Plant hormones (Literature sources on phytohormones and plant signalling being continuously updated; 50 latest postings shown)
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Ethylene’s fraternal twin steals the spotlight

Ethylene’s fraternal twin steals the spotlight | Plant hormones (Literature sources on phytohormones and plant signalling being continuously updated; 50 latest postings shown) | Scoop.it

Author: Bram Van de Poel.


Nature Plants (2020)


Editor's view: 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) has emerged as a signalling molecule in its own right, regulating distinct plant processes independently from its conversion to ethylene. Now it seems that ACC signalling has been steering plant development for hundreds of millions of years, predating the diversification of seed plants.


Excepts: "In 1979, Adams and Yang established that 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) is the immediate biosynthesis precursor of the plant hormone ethylene1. This non-proteinogenic amino acid is easily taken up by plants and rapidly converted into ethylene by ACC oxidase (ACO; Fig. 1). ACC, not being a gas, became a favourable substitute for ethylene in countless experiments over decades of ethylene research. This concept now needs to be re-evaluated, as new discoveries have shown that ACC surprisingly can signal independently of ethylene, steering a pleiotropy of physiological processes (Fig. 1)."


"Li et al. also showed that ethylene signalling is conserved in Marchantia and that ethylene and ACC are involved in distinct developmental processes3."


"These findings indicate that both ethylene and ACC signalling are ancient pathways conserved for hundreds of million years of evolution but seemingly regulate distinct processes. Because algae and other non-seed plants do not appear to rely on ACC to make ethylene, it is possible that these species have an alternative unknown ACC-independent ethylene production route, or that their ethylene signalling pathway serves to sense environmental ethylene."

Julio Retamaless insight:
Commentary on the article by Li et al. ("Ethylene-independent functions of the ethylene precursor ACC in Marchantia polymorpha") in Nature Plants, which is also posted here.
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High temperature at veraison inhibits anthocyanin biosynthesis in berry skins during ripening in ‘Kyoho’ grapevines

High temperature at veraison inhibits anthocyanin biosynthesis in berry skins during ripening in ‘Kyoho’ grapevines | Plant hormones (Literature sources on phytohormones and plant signalling being continuously updated; 50 latest postings shown) | Scoop.it
Authors: Suhyun Ryu, Jeom Hwa Han, Jung Gun Cho, Jae Hoon Jeong, Seul Ki Lee and Hee Jae Lee.

Plant Physiology and Biochemistry (2020)

Highlights: ∙ High temperature inhibited anthocyanin accumulation in grape berry skins. ∙ High temperature differentially inhibited expressions of early anthocyanin biosynthetic genes. ∙ High temperature inhibited expressions of all late anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and VlMYBA2. ∙ Anthocyanin contents in grape berry skins are related to ABA/GA ratio.

Abstract: "We examined the effects of high temperature (HT) at veraison (the onset of ripening) on coloration and anthocyanin biosynthesis in berry skins of ‘Kyoho’ grapevines (Vitis labruscana L.). The vines were subjected to control, HT (6 °C higher than the control for 10 days), and intermittent HT (IHT; 6 °C higher than the control for 4 days followed by control temperature for 3 days and then 6 °C higher than the control for another 3 days) conditions from 50 to 60 days after full bloom (DAFB) in temperature-controlled rooms. Under control conditions, berry skins were tinted purple from 55 DAFB and turned to reddish-purple thereafter until 80 DAFB, concurrently with the anthocyanin accumulation. The HT and IHT treatments greatly inhibited the coloration and anthocyanin accumulation, with greater inhibition by the HT treatment. The HT and IHT treatments significantly inhibited the expressions of early (EBGs) and late anthocyanin biosynthetic genes (LBGs), and the transcription factor gene VlMYBA2. Abscisic acid (ABA) contents in the control berry skins increased from 50 DAFB, peaked at 55 DAFB, and decreased thereafter. The HT and IHT treatments reduced the increase in ABA contents, with no significant difference between HT- and IHT-treated vines. Gibberellin (GA) contents decreased during veraison in the berry skins of control and IHT-treated vines, but remained unchanged in those of HT-treated vines. These results suggest that the coloration and anthocyanin biosynthesis in berry skins are associated with changes in the ABA/GA ratio."
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HIGH-TILLERING AND DWARF 12 regulates photosynthesis and plant architecture by affecting carotenoid biosynthesis in rice 

HIGH-TILLERING AND DWARF 12 regulates photosynthesis and plant architecture by affecting carotenoid biosynthesis in rice  | Plant hormones (Literature sources on phytohormones and plant signalling being continuously updated; 50 latest postings shown) | Scoop.it

Authors: Hui Zhou, Mai Yang, Lei Zhao, Zuofeng Zhu, Fengxia Liu, Hongying Sun, Chuanqing Sun and Lubin Tan.


