Today I had an epiphany. I have been asking the wrong question and juxtaposing the wrong texts.

Before I asked the question: What are values?

To answer this I juxtaposed Carl Rogers saying values are a matter of personal preference with Frankl saying values are a mission or meaningful task. The following two quotes can illustrate this:

“[Values are] the tendency of any living beings to show preference, in their actions, for one kind of object or objective rather than another…” [The infant] prefers some things and experiences, and rejects others. We can infer from studying his behavior that he prefers those experiences which maintain, enhance or actualize his organism, and rejects those which do not serve this end…(Freedom to Learn, Carl Rogers)

Via focusing_gr, carol k