Virology News
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Topical news snippets about viruses that affect people.  And other things. Like Led Zeppelin. And zombies B-)
Curated by Ed Rybicki
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Genomic characterization, phylogenetic position and in situ localization of a novel putative mononegavirus in Lepeophtheirus salmonis

The complete genome sequence of a novel mononegavirus, Lepeophtheirus salmonis negative-stranded RNA virus 1 (LsNSRV-1), obtained from a salmonid ectoparasite, Lepeophtheirus salmonis was determined. The viral genome contains five open reading frames encoding three unknown proteins (ORF I, II and III), a putative glycoprotein (G), and a large (L) protein. Phylogenetic analysis placed LsNSRV-1 in the recently established mononegaviral family Artoviridae. LsNSRV-1 showed a prevalence of around 97% and was detected in all L. salmonis developmental stages. Viral genomic and antigenomic RNA was localized to nerve tissue, connective tissue, epithelial cells of the gut, subepidermal tissue, exocrine and cement glands, as well as the testis, vas deferens and spermatophore sac of male L. salmonis and the ovaries and oocytes of females. Viral RNA was detected in both the cytoplasm and the nucleoli of infected cells, and putative nuclear export and localization signals were found within the ORF I, III and L proteins, suggesting nuclear replication of LsNSRV-1. RNA interference (RNAi) was induced twice during development by the introduction of a double-stranded RNA fragment of ORF I, resulting in a transient knockdown of viral RNA. A large variation in the knockdown level was seen in adult males and off springs of knockdown animals, whereas the RNA level was more stable in adult females. Together with the localization of viral RNA within the male spermatophore and female oocytes and the amplification of viral RNA in developing embryos, this suggests that LsNSRV-1 is transmitted both maternally and paternally. Small amounts of viral RNA were detected at the site where chalimi were attached to the skin of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). However, as the RNAi-mediated treatment did not result in LsNSRV-1-negative offspring and the virus failed to replicate in the tested fish cell cultures, it is difficult to investigate the influence of secreted LsNSRV-1 on the salmon immune response.

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Penile squamous cell carcinoma is genomically similar to other HPV-driven tumors

Dr Jad Chahoud speaks to ecancer at the 2019 ASCO Genitourinary Cancers Symposium about a study looking to identify targetable mutations in prostate cancer t...
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Did hidden volcanoes heat up the ice cap on Mars?

Did hidden volcanoes heat up the ice cap on Mars? | Virology News | Scoop.it
Last year, research indicated there might be water under the south ice cap on Mars. Now, researchers say volcanoes must've been involved.
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Complete Genome Sequence of the Tataguine Virus, Isolated in the Central African Republic in 1972 from a Human with an Acute Febrile Syndrome

Tataguine virus (TATV) is an orthobunyavirus that causes febrile illnesses in Africa. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of TATV strain HB72P583, isolated in the Central African Republic in 1972. Several genetic variations were detected in the small (S), medium (M), and large (L) segments relative to a TATV strain isolated in Nigeria in 1966.
Ed Rybicki's insight:
I must say, my interest was piqued when I read that as "Tatooine" B-)
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Hepatitis E outbreak exposes health’s emergency unpreparedness in Namibia

Hepatitis E outbreak exposes health’s emergency unpreparedness in Namibia | Virology News | Scoop.it

WINDHOEK - The Minister of Health and Social Services, Dr Kalumbi Shangula, says hepatitis E, which was declared an outbreak in December 2017, has exposed the ministry’s unpreparedness to deal with emergencies. “This has resulted in our inability to establish the index case. As such, we are unable to establish whether the hepatitis E virus is endogenous (having an internal cause or origin) or exogenous (having an external cause or origin) because our systems are not responsive and sensitive enough to answer that question,” said Shangula. Statistics from the Ministry of Health and Social Services show that as of 27 January 2019, a total 4 432 hepatitis E cases had been reported in Namibia. So far, 40 deaths have been reported and the death toll is disproportionately highest among pregnant women and those who have given birth, constituting 17 cases, which translates to 42.5 percent of deaths. Shangula said he has had a chance to interact with teams that are charged with the hepatitis E outbreak control at national and regional levels.