Journal of Experimental Botany (2020)


Abstract: "Photosynthesis and plant architecture are important factors influencing grain yield in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Here, we identified the high-tillering and dwarf 12 (htd12) mutant and analyzed the effects of the HTD12 mutation on these important factors. HTD12 encodes a 15-cis-ζ-carotene isomerase (Z-ISO) belonging to the NnrU protein family, as revealed by positional mapping and transformation experiments. Sequence analysis showed that a single nucleotide transition from guanine (G) to adenine (A) in the 3′ acceptor site between the 1 st intron and 2 nd exon of HTD12 alters its mRNA splicing in htd12 plants, resulting in a 49-amino acid deletion that affects carotenoid biosynthesis and photosynthesis in this mutant. In addition, compared to the wild type, htd12 had significantly lower levels of ent-2’-epi-5-deoxystrigol (epi-5DS), a native strigolactone (SL), in both roots and root exudates, resulting in an obvious increase in tiller number and decrease in plant height. These findings indicate that HTD12, the rice homolog of Z-ISO, regulates chloroplast development and photosynthesis by functioning in carotenoid biosynthesis and modulates plant architecture by affecting SL levels."

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Precise Editing of the OsPYL9 Gene by RNA-Guided Cas9 Nuclease Confers Enhanced Drought Tolerance and Grain Yield in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) by Regulating Circadian Rhythm and Abiotic Stress Respons...

Precise Editing of the OsPYL9 Gene by RNA-Guided Cas9 Nuclease Confers Enhanced Drought Tolerance and Grain Yield in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) by Regulating Circadian Rhythm and Abiotic Stress Respons... | Plant hormones (Literature sources on phytohormones and plant signalling being continuously updated; 50 latest postings shown) | Scoop.it
Authors: Babar Usman, Gul Nawaz, Neng Zhao, Shanyue Liao, Yaoguang Liu and Rongbai Li.

International Journal of Molecular Sciences (2020)

Abstract: "Abscisic acid (ABA) is involved in regulating drought tolerance, and pyrabactin resistance-like (PYL) proteins are known as ABA receptors. To elucidate the role of one of the ABA receptors in rice, OsPYL9 was mutagenized through CRISPR/Cas9 in rice. Homozygous and heterozygous mutant plants lacking any off-targets and T-DNA were screened based on site-specific sequencing and used for morpho-physiological, molecular, and proteomic analysis. Mutant lines appear to accumulate higher ABA, antioxidant activities, chlorophyll content, leaf cuticular wax, and survival rate, whereas a lower malondialdehyde level, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, and vascular bundles occur under stress conditions. Proteomic analysis found a total of 324 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs), out of which 184 and 140 were up and downregulated, respectively. The OsPYL9 mutants showed an increase in grain yield under both drought and well watered field conditions. Most of the DEPs related to circadian clock rhythm, drought response, and reactive oxygen species were upregulated in the mutant plants. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis revealed that DEPs were only involved in circadian rhythm and Gene Ontology (GO) analysis showed that most of the DEPs were involved in response to abiotic stimulus, and abscisic acid-activated signaling pathways. Protein GIGANTEA, Adagio-like, and Pseudo-response regulator proteins showed higher interaction in protein–protein interaction (PPI) network. Thus, the overall results showed that CRISPR/Cas9-generated OsPYL9 mutants have potential to improve both drought tolerance and the yield of rice. Furthermore, global proteome analysis provides new potential biomarkers and understandings of the molecular mechanism of rice drought tolerance."
Julio Retamaless insight:
Full title of the article is: "Precise Editing of the OsPYL9 Gene by RNA-Guided Cas9 Nuclease Confers Enhanced Drought Tolerance and Grain Yield in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) by Regulating Circadian Rhythm and Abiotic Stress Responsive Proteins".
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Mediator Complex: A Pivotal Regulator of ABA Signaling Pathway and Abiotic Stress Response in Plants - Review

Mediator Complex: A Pivotal Regulator of ABA Signaling Pathway and Abiotic Stress Response in Plants - Review | Plant hormones (Literature sources on phytohormones and plant signalling being continuously updated; 50 latest postings shown) | Scoop.it

Authors: Leelyn Chong, Pengcheng Guo and Yingfang Zhu.


