Teams are complex systems of individuals with different preferences, skills, experiences, perspectives, and habits. The odds of improving that complex system in a meaningful and sustainable way are higher if every team member — including the leader — learns to master these three foundational capabilities: internal self-awareness, external self-awareness, and personal accountability.
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Students' Bad Behavior Is Rising in the Early Grades. Teachers, Pricipals, and District Administrators Have Different Takes

Students' Bad Behavior Is Rising in the Early Grades. Teachers, Pricipals, and District Administrators Have Different Takes | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
One of the most glaring findings from the study was that at the district level people would say 'We are doing PBIS; we are doing SEL'... " said Pete Talbot, the managing director of K-12 research at EAB. "The question is, 'What is the consistency with which it's being implemented from school to school within a district, and within the school? What's the degree of fidelity down to the classroom level?'.... I think that's one of the biggest areas for improvement for districts. It's not enough to simply do a one-time training or allow schools to go their own way."
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Early Readers May Struggle More With a Noisy Classroom

Early Readers May Struggle More With a Noisy Classroom | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Early reading instruction in the United States focuses heavily on teaching students phonics. These results seem to suggest that students may have a more difficult time distinguishing phonemes and following speech or instructions as classroom noise rises, and highlights the importance of quiet classrooms while children are learning to recognize language, said Marc Vander Ghinst, the lead author and a researcher at a developmental neuroscience center at the Free University of Brussels, in Belgium. 

"The more teachers take time to do a correct pronunciation, the better the student understands," he said. "Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that this also brings a better speech representation in the brain. My advice would be: Take the time to do a correct pronunciation, and try to do it in a calm atmosphere."
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GCSEs: how to make the learning stick | Tes News

GCSEs: how to make the learning stick | Tes News | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Sometimes, research can promise much and deliver teachers little. It all looks good on paper, but try it out and it is more cataclysmic than a catalyst.

But some papers change the way you teach forever, and, for me, none have done that as comprehensively as Improving Students’ Learning With Effective Learning Techniques: Promising Directions From Cognitive and Educational Psychology (Dunlosky et al, 2013).
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Using Questioning to enhance Understanding and biuld Relationships

Using Questioning to enhance Understanding and biuld Relationships | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
High school ELA teacher Monica Baines explains how she uses questioning as a means for discovery and as a way to assess and build her students' understanding. Monica explains how she uses connecting questions, and follow-up questions when working with students. Through questioning, Monica is able to differentiate and assess her students' progress.
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Want to improve students' study strategies? Do this first.

Want to improve students' study strategies? Do this first. | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
How often do students come to you and exclaim, "But I studied for hours!" How can we help students improve their study habits? Before you give them strategies, there's one thing you have to do first: have a conversation. Here are our three must-ask questions to get started.
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Dual Enrollment: 1/3 of high school students take courses for college credit!

Dual Enrollment: 1/3 of high school students take courses for college credit! | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
About a third of high school students took courses for college credit, according to a nationally representative study from the U.S. Department of Education. The new dual-enrollment data are based on a 2009 study of more than 23,000 ninth graders, whom the department surveyed again in following years.
The study found that students whose parents had higher levels of education were more likely to take courses for college credit while they were in high school. For example, 42 percent of high school students whose parents held at least a bachelor's degree took college courses, compared to 26 percent whose parents did not hold a high school credential. In addition, the study found that a lower percentage of Latino high school students (30 percent) and black students (27 percent) took dual-enrollment courses than did white or Asian American students (both 38 percent).
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What is Computational Thinking?

Computational thinking is the process of breaking down a complex problem into easy to understand parts. Essentially, computational thinking helps you break down a problem into bite-sized pieces that a computer could understand and ultimately help solve.



Computational thinking is not programming. Programming tells a computer what to do and how to do it. Whereas computational thinking is the process of figuring out what to tell the computer to do. Computational thinking is the process of thinking like a computer scientist.
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Things To Do When You Don't Get Many Hands: Responsive Turn and Talk

Things To Do When You Don't Get Many Hands: Responsive Turn and Talk | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Here’s a great video of Alonte Johnson, some time English Teacher and full time Dean of Curriculum and Instruction at Uncommon’s Leadership Prep Ocean Hill Middle Academy, that shows a high level model of one solution– we call it a “Responsive Turn and Talk” because the Turn and Talk is a response to a low number of hands.
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"It's the Most Important Tool for Building Relationships," and Other Insights About Check For Understanding

"It's the Most Important Tool for Building Relationships," and Other Insights About Check For Understanding | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Yesterday was one of the most intellectually intense days I’ve had in some time, and I came to realize some important things about Check for Understanding.

I’m going to try to summarize some of them here.

1) Check for Understanding is quite possibly the single most important group of techniques in terms of building relationships with students–I had never fully made that connection before and I suspect many other teachers hadn’t either.

I realized this over the course of a meeting with our TLAC Fellows in which we set out to discuss and study building relationships in the classroom- something my team and I are interested in studying because we think it’s an important topic and because we think it’s an oft-misunderstood or misapplied topic.

The first thing we realized was that many teachers focused their relationship building efforts on what happens outside of the core teaching–greeting students in the hallway and asking them about their interests.
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Why We're Teaching Reading Comprehension In A Way That Doesn't Work

Why We're Teaching Reading Comprehension In A Way That Doesn't Work | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Even when teachers focus on a strategy that is backed by evidence, they don’t implement it in the way supported by research. Rather than putting a difficult text in the foreground and modeling whatever strategies might help students extract its meaning, teachers put a strategy in the foreground and choose simple texts that lend themselves to demonstrating it, without regard to their topics. And they teach comprehension day after day, year after year—sometimes through high school. But studies have shown that after only two weeks of strategy instruction, students stop getting benefits.
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