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Insects | Free Full-Text | XadA2 Adhesin Decreases Biofilm Formation and Transmission of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca

Insects | Free Full-Text | XadA2 Adhesin Decreases Biofilm Formation and Transmission of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca | Xanthomonadaceae plant diseases | Scoop.it
Xylella fastidiosa is a vector-borne bacterium that causes diseases in many plants of economic interest. The bacterium–vector initial interactions involve bacterial membrane-bound adhesins that mediate cell attachment to the foregut of insect vectors. We investigated the role of the afimbrial adhesin XadA2 in the binding and biofilm formation of X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca to vector surfaces in vitro, as well as its potential to disrupt pathogen transmission. We showed that XadA2 has binding affinity for polysaccharides on sharpshooter hindwings, used as a proxy for the interactions between X. fastidiosa and vectors. When in a medium without carbon sources, the bacterium used wing components, likely chitin, as a source of nutrients and formed a biofilm on the wing surface. There was a significant reduction in X. fastidiosa biofilm formation and cell aggregation on vector wings in competition assays with XadA2 or its specific antibody (anti-XadA2). Finally, pathogen acquisition and transmission to plant were significantly reduced when the vectors acquired X. fastidiosa from an artificial diet supplemented with anti-XadA2. These results show that XadA2 is important in mediating bacterial colonization in the insect and that it could be used as a target for blocking X. fastidiosa transmission.
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Screening and identification of BP100 peptide conjugates active against Xylella fastidiosa using a viability-qPCR method | BMC Microbiology | Full Text

Screening and identification of BP100 peptide conjugates active against Xylella fastidiosa using a viability-qPCR method | BMC Microbiology | Full Text | Xanthomonadaceae plant diseases | Scoop.it
Xylella fastidiosa is one of the most harmful bacterial plant pathogens worldwide, causing a variety of diseases, with huge economic impact to agriculture and environment. Although it has been extensively studied, there are no therapeutic solutions to suppress disease development in infected plants. In this context, antimicrobial peptides represent promising alternatives to traditional compounds due to their activity against a wide range of plant pathogens, their low cytotoxicity, their mode of action that make resistance more difficult and their availability for being expressed in plants. Peptide conjugates derived from the lead peptide BP100 and fragments of cecropin, magainin or melittin were selected and tested against the plant pathogenic bacteria X. fastidiosa. In order to screen the activity of these antimicrobials, and due to the fastidious nature of the pathogen, a methodology consisting of a contact test coupled with the viability-quantitative PCR (v-qPCR) method was developed. The nucleic acid-binding dye PEMAX was used to selectively quantify viable cells by v-qPCR. In addition, the primer set XF16S-3 amplifying a 279 bp fragment was selected as the most suitable for v-qPCR. The performance of the method was assessed by comparing v-qPCR viable cells estimation with conventional qPCR and plate counting. When cells were treated with peptide conjugates derived from BP100, the observed differences between methods suggested that, in addition to cell death due to the lytic effect of the peptides, there was an induction of the viable but non-culturable state in cells. Notably, a contact test coupled to v-qPCR allowed fast and accurate screening of antimicrobial peptides, and led to the identification of new peptide conjugates active against X. fastidiosa. Antimicrobial peptides active against X. fastidiosa have been identified using an optimized methodology that quantifies viable cells without a cultivation stage, avoiding underestimation or false negative detection of the pathogen due to the viable but non-culturable state, and overestimation of the viable population observed using qPCR. These findings provide new alternative compounds for being tested in planta for the control of X. fastidiosa, and a methodology that enables the fast screening of a large amount of antimicrobials against this plant pathogenic bacterium.
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Agronomy | Free Full-Text | Development of A Nested-MultiLocus Sequence Typing Approach for A Highly Sensitive and Specific Identification of Xylella fastidiosa Subspecies Directly from Plant Samples