International Journal of Molecular Sciences (2020)


Abstract: "As an evolutionarily conserved multi-protein complex, the Mediator complex modulates the association between transcription factors and RNA polymerase II to precisely regulate gene transcription. Although numerous studies have shown the diverse functions of Mediator complex in plant development, flowering, hormone signaling, and biotic stress response, its roles in the Abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway and abiotic stress response remain largely unclear. It has been recognized that the phytohormone, ABA, plays a predominant role in regulating plant adaption to various abiotic stresses as ABA can trigger extensive changes in the transcriptome to help the plants respond to environmental stimuli. Over the past decade, the Mediator complex has been revealed to play key roles in not only regulating the ABA signaling transduction but also in the abiotic stress responses. In this review, we will summarize current knowledge of the Mediator complex in regulating the plants’ response to ABA as well as to the abiotic stresses of cold, drought and high salinity. We will particularly emphasize the involvement of multi-functional subunits of MED25, MED18, MED16, and CDK8 in response to ABA and environmental perturbation. Additionally, we will discuss potential research directions available for further deciphering the role of Mediator complex in regulating ABA and other abiotic stress responses."

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The conserved brassinosteroid-related transcription factor BIM1a negatively regulates fruit growth in tomato  

The conserved brassinosteroid-related transcription factor BIM1a negatively regulates fruit growth in tomato   | Plant hormones (Literature sources on phytohormones and plant signalling being continuously updated; 50 latest postings shown) | Scoop.it

Authors: Kentaro Mori, Martine Lemaire-Chamley, Joana Jorly, Fernando Carrari, Mariana Conte, Erika Asamizu, Tsuyoshi Mizoguchi, Hiroshi Ezura and Christophe Rothan.


Journal of Experimental Botany (2020)


Abstract: "Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroid hormones that play key roles in plant development and defense. Our goal is to harness the extensive knowledge of the Arabidopsis BR signalling network for improving productivity in crop species. This first requires identifying components of the conserved network and their function in the target species. Here, we investigated the function of SlBIM1a, the closest tomato homolog of AtBIM1, which is highly expressed in fruit. SlBIM1a overexpressing lines displayed severe plant and fruit dwarfism, and histological characterization of different transgenic lines revealed that SlBIM1a expression negatively correlated with fruit pericarp cell size, resulting in fruit size modifications. These growth phenotypes were in contrast to those found in Arabidopsis, and this was confirmed by the reciprocal ectopic expression of SlBIM1a/b in Arabidopsis and, AtBIM1 in tomato. These results determined that BIM1 function depends more on the recipient species than on its primary sequence. Yeast two-hybrid interaction studies and transcriptomic analyses of SlBIM1a overexpressing fruit, further suggested that SlBIM1a acts through its interaction with SlBZH1 to govern the transcriptional regulation of growth-related BRs target genes. Together, these results suggest that SlBIM1a is a negative regulator of pericarp cell expansion, possibly at the crossroad with auxin and light signalling."

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Tomato BZR/BES transcription factor SlBZR1 positively regulates BR signaling and salt stress tolerance in tomato and Arabidopsis

Tomato BZR/BES transcription factor SlBZR1 positively regulates BR signaling and salt stress tolerance in tomato and Arabidopsis | Plant hormones (Literature sources on phytohormones and plant signalling being continuously updated; 50 latest postings shown) | Scoop.it
Authors: Chengguo Jia, Shengke Zhao, Tingting Bao, Peiqing Zhao, Kuan Peng, Qingxun Guo, Xiang Gao and Jianchun Qin.

Plant Science (2020)

Highlights: • SlBZR1 is a transcriptional repressor and localized in nucleus. • SlBZR1 interacts with SlMYB30, SlMYBL2, SlPIF4, SlHAT1, SlIWS1 and SlREF6. • SlBZR1D positively regulates BR signaling and salt tolerance. • SlBZR1D upregulates the expression of many stress-responsive genes in tomato.

Abstract: "Brassinosteroids (BRs) play critical roles in plant growth and development, as well as in responses to abiotic stresses. The BRASSINAZOLE RESISTANT 1 (BZR1) and BRI1-EMS-SUPPRESSOR 1 (BES1) families of transcription factors have been elucidated largely in Arabidopsis and rice but not in other plant species. Here, we studied the functional characterization of a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) BZR homolog gene, SlBZR1, in BR-regulated plant growth and tolerance to salt stress. SlBZR1 was highly expressed in the flowers and developing fruits of tomato. Both SlBZR1 and SlBZR1D (proline to leucine mutation at the 239th amino acid of SlBZR1) were transcriptional repressors and localized in the nucleus. SlBZR1 or SlBZR1D could interact with SlMYB30, SlMYBL2, SlPIF4, SlHAT1, SlIWS1 and SlREF6 in tomato. Overexpression of SlBZR1D enhanced the BR response and improved tolerance to salt stress in Arabidopsis, consistent with the phenotype of the Arabidopsis bes1-D mutant. Moreover, SlBZR1D-overexpressing tomato lines showed a short plant height, smaller and curly leaves, and delayed flowering. Additionally, SlBZR1D positively regulated salt tolerance in tomato and upregulated the expression of multiple stress-related genes. Our study provides new insights for understanding the function and mechanism of BZR transcription factors in BR-regulated plant growth and abiotic stress responses."
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Role of Phytohormones and Light in De-etiolation - Review

Role of Phytohormones and Light in De-etiolation - Review | Plant hormones (Literature sources on phytohormones and plant signalling being continuously updated; 50 latest postings shown) | Scoop.it

Authors: V. V. Kusnetsov, A. S. Doroshenko, N. V. Kudryakova and M. N. Danilova.