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Vaccine for pregnant women to prevent whooping cough in infants now free in Alberta

Vaccine for pregnant women to prevent whooping cough in infants now free in Alberta | Virology News | Scoop.it
The Alberta government is encouraging pregnant women to take advantage of a new vaccination program to prevent whooping cough in infants.
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Pinterest blocks all vaccine-related searches in effort to combat anti-vax content

Pinterest has blocked all vaccine-related searches on the social media platform in an effort to combat the “misleading content” of the anti-vaccination movement, a spokesperson said Wednesday.
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HPV vaccine to be regular, India to be rid of cervical cancer in 60 years

HPV vaccine to be regular, India to be rid of cervical cancer in 60 years | Virology News | Scoop.it
The study estimates that vaccination and screening could result in cervical cancer being eliminated as a public health problem, with average rates across countries falling to less than 4 cases per 1 lakh by 2055-59 in countries with very high levels of development...
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Viewpoint: Pervert science at your peril—anti-GMO campaigners, vaccine deniers and 'bee-pocalypse' scaremongers find common ground in 'evidence rejectionism'

Viewpoint: Pervert science at your peril—anti-GMO campaigners, vaccine deniers and 'bee-pocalypse' scaremongers find common ground in 'evidence rejectionism' | Virology News | Scoop.it
Widespread misunderstanding of the nature of science and the confirmation bias spawned by social media and the internet can have dire consequences to public health.
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Trump-loving GOP Senator smacked down hard for lying about Obama 2009 swine flu emergency declaration

Trump-loving GOP Senator smacked down hard for lying about Obama 2009 swine flu emergency declaration | Virology News | Scoop.it
North Dakota Senator Kevin Cramer (R-ND) falsely claimed Barack Obama invoked a national emergency for “no reason” Feb 19, only to get brutally fact-checked by the Associated Press Thursday. “Barack Obama declared a national emergency to fight swine flu and we didn’t have a single case of it in...
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Flu Vaccine Compositions For 2019-2020 Announced —

The World Health Organization (WHO) issued its recommendations on the composition of the influenza vaccines for deployment during the 2019-2020 flu season in the Northern Hemisphere.  This is important news since approximately 90 percent of the world’s population live in the Northern Hemisphere.
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FDA approves new anti-influenza drug Xofluza; worked better than oseltamivir

FDA approves new anti-influenza drug Xofluza; worked better than oseltamivir | Virology News | Scoop.it
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved baloxavir marboxil, an oral tablet to be marketed as Xofluza, for treatment of early acute uncomplicated influenza in adolescents and adults.FD…...
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Vaccine has substantially reduced hospitalisations for childhood pneumonia in Kenya

Vaccine has substantially reduced hospitalisations for childhood pneumonia in Kenya | Virology News | Scoop.it
Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of death in children under five, killing more children annually than HIV, TB and malaria combined. The KEMRI-Wellcome Trust Research Programme and partners, including the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, collaborated on the Pneumococcal...
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Adenovirus 5 produces obesity and adverse metabolic, morphological, and functional changes in the long term in animals fed a balanced diet or a high-fat diet: a study on hamsters

Adenovirus 5 (Ad-5) infection is a common cause of acute respiratory infections and the main vector used in gene therapy. There are few studies on the relationship of Ad-5 to obesity. In the present study, we evaluated the chronic effects of Ad-5 infection on golden (Syrian) hamsters fed either a balanced diet (BD) or a high-fat diet (HFD). After a single inoculation with Ad-5 (1 × 107 pfu), the body weight of the animals was measured weekly. Medium-term (22 weeks) serum biochemical analyses and long-term (44 weeks) liver morphology, adiposity, and locomotive functionality (movement velocity) assessments were carried out. In the animals fed the BD, adenovirus infection produced hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. In the long term, it produced a 57% increase in epididymal pad fat and a 30% body weight gain compared with uninoculated animals. In addition, morphological changes related to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were observed. The animals fed the HFD had similar but more severe changes. In addition, the hamsters presented an obesity paradox: at the end of the study, the animals that had the most morphological and functional changes (significantly reduced movement velocity) had the lowest body weight. Despite the fact that an HFD appears to be a more harmful factor in the long term than adenovirus infection alone, infection could increase the severity of harmful effects in individuals with an HFD. Epidemiological studies are needed to evaluate the effect of adenovirus as a precursor of chronic liver and cardiovascular diseases, including the chronic effects of gene therapy.