Agronomy | Free Full-Text | Development of A Nested-MultiLocus Sequence Typing Approach for A Highly Sensitive and Specific Identification of Xylella fastidiosa Subspecies Directly from Plant Samples | Xanthomonadaceae plant diseases | Scoop.it
Identification of sequence types (ST) of Xylella fastidiosa based on direct MultiLocus Sequence Typing (MLST) of plant DNA samples is partly efficient. In order to improve the sensitivity of X. fastidiosa identification, we developed a direct nested-MLST assay on plant extracted DNA. This method was performed based on a largely used scheme targeting seven housekeeping gene (HKG) loci (cysG, gltT, holC, leuA, malF, nuoL, petC). Samples analyzed included 49 plant species and two insect species (Philaenus spumarius, Neophilaenus campestris) that were collected in 2017 (106 plant samples in France), in 2018 (162 plant samples in France, 40 plant samples and 26 insect samples in Spain), and in 2019 (30 plant samples in Spain). With the nested approach, a significant higher number of samples were amplified. The threshold was improved by 100 to 1000 times compared to conventional PCR. Using nested-MLST assay, plants that were not yet considered hosts tested positive and revealed novel alleles in France, whereas for Spanish samples it was possible to assign the subspecies or ST to samples considered as new hosts in Europe. Direct typing by nested-MLST from plant material has an increased sensitivity and may be useful for epidemiological purposes.
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The risk of Xylella fastidiosa outbreaks will decrease in the Mediterranean olive-producing regions | bioRxiv

bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research and educational institution
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Deep learning neural network prediction method improves proteome profiling of vascular sap of grapevines during Pierce’s disease development | bioRxiv

bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research and educational institution
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Diffusible signal factors act through AraC-type transcriptional regulators as chemical cues to repress virulence of enteric pathogens | Infection and Immunity

Diffusible signal factors act through AraC-type transcriptional regulators as chemical cues to repress virulence of enteric pathogens | Infection and Immunity | Xanthomonadaceae plant diseases | Scoop.it
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Genotyping Xylella fastidiosa in Rabbiteye blueberry in Louisiana, USA | SpringerLink

Genotyping Xylella fastidiosa in Rabbiteye blueberry in Louisiana, USA | SpringerLink | Xanthomonadaceae plant diseases | Scoop.it
Rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium ashei = V. virgatum) comprises much of the blueberry acreage in the southeastern USA states of Louisiana and Mississippi. Three genotypes of X. fastidiosa were identified from rabbiteye blueberry in Louisiana by multilocus sequence typing. A genotype that was found at two orchards, sequence type (ST) 42, was identical to one previously found in southern highbush blueberry in Georgia and two non-blueberry native species in Texas. Two newly identified genotypes shared most alleles with X. fastidiosa strains considered, like ST 42, to be part of a group that is believed to have resulted from recombination between X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex and subsp. fastidiosa. These two genotypes each also had one newly identified allele. This work suggests that a narrow range of X. fastidiosa genotypes infect rabbiteye blueberry in Louisiana but that rabbiteye blueberry may serve as an alternative host for X. fastidiosa strains that infect more susceptible southern highbush cultivars.
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Estimating the epidemiology of emerging Xylella fastidiosa outbreaks in olives - White - - Plant Pathology - Wiley Online Library

Estimating the epidemiology of emerging Xylella fastidiosa outbreaks in olives - White - - Plant Pathology - Wiley Online Library | Xanthomonadaceae plant diseases | Scoop.it
Xylella fastidiosa is an important insect‐vectored bacterial plant pathogen with a wide host range, causing significant economic impact in the agricultural and horticultural industries. Onc
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Caatinga biome plant extracts affect the planktonic growth and biofilm formation of Xanthomonas citri pv. viticola | SpringerLink