Russian Journal of Plant Physiology (2020)


Abstract: "De-etiolation or transition from etiolated growth (skotomorphogenesis) to photomorphogenesis is one of the most intriguing and intricate stages of plant ontogenesis. It comprises reprogramming of plant cell metabolism, reorganizing the operation of the hormonal system, and altering plant morphology. Dark growth in the soil mainly depends on phytohormones with gibberellins and brassinosteroids playing the leading role; on the soil surface, light as a major exogenous agent starts operating. It inhibits activity of the main repressor of photomorphogenesis (COP1) and regulators of transcription, which govern realization of gibberellin (DELLA) and brassinosteroid (BZR1/BES1) signals and activates trans-factors initiating transition to autotrophic nutrition (for instance, HY5). The strategy of etiolated growth consists in achieving a quick exposure to sunlight at the expense of active elongation of the stem. For transition to autotrophic nutrition, a plant must form a photosynthetic apparatus and protect itself from possible light injury. This review deals with the role of the main regulatory components ensuring etiolated growth and transition to photomorphogenic development."

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The auxin transporter PIN1 and the cytokinin transporter AZG1 interact to regulate the root stress response - Preprint

The auxin transporter PIN1 and the cytokinin transporter AZG1 interact to regulate the root stress response - Preprint | Plant hormones (Literature sources on phytohormones and plant signalling being continuously updated; 50 latest postings shown) | Scoop.it

Authors: Tomas M. Tessi, Mojgan Shahriari, Veronica Maurino, Esther Meissner, Ondrej Novak, Taras Pasternak, Benjamin Schumacher, Noemi Flubacher, Moritz Nautscher, Alyssa Williams, Zuzanna Kazimierczak, Miroslav Strnad, Joerg Oliver Thumfart, Klaus Palme, Marcelo Desimone and William Teale.


bioRxiv (2020)


Abstract: "Root system development is crucial for optimal growth and yield in plants, especially in sub-optimal soil conditions. The architecture of a root system is environmentally responsive, enabling the plant to exploit regions of high nutrient density whilst simultaneously minimizing abiotic stress. Despite the vital contribution of root systems to the growth of both model and crop species, we know little of the mechanisms which regulate their architecture. One factor which is relatively well understood is the transport of auxin, a plant growth regulator which defines the frequency of lateral root (LR) initiation and the rate of LR outgrowth. Here we describe a search for proteins which regulate RSA by interacting directly with a key auxin transporter, PIN1. The native separation of PIN1 identified several co-purifying proteins. Among them, AZG1 was subsequently confirmed as a PIN1 interactor. AZG1-GFP fusions co-localized with PIN1 in procambium cells of the root meristem. Roots of azg1 plants contained less PIN1 and blocking proteolysis restored PIN1 levels, observations which are consistent with PIN1 being stabilized by AZG1 in the plasma membrane. Furthermore, we show that AZG1 is a cytokinin import protein; accordingly, azg1 plants are insensitive to exogenously applied cytokinin. In wild-type plants, the frequency of LRs falls with increasing salt concentration, a response which is not observed in azg1 x azg2 plants, although their drought response is unimpaired. This report therefore identifies a potential point for auxin:cytokinin crosstalk in the environmentally-responsive determination of root system architecture."

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Differential Regulation of Arabidopsis PP2C-D1 by SAUR17 and SAUR50 in Apical Hook Development and Cotyledon Opening

Differential Regulation of Arabidopsis PP2C-D1 by SAUR17 and SAUR50 in Apical Hook Development and Cotyledon Opening | Plant hormones (Literature sources on phytohormones and plant signalling being continuously updated; 50 latest postings shown) | Scoop.it
Authors: Jiajun Wang, Ning Sun, Fangfang Zhang, Renbo Yu, Haodong Chen, Xing Wang Deng and Ning Wei.