Ed Rybicki's insight:
Damn...!  Glad I'm not a hamster. Oh, wait: it's a human virus??
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Diversity in the CD4 receptor protects chimpanzees from infection by AIDS-like viruses: Study of the chimpanzee precursor of HIV-1 could lead to a better AIDS vaccine

Diversity in the CD4 receptor protects chimpanzees from infection by AIDS-like viruses: Study of the chimpanzee precursor of HIV-1 could lead to a better AIDS vaccine | Virology News | Scoop.it
Medical researchers have found that the CD4 surface protein, which is used by HIV and SIV as the receptor to enter immune cells, is highly variable among wild chimpanzees. Understanding how these viruses are transmitted within and between species may reveal clues for novel vaccine strategies in...
Ed Rybicki's insight:
Everything always leads to a better AIDS vaccine...what this shows is that humans should have more variable CD4 receptors!
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Eradication of human papillomavirus and elimination of HPV-related diseases – scientific basis for global public health policies

Expert commentary: The ultimate goal of HPV vaccination is the eradication of high-risk (hr) HPVs. Seventy-five percent coverage gender-neutral vaccination of early adolescents will rapidly eradicate also HPV16 from the general population.

Ed Rybicki's insight:
This is a nice paper: an expert opinion on how it would be possible to eradicate important carcinogenic HPVs by vaccination - IF both boys and girls get vaccinated.
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Specific Chicken Egg Yolk Antibody Improves the Protective Response against Gallibacterium anatis Infection

Specific Chicken Egg Yolk Antibody Improves the Protective Response against Gallibacterium anatis Infection | Virology News | Scoop.it
Gallibacterium anatis is a pathogen associated with peritonitis and salpingitis in chickens and other avian species. Novel safety prevention strategies are urgently needed because of widespread multidrug resistance and antigenic diversity. The objective of this study was to produce a specific chicken egg yolk antibody and evaluate its protective response against a G. anatis infection model in 4-week-old chicks. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays showed that hens immunized with the recombinant N terminus of Gallibacterium toxin A (GtxA-N) had significantly increased antibody titers against GtxA-N in serum and egg yolk IgY. Western blotting showed that IgY antibody had specificity against GtxA-N in the egg yolks of immunized hens. The growth of G. anatis in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth and agar was significantly inhibited by the GtxA-N-specific IgY antibody. The protective effects of the specific IgY antibody were evaluated in G. anatis-infected chicks after intramuscular injection (10 mg/ml). The anti-GtxA-N antibody titers in the sera of G. anatis-challenged chicks following an injection of specific IgY antibody were significantly higher than those of the control and the nonspecific IgY groups, but lower lesion scores for the peritoneum, liver, and duodenum were found after specific IgY antibody treatment. The results from this study suggest that the GtxA-N-specific IgY antibody could potentially improve the protective response against G. anatis infection in chicks.
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CDC says [US] flu season could get worse, what should you look out for

The flu season is far from over, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. As of Feb. 2, the flu has reached 47 states, with 24 of those experiencing high levels of the disease.Louisiana has moderate flu activity, but our neighbors in Texas are seeing high rates of the virus, acc...
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Measles Vaccine Hesistancy By Some Parents Being Called 'Top 10 Global Threat'

"When I was in training at Children's, one of my most memorable cases was a child who died of pertussis...completely preventable, but was too young to get va...
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Pakistani actor Fawad Khan booked for refusing polio vaccine for daughter!

Pakistani authorities have filed FIRs against six individuals, including actor Fawad Khan, for refusing anti-polio drops to be given to their children by vac...
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They don't mess around in Pakistan....
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Two types of HPV linked to cervical cancer have declined since the advent of the HPV vaccine

Two types of HPV linked to cervical cancer have declined since the advent of the HPV vaccine | Virology News | Scoop.it
An analysis of cervical precancers over a period of seven years showed that two strains of human papillomavirus (HPV) that have been targeted by vaccination since 2006 have declined, accounting for a smaller proportion of ...
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Pregnant, nursing women can now be given Ebola vaccine, UN health agency announces

Pregnant, nursing women can now be given Ebola vaccine, UN health agency announces | Virology News | Scoop.it
Reversing an earlier decision, the World Health Organization (WHO) now recommends vaccinating pregnant and breastfeeding women against the Ebola virus.
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New discovery and hope for a better influenza vaccine

New discovery and hope for a better influenza vaccine | Virology News | Scoop.it
“(. . .) A subset of white blood cells called ‘killer’ T cells can provide immunity across all the different types of influenza viruses that can...
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Why Nigeria is battling to control disease outbreaks like Lassa fever

Why Nigeria is battling to control disease outbreaks like Lassa fever | Virology News | Scoop.it
Nigeria's health systems are overwhelmed and incapable of sustaining high quality disease surveillance, prevention, control and response.
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Why anti-vaccine beliefs and ideas spread so fast on the Internet

Why anti-vaccine beliefs and ideas spread so fast on the Internet | Virology News | Scoop.it
To complicate matters, people are able to create virtual communities of like-minded individuals who seek out information sources that they feel comfortable with.
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