Caatinga biome plant extracts affect the planktonic growth and biofilm formation of Xanthomonas citri pv. viticola | SpringerLink | Xanthomonadaceae plant diseases | Scoop.it
Recently, in vitro assays have been used to study biofilm formation by Xanthomonas citri pv. viticola (Xcv), the causal agent of grapevine bacterial canker, one of the most important grapevine diseases in the Northeast region of Brazil. Currently, the management of grapevine bacterial canker is based on preventive control by copper fungicides, highlighting the need to discover new bioactive compounds that can be used in disease management programs. Thus, this study reports the first evaluation of the effects of crude aqueous extracts of Caatinga plants on planktonic growth and biofilm formation of Xcv. Crude aqueous extracts of twelve plants collected in Catimbau Valley, Brazil, were evaluated in vitro against four strains of Xcv to determine the antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of the plants. The experiments were conducted in 96-well polystyrene microtiter plates. The results were subjected to Dunnett’s test (P < 0.05) to determine the significant differences between the tested extracts and the control treatment, which included sterile distilled water (SDW). Only the extracts obtained from Homalolepis ferruginea leaf showed antibiofilm and antibacterial activity against all strains; this extract reduced biofilm formation and planktonic growth by up to 54.6% and 60.2%, respectively, making H. ferruginea a source of promising biomolecules for the management of grapevine bacterial canker.
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Nanomaterials | Free Full-Text | Sonication-Assisted Production of Fosetyl-Al Nanocrystals: Investigation of Human Toxicity and In Vitro Antibacterial Efficacy against Xylella fastidiosa

Nanomaterials | Free Full-Text | Sonication-Assisted Production of Fosetyl-Al Nanocrystals: Investigation of Human Toxicity and In Vitro Antibacterial Efficacy against Xylella fastidiosa | Xanthomonadaceae plant diseases | Scoop.it
Recently, there is a growing demand in sustainable phytopathogens control research. Nanotechnology provides several tools such as new pesticides formulations, antibacterial nanomaterials and smart delivery systems. Metal nano-oxides and different biopolymers have been exploited in order to develop nanopesticides which can offer a targeted solution minimizing side effects on environment and human health. This work proposed a nanotechnological approach to obtain a new formulation of systemic fungicide fosetyl-Al employing ultrasonication assisted production of water dispersible nanocrystals. Moreover, chitosan was applicated as a coating agent aiming a synergistic antimicrobial effect between biopolymer and fungicide. Fosetyl-Al nanocrystals have been characterized by morphological and physical-chemical analysis. Nanotoxicological investigation was carried out on human keratinocytes cells through cells viability test and ultrastructural analysis. In vitro planktonic growth, biofilm production and agar dilution assays have been conducted on two Xylella fastidiosa subspecies. Fosetyl-Al nanocrystals resulted very stable over time and less toxic respect to conventional formulation. Finally, chitosan-based fosetyl-Al nanocrystals showed an interesting antibacterial activity against Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca and Xylella fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa.
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Plants | Free Full-Text | Soil and Leaf Ionome Heterogeneity in Xylella fastidiosa Subsp. Pauca-Infected, Non-Infected and Treated Olive Groves in Apulia, Italy

Plants | Free Full-Text | Soil and Leaf Ionome Heterogeneity in Xylella fastidiosa Subsp. Pauca-Infected, Non-Infected and Treated Olive Groves in Apulia, Italy | Xanthomonadaceae plant diseases | Scoop.it
Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca is responsible for the “olive quick decline syndrome” (OQDS) in Salento (Apulia). The main epidemiological aspects of the syndrome are related to the pathogen spread and survival in the area, and to the biology of the insect vector. The assessment of the macro and microelements content (i.e., ionome) in soil and leaves could provide basic and useful information. Indeed, knowledge of host ionomic composition and the possibility of its modification could represent a potential tool for the management of diseases caused by X. fastidiosa. Therefore, soil and leaf ionomes of naturally infected, not infected, and zinc–copper–citric acid biocomplex treated trees of different areas of Apulia and the bordering Basilicata regions were compared. We observed that soil and leaf ionomic composition of olive farms growing in the pathogen-free areas north of the Salento Barletta-Andria-Trani BAT (Apulia) and Potenza PZ (Basilicata, Apulia bordering region) provinces is significantly different from that shown by the infected olive groves of the Salento areas (LE, BR, TA provinces). In particular, a higher content of zinc and copper both in soil and leaves was found in the studied northern areas in comparison to the southern areas. This finding could partly explain the absence of OQDS in those areas. In the infected Salento areas, the leaf ionomic profile resulted as being markedly different for the biocomplex treated compared to the untreated trees. A higher zinc content in leaves characterized treated with respect to untreated trees. On the other hand, among the not-infected trees, Xylella-resistant Leccino showed higher manganese content when compared with the higher pathogen sensitive Ogliarola salentina and Cellina di Nardò. According to these results, soil and olive leaf ionome could provide basic information for the epidemiologic study and possible control of X. f. subsp. pauca in Apulia.
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Draft Genome Sequences of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa Strains OK3, VB11, and NOB1, Isolated from Bunch and Muscadine Grapes Grown in Southern Mississippi | Microbiology Resource Announcements