Plant Cell (2020)

Abstract: "After germination in darkness, Arabidopsis seedlings undergo etiolation, and develop apical hooks, closed cotyledons, and fast elongating hypocotyls. Upon perceiving the light, seedlings de-etiolate, which includes opening of apical hooks and cotyledons. In this study, we identify Arabidopsis SAUR17 as a downstream effector of etiolation, which serves to bring about etiolated apical structures, i.e. apical hook and closed cotyledons. SAUR17 is highly expressed in apical hooks and cotyledons and is repressed by light. The apical organs also express a group of light-inducing SAURs as represented by SAUR50, which work to promote opening of the hook and cotyledons. Development of etiolated or de-etiolated apical structures requires asymmetric differential cell growth. We present evidence that the opposing action of SAUR17 and SAUR50 on apical development largely results from their antagonistic regulation of PP2C-D1, the phosphatase that suppresses cell expansion and promotes apical hook development in the dark. SAUR50 inhibits PP2C-D1, while SAUR17 has a higher affinity to PP2C-D1 without inhibiting its activity. We demonstrate that PP2C-D1 predominantly associates with SAUR17 in etiolated seedlings, which shields it from inhibitory SAURs such as SAUR50. Light signals turn off SAUR17 and up-regulate a subgroup of SAURs including SAUR50 at the inner side of the hook and cotyledon cells, causing cell expansion and consequently unfolding the hook and cotyledons.consequently unfolding the hook and cotyledons."
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Arabidopsis primary root growth: let it grow, can't hold it back anymore! - Review

Arabidopsis primary root growth: let it grow, can't hold it back anymore! - Review | Plant hormones (Literature sources on phytohormones and plant signalling being continuously updated; 50 latest postings shown) | Scoop.it
Authors: Noemi Svolacchia, Elena Salvi and Sabrina Sabatini.

Current Opinion in Plant Biology (2020)

Highlights: • In multicellular organisms, growth relies on cell division and cell expansion. • In the Arabidopsis root, primary growth processes can be easily traced and studied. • Organ growth is regulated, refined, and completed by cell polarity and PCD. • Coupling experimental to theoretical biology unveiled basic root growth dynamics.

Abstract: "In multicellular organisms, growth is defined by those processes that allow an organ to increase in mass, namely cell proliferation — that increases the number of cells — and cell expansion — that increases their volume. For an organ to achieve a functional shape and a characteristic final size both these processes need to be tightly coordinated. In roots, these processes stand behind root primary growth, which results in lengthening of the root along its longitudinal axis, and secondary growth, which results in an increase of the root thickness. In this review, we will analyze latest advances in the study of the molecular mechanisms involved in root primary growth, focusing on the model species Arabidopsis thaliana, where some molecular factors and networks responsible for regulating its self-organized primary growth have been identified."
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Phosphate deficiency enhances cotton resistance to Verticillium dahliae through activating jasmonic acid biosynthesis and phenylpropanoid pathway

Phosphate deficiency enhances cotton resistance to Verticillium dahliae through activating jasmonic acid biosynthesis and phenylpropanoid pathway | Plant hormones (Literature sources on phytohormones and plant signalling being continuously updated; 50 latest postings shown) | Scoop.it
Authors: Xiangyin Luo, Zhonghua Li, Shenghua Xiao, Zhengxiu Ye, Xinhui Nie, Xianlong Zhang, Jie Kong and Longfu Zhu.

Plant Science (2020)

Highlights: • Phosphate deficiency enhances cotton resistance to Verticillium dahliae. • Transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses reveal that phenylpropanoid pathway, including flavonoid and lignin biosynthesis, is activated under phosphate deficiency. • Knock down of JA biosynthesis gene-GhAOS significantly attenuates low Pi induced anti-fungi flavonoid accumulation and impairs enhanced resistance under phosphate deficiency.

Abstract: "Living in natural environment, plants often suffer from various biotic and abiotic stresses. Phosphate deficiency is a common factor affecting crop production in field, while pathogen invasion is another serious problem. Here we report that Pi-deficient cotton plants exhibit enhanced resistance to Verticillium dahliae. Transcriptomic and histochemical analysis revealed that cotton phenylpropanoid pathway was activated under phosphate deficiency, including lignin and flavonoid biosynthesis. Metabolomic data showed that Pi-deficient cotton accumulates many flavonoids metabolites and displays obvious anti-fungi activity in terms of methanolic extract. Additionally, JA biosynthesis was activated under phosphate deficiency and the Pi-deficiency induced disease resistance was significantly attenuated in GhAOS knock down plants. Taken together, our study demonstrated that phosphate deficiency enhanced cotton resistance to V. dahliae through activating phenylpropanoid pathway and JA biosynthesis, providing new insights into how phosphate deficiency affects plant disease resistance."
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Stereoselective Physiological Effects of Metconazole on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Wheat  

Stereoselective Physiological Effects of Metconazole on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Wheat   | Plant hormones (Literature sources on phytohormones and plant signalling being continuously updated; 50 latest postings shown) | Scoop.it

Authors: Yue Deng, Rui Liu, Di Wu, Li Chen, Wenjun Zhang, Zikang Wang, Rujian He, Jinling Diao and Zhiqiang Zhou.


Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (2020)


Abstract: "In addition to their fungicidal activity, many triazole fungicides function as plant regulators, which might impose adverse effects on the growth and development of crops. For chiral triazole fungicides, these effects can be alleviated by applying stereoisomers with high fungicidal and low regulator activities. This study investigated the stereoselectivity of four stereoisomers and the racemate of metconazole (2.5 g/100 kg seeds) on emergence and growth of seedlings (BBCH 01-14) in wheat. Wheat seedlings, coated with cis-1S,5R-metconazole, had a significantly lower seedling emergence ratio and shoot length than other metconazole treatments; however, the opposite effects were observed in the trans-1S,5S-metconazole treatment. With regard to the hormonal level, enzyme activity, and gene transcription of gibberellin (GA) and jasmonic acid (JA), cis-1S,5R-metconazole treatment inhibited GA biosynthesis while trans-1S,5S-metconazole treatment promoted GA biosynthesis. Moreover, cis-1S,5R-metconazole, trans-1S,5S-metconazole, trans-1R,5R-metconazole, and racemate treatments increased JA biosynthesis. The oxidative stress responses in trans-1R,5R-metconazole and racemate treatments were more intensive. Therefore, compared with the control, treatment with cis-1R,5S-metcoanzole exhibited minimal influence on wheat seedling growth. The results showed that the application of pure cis-1R,5S-metcoanzole (instead of the racemate) in agricultural management could decrease the risks associated with crop growth and developmental damage."

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Ethylene-independent functions of the ethylene precursor ACC in Marchantia polymorpha

Ethylene-independent functions of the ethylene precursor ACC in Marchantia polymorpha | Plant hormones (Literature sources on phytohormones and plant signalling being continuously updated; 50 latest postings shown) | Scoop.it

Authors: Dongdong Li, Eduardo Flores-Sandoval, Uzair Ahtesham, Andrew Coleman, John M. Clay, John L. Bowman and Caren Chang.


Nature Plants (2020)


Editor's view: Marchantia polymorpha lacks the enzyme that converts ACC into ethylene in higher plants. Genetic characterization of ethylene mutants and treatments with exogenous molecules suggest that, in this species, ACC and ethylene have independent functions.


Abstract: "The plant hormone ethylene has many roles in growth and development1. In seed plants, the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) is converted into ethylene by ACC oxidase (ACO), and treatment with ACC induces ethylene responses2. However, non-seed plants lack ACO homologues3,4,5,6,7,8, which led us to examine the relationship between ACC and ethylene in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha. Here, we demonstrate that ACC and ethylene can induce divergent growth responses in Marchantia. Ethylene increases plant and gemma size, induces more gemma cups and promotes gemmae dormancy. As predicted, Mpctr1-knockout mutants display constitutive ethylene responses, whereas Mpein3-knockout mutants exhibit ethylene insensitivity. Compared with the wild type, Mpctr1 gemmae have more and larger epidermal cells, whereas Mpein3 gemmae have fewer and smaller epidermal cells, suggesting that ethylene promotes cell division and growth in developing gemmae. By contrast, ACC treatment inhibits gemma growth and development by suppressing cell division, even in the Mpein3-knockout alleles. Knockout mutants of one or both ACC SYNTHASE (ACS) gene homologues produce negligible levels of ACC, have more and larger gemma cups, and have more-expanded thallus branches. Mpacs2 and Mpacs1 Mpacs2 gemmae also display a high frequency of abnormal apical notches (meristems) that are not observed in ethylene mutants. These findings reveal that ethylene and ACC have distinct functions, and suggest that ACC is a signalling molecule in Marchantia. ACC may be an evolutionarily conserved signal that predates its efficient conversion to ethylene in higher plants."

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Interaction Mechanism of the Germination Stimulants Karrikins and Their Receptor ShKAI2iB  

Interaction Mechanism of the Germination Stimulants Karrikins and Their Receptor ShKAI2iB   | Plant hormones (Literature sources on phytohormones and plant signalling being continuously updated; 50 latest postings shown) | Scoop.it

Authors: Ji-Long Zhang, Xiaoting Liu and Hong-Xing Zhang.


The Journal of Physical Chemistry B (2020)


Abstract: "The significance of karrikins (KARs) in plant physiology opens a door for their application in the agricultural production. As the first event of the whole signaling pathway, the binding of smoke-derived signal molecules KARs to the receptor protein KAI2 triggers the germination of the primary dormant seeds of all angiosperms, not just the “fire-prone” taxa. In the present study, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, along with the accurate estimation of the ligand–receptor binding free energy, were used to investigate the atomic level interaction of all the members of the KARs family (from KAR1 to KAR6) with the receptor ShKAI2iB, an intermediate-evolving KAI2 from Striga hermonthica. The calculated binding energy value of KAR1 to ShKAI2iB, −5.64 kcal/mol, is in good agreement with the available experimental data, −5.67 kcal/mol. The further analysis of the detailed interaction between each KAR and the protein reveals the primary reasons for the difference of the affinity of the diverse ligands with the receptor and displays the regional characteristics of the protein’s active site. Our research will not only provide clues for the study of equivalent endogenous phytohormone, but also contribute to the development of synthetic germinating chemicals."