Draft Genome Sequences of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa Strains OK3, VB11, and NOB1, Isolated from Bunch and Muscadine Grapes Grown in Southern Mississippi | Microbiology Resource Announcements | Xanthomonadaceae plant diseases | Scoop.it
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Protein signatures to identify the different genera within the Xanthomonadaceae family | SpringerLink

Protein signatures to identify the different genera within the Xanthomonadaceae family | SpringerLink | Xanthomonadaceae plant diseases | Scoop.it
The Xanthomonadaceae family comprises the genera Xanthomonas and Xylella, which include plant pathogenic species that affect economically important crops. The family also includes the plant growth-promoting bacteria Pseudomonas geniculata and Stenotrophomonas rhizophila, and some other species with biotechnological, medical, and environmental relevance. Previous work identified molecular signatures that helped to understand the evolutionary placement of this family within gamma-proteobacteria. In the present study, we investigated whether insertions identified in highly conserved proteins may also be used as molecular markers for taxonomic classification and identification of members within the Xanthomonadaceae family. Four housekeeping proteins (DNA repair and replication-related and protein translation enzymes) were selected. The insertions allowed discriminating phytopathogenic and plant growth-promoting groups within this family, and also amino acid sequences of these insertions allowed distinguishing different genera and, eventually, species as well as pathovars. Moreover, insertions in the proteins MutS and DNA polymerase III (subunit alpha) are conserved in Xylella fastidiosa, but signatures in DNA ligase NAD-dependent and Valyl tRNA synthetase distinguish particular subspecies within the genus. The genus Stenotrophomonas and Pseudomonas geniculata could be distinguishable based on the insertions in MutS, DNA polymerase III (subunit alpha), and Valyl tRNA synthetase, although insertion in DNA ligase NAD-dependent discriminates these bacteria at the species level. All these insertions differentiate species and pathovars within Xanthomonas. Thus, the insertions presented support evolutionary demarcation within Xanthomonadaceae and provide tools for the fast identification in the field of these bacteria with agricultural, environmental, and economic relevance.
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Update on Xylella research

Update on Xylella research | Xanthomonadaceae plant diseases | Scoop.it
Share this post COVID-19 is not the only infection striking fear across the world, with news from Europe of the continuing spread of Xylella fastidiosa (aka olive quick decline disease). Since the initial outbreak in 2013, Xylella has now invaded 23,000 ha of olives in southern Italy and has also been found in a number of …
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Xylella fastidiosa invasion of new countries in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: Ranking the potential exposure scenarios