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Versatile Roles of the Receptor-Like Kinase Feronia in Plant Growth, Development and Host-Pathogen Interaction - Review

Versatile Roles of the Receptor-Like Kinase Feronia in Plant Growth, Development and Host-Pathogen Interaction - Review | Plant hormones (Literature sources on phytohormones and plant signalling being continuously updated; 50 latest postings shown) | Scoop.it

Authors: Dongchao Ji, Tong Chen, Zhanquan Zhang, Boqiang Li and Shiping Tian.


International Journal of Molecular Sciences (2020)


Abstract: "As a member of the Catharanthus roseus receptor-like kinase 1-like (CrRLK1L) protein kinase subfamily, FERONIA (FER) has emerged as a versatile player regulating multifaceted functions in growth and development, as well as responses to environmental factors and pathogens. With the concerted efforts of researchers, the molecular mechanism underlying FER-dependent signaling has been gradually elucidated. A number of cellular processes regulated by FER-ligand interactions have been extensively reported, implying cell type-specific mechanisms for FER. Here, we provide a review on the roles of FER in male-female gametophyte recognition, cell elongation, hormonal signaling, stress responses, responses to fungi and bacteria, and present a brief outlook for future efforts."

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Overexpression of GmMYB14 improves high‐density yield and drought tolerance through regulating plant architecture mediated by the brassinosteroid pathway

Overexpression of GmMYB14 improves high‐density yield and drought tolerance through regulating plant architecture mediated by the brassinosteroid pathway | Plant hormones (Literature sources on phytohormones and plant signalling being continuously updated; 50 latest postings shown) | Scoop.it

Authors: Limiao Chen, Hongli Yang, Yisheng Fang, Wei Guo, Haifeng Chen, Xiaojuan Zhang, Wenjun Dai, Shuilian Chen, Qingnan Hao, Songli Yuan, Chanjuan Zhang, Yi Huang, Zhihui Shan, Zhonglu Yang, Dezhen Qiu, Xiaorong Liu, Lam‐Son Phan Tran, Xinan Zhou and Dong Cao.


Plant Biotechnology Journal (2020)


Abstract: "MYB transcription factors (TFs) have been reported to regulate the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, as well as to mediate plant adaption to abiotic stresses, including drought. However, the roles of MYB TFs in regulating plant architecture and yield potential remain poorly understood. Here, we studied the roles of the dehydration‐inducible GmMYB14 gene in regulating plant architecture, high‐density yield and drought tolerance through the brassinosteroid (BR) pathway in soybean. GmMYB14 was shown to localize to nucleus and have a transactivation activity. Stable GmMYB14‐overexpressing (GmMYB14‐OX) transgenic soybean plants displayed a semi‐dwarfism and compact plant architecture associated with decreased cell size, resulting in a decrease in plant height, internode length, leaf area, leaf petiole length and leaf petiole angle, and improved yield in high density under field conditions. Results of the transcriptome sequencing suggested the involvement of BRs in regulating GmMYB14‐OX plant architecture. Indeed, GmMYB14‐OX plants showed reduced endogenous BR contents, while exogenous application of brassinolide could partly rescue the phenotype of GmMYB14‐OX plants. Furthermore, GmMYB14 was shown to directly bind to the promoter of GmBEN1 and up‐regulate its expression, leading to reduced BR content in GmMYB14‐OX plants. GmMYB14‐OX plants also displayed improved drought tolerance under field conditions. GmBEN1 expression was also up‐regulated in the leaves of GmMYB14‐OX plants under polyethylene glycol treatment, indicating that the GmBEN1‐mediated reduction of BR level under stress also contributed to drought/osmotic stress tolerance of the transgenic plants. Our findings provided a strategy for stably increasing high‐density yield and drought tolerance in soybean using a single TF‐encoding gene."

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Baby don't cry, genetic regulation of the weeping phenotype in Prunus mume

Baby don't cry, genetic regulation of the weeping phenotype in Prunus mume | Plant hormones (Literature sources on phytohormones and plant signalling being continuously updated; 50 latest postings shown) | Scoop.it

Author: Sam W. van Es.