Xylella fastidiosa invasion of new countries in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: Ranking the potential exposure scenarios | Xanthomonadaceae plant diseases | Scoop.it
After the recent high-impact European outbreaks of Xylella fastidiosa (Xf), a xylem-limited plant pathogenic bacterium native to the Americas, this research aims to rank the risks of potential entry, establishment and spread of Xf in new countries across Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. A novel risk-ranking technique is developed, based on combining entry risk drivers (imported plants, direct flights and ferry connections) with risk factors related to establishment and spread (presence of potential insect vectors, vulnerable economic crops, alternative hosts and climate suitability) of this pathogen. This reveals that western European countries have the highest risk for entry, but that the Mediterranean basin runs the highest risk for establishment and spread of Xf. Lebanon in particular has the highest level of risk for Xf dispersal within its suitable territory. Countries without current outbreaks combining high risks of Xf arrival and establishment are mainly in the Mediterranean basin: Turkey is at the highest level of risk, followed by Greece, Morocco and Tunisia, which are ranked at the high level. The ranking model also confirms the vulnerability, in terms of invasion by Xf, of southern European countries (Italy, Portugal and Spain) in which the pathogen has already been reported. High summer temperatures in these southern countries are likely to be the significant determinant for the overall invasion process, while northern European countries have a high level risk for the arrival of the pathogen, but relatively low summer temperatures may limit establishment and spread of major outbreaks. In general, our study provides a useful approach for mapping and comparing risks of invasive non-native species and emerging pathogens between countries, which could be useful for regional horizon scanning and phytosanitary and biosecurity management.
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Resistance and susceptibility QTL identified in a rice MAGIC population by screening with a minor‐effect virulence factor from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae - Huerta - - Plant Biotechnology Journal

Effective and durable disease resistance for bacterial blight (BB) of rice is a continuous challenge due to the evolution and adaptation of the pathogen, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), o
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Review of the EPG Waveforms of Sharpshooters and Spittlebugs Including Their Biological Meanings in Relation to Transmission of Xylella fastidiosa (Xanthomonadales: Xanthomonadaceae) | Journal of I...

Review of the EPG Waveforms of Sharpshooters and Spittlebugs Including Their Biological Meanings in Relation to Transmission of Xylella fastidiosa (Xanthomonadales: Xanthomonadaceae) | Journal of I... | Xanthomonadaceae plant diseases | Scoop.it
Abstract. Electropenetrography (EPG) is one of the most rigorous methods to study stylet probing behaviors of piercing-sucking insects whose mouthparts move in
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Good vibrations –

Good vibrations – | Xanthomonadaceae plant diseases | Scoop.it
Finding a mate can be difficult if your eyesight isn’t great. That’s why sharpshooters responsible for infecting grapevines with the Xylella fastidiosa bacterium use sound generated by shaking their bodies instead. Protecting California’s grapevines from Xylella costs more than $100 million a year, therefore looking outside the box for tools to use in the vineyard […]
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A new inclusive MLVA assay to investigate genetic variability of Xylella fastidiosa with a specific focus on the Apulian outbreak in Italy

A new inclusive MLVA assay to investigate genetic variability of Xylella fastidiosa with a specific focus on the Apulian outbreak in Italy | Xanthomonadaceae plant diseases | Scoop.it
The Olive Quick Decline Syndrome by Xylella fastidiosa subspecies pauca is among the most severe phytopathological emergencies nowadays. In few years, the outbreak devastated olive groves in Apulia (Italy), potentially endangering the entire Mediterranean basin. This research aimed to develop a multiple locus VNTR analysis assay, a molecular tool to differentiate between populations of the pathogen. It has already been successfully applied to different X. fastidiosa subspecies from various plant hosts. The previously published TR loci, together with a set of new design, have been tested in silico on the genome of the Apulian De Donno strain. The resulting selection of 37 TR loci was amplified on the genomic DNAs of the Apulian strains AND from representatives of X. fastidiosa subspecies, and directly on DNA extracted from infected plants. The assay clearly discerned among subspecies or even sequence types (ST), but also pointed out variants within the same ST so as to provide more detailed information on the dynamics and pathogen diffusion pathways. Its effective application even on total DNAs extracted from infected tissues of different host plants makes it particularly useful for large-scale screening of infection and for the strengthening of containment measures.
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Transcriptomic analysis of resistant and susceptible cabbage lines reveals differential expressions and candidate genes involved in cabbage early responses to black rot | SpringerLink

Transcriptomic analysis of resistant and susceptible cabbage lines reveals differential expressions and candidate genes involved in cabbage early responses to black rot | SpringerLink | Xanthomonadaceae plant diseases | Scoop.it
Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) is one of the most important cruciferous leafy vegetable crops and is widely cultivated all over the world. Its yield and quality are often affected by diseases such as cabbage black rot. 2R is a cabbage line that is newly resistant to black rot, which was created by radiation mutagenesis and backcross transfer. However, the underlying molecular bases and mechanisms of early-phase response of different resistant cabbage lines against black rot infections remain unknown. Here, we completed a comprehensive transcriptome profile analysis between resistant (2R) and susceptible (2T) cabbage lines after black rot inoculations. The results showed that the typical V-shaped lesions were found in inoculated plants after 15 days, and the symptoms in the susceptible cabbage lines (2T) were significant severe than that of the resistant 2R line. A total of 10,030 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, of which 384 DEGs were found to overlap in resistant and susceptible cabbage lines after black rot infections, suggesting those DEGs may play more important roles in cabbage early responses to black rot infections. We ranked the expression levels of DEGs among the four comparison sets of resistant and susceptible cabbage lines and, interestingly, found the top ten differential expression genes contained NBS-LRR genes, protein kinase genes and expansin genes. These findings provide a comprehensive differential transcriptome profile between resistant and susceptible cabbage lines and indicate some genes play key roles in the regulation of early response to black rot infections, which will help to understand the molecular resistance of cabbage against these infections.
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Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of rice NLR genes responsive to the infections of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and Magnaporthe oryzae - ScienceDirect

Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of rice NLR genes responsive to the infections of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and Magnaporthe oryzae - ScienceDirect | Xanthomonadaceae plant diseases | Scoop.it
Nucleotide-binding site, leucine-rich repeat (NLR) genes play a critical role in rice disease resistance. However, the transcriptional activities of r…
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A novel intragenic marker targeting the ectodomain of bacterial blight-resistance gene Xa21 for marker-assisted selection in rice: Journal of Crop Improvement: Vol 0, No 0

A novel intragenic marker targeting the ectodomain of bacterial blight-resistance gene Xa21 for marker-assisted selection in rice: Journal of Crop Improvement: Vol 0, No 0 | Xanthomonadaceae plant diseases | Scoop.it
The rice (Oryza sativa L.) Xa21 gene is known to confer resistance against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the causal organism of bacterial blight (BB) through its involvement in pathoge
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Development of an FTP-LAMP assay based on TaqMan real-time PCR and LAMP for the specific detection of Xylella fastidiosa De Donno and mulberry strains in both plants and insect vectors - ScienceDirect

Development of an FTP-LAMP assay based on TaqMan real-time PCR and LAMP for the specific detection of Xylella fastidiosa De Donno and mulberry strains in both plants and insect vectors - ScienceDirect | Xanthomonadaceae plant diseases | Scoop.it
We developed two real-time detection assays, TaqMan real-time PCR and LAMP, using primers and probe designed based on a sequence annotated to code for…
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Microorganisms | Free Full-Text | Genetic Diversity of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae: Seasonal and Spatial Population Dynamics

Microorganisms | Free Full-Text | Genetic Diversity of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae: Seasonal and Spatial Population Dynamics | Xanthomonadaceae plant diseases | Scoop.it
Pseudomonassyringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) is a gram-negative bacterium responsible for the bacterial canker in Actinidia chinensis var. deliciosa and A. chinensis var. chinensis, a quarantine organism threatening the kiwifruit industry sustainability. The present study aimed to determine the genetic structure of the endophytic and epiphytic populations of Psa isolated from four different Portuguese orchards with distinct abiotic conditions in two consecutive seasons. The results identified several coexisting and highly heterogeneous Psa populations. Moreover, evident changes in population structure occurred between the epiphytic and endophytic populations, and between seasons with a notable decrease in Psa diversity in autumn. This work provided solid evidence that the initial clonal expansion of Psa in Europe was followed by a wide genomic diversification. This perspective is important for the understanding of kiwifruit bacterial canker disease occurrence and Psa evolution, namely when adopting strategies for management of epidemics.
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High-quality Draft Genome Sequence Resources of Eight Xylella fastidiosa Strains Isolated From Citrus, Coffee, Plum and Hibiscus in South America

Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca , once confined to South America and infecting mainly citrus and coffee plants, has been found to be associated with other hosts and in other geographic regions. We present high-quality draft genome sequences of X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca s
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