Physiologia Plantarum (2020)


Excerpts: "One type of tree that perhaps sparks the imagination more than any other is one that exhibits the weeping branch phenotype. Recognized for their beauty, their drooping, downward facing branches makes them much sought after in parks and gardens. Despite a pretty clear idea of the structural difference of the weeping phenotype, little is known on the molecular regulation of the trait. In this issue of Physiologia Plantarum, Mao et al. (2020 ) screened for candidate genes related to the weeping phenotype to enhance our understanding of the molecular basis behind this characteristic way of growth."


In this issue of Physiologia Plantarum, Mao and colleagues take a close look at the weeping habit in Prunus mume, known commonly by several names including Mei, Japanese apricot and Japanese plum. By comparing differentially expressed genes and plant hormone levels between direct progeny of a weeping and an upright parent they aim to unravel part of the molecular network underlying the weeping trait (Fig. 1). What is interesting about their approach is that they take a detailed look at the lower (abaxial) and the upper (adaxial) side of a branch; as mentioned earlier, it is the tension wood on the adaxial side that contributes to a rigid and upright growing branch. The authors find a higher auxin (indole‐3‐acetic acid, IAA) content in the abaxial side of branches in upright progeny and a higher gibberellin (GA3) content in the adaxial side in weeping progeny with genes involved in the biosynthesis and signaling of these two hormones showing a similar pattern"

Julio Retamaless insight:
Commentary on the Article by Mao et al. ("Weeping candidate genes screened using comparative transcriptomic analysis of weeping and upright progeny in an F1 population of Prunus mume") in Physiology Plantarum. Such paper is to be found at:

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Hydrogen Sulfide: Roles in Plant Abiotic Stress Response and Crosstalk with Other Signals - Review

Hydrogen Sulfide: Roles in Plant Abiotic Stress Response and Crosstalk with Other Signals - Review | Plant hormones (Literature sources on phytohormones and plant signalling being continuously updated; 50 latest postings shown) | Scoop.it
Authors: Dengjing Huang, Jianqiang Huo and Weibiao Liao.

Plant Science (2020)

Highlights: • H2S donors are important tools to explore its roles in regulating plant physiological and biochemical reactions. • H2S regulated Na+/K+ homeostasis and the uptake and transport of metal ion to enhance the tolerance of salt and heavy metal stress. • Antioxidant system, AsA-GSH cycle and H2S-Cys cycle are involved in plant response to abiotic stresses. • Interactions between H2S and NO, phytohormones and polyamines are present in plant response to diverse abiotic stresses. • Persulfidation modification is a promising direction for H2S study.

Abstract: "Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been recently recognized as an endogenous gas transmitter alongside nitric oxide and carbon monoxide. Exposure of plants to H2S, for example through applicating H2S donors, reveals that H2S play important roles in plant response to abiotic stresses such as heavy metals, salinity, drought and extreme temperatures. Sodium hydrosulfide is the most widely used donor in plants due to its direct and instantaneous release of H2S, followed by GYY4137. H2S can enhance plant tolerance to salt and heavy metal stresses through regulating Na+/K+ homeostasis and the uptake and transport of metal ions. H2S also promotes the H2S-Cys cycle balance under abiotic stress and enhances its roles in regulation of the antioxidant system, alternative respiratory pathway, and heavy metal chelators synthesis. H2S coordinates with gaseous signal molecules, reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide to respond to stress directly through influencing their generation or competing for the regulation of the downstream signaling. Moreover, H2S interacts with phytohormones including abscisic acid, ethylene, salicylic acid and melatonin as well as polyamines to regulate plant response to abiotic stresses. In this review, the application of H2S donors and their functional mechanism are summarized. We propose promising new research directions, which can lead to new insights on the role of this gastrasmitter during plant growth and development."
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Physiological and metabolic bases of increased growth in the tomato ethylene-insensitive mutant Never ripe: extending ethylene signaling functions 

Physiological and metabolic bases of increased growth in the tomato ethylene-insensitive mutant Never ripe: extending ethylene signaling functions  | Plant hormones (Literature sources on phytohormones and plant signalling being continuously updated; 50 latest postings shown) | Scoop.it

Authors: Vitor L. Nascimento, Auderlan M. Pereira, Aurelio S. Pereira, Victor F. Silva, Lucas C. Costa, Carla E. A. Bastos, Dimas M. Ribeiro, Camila Caldana, Ronan Sulpice, Adriano Nunes-Nesi, Agustin Zsögön and Wagner L. Araújo.


Plant Cell Reports (2020)


Abstract: "The tomato mutant Never ripe  ( Nr ), a loss-of-function for the ethylene receptor Sl ETR3, shows enhanced growth, associated with increased carbon assimilation and a rewiring of the central metabolism. Compelling evidence has demonstrated the importance of ethylene during tomato fruit development, yet its role on leaf central metabolism and plant growth remains elusive. Here, we performed a detailed characterization of Never ripe (Nr) tomato, a loss-of-function mutant for the ethylene receptor SlETR3, known for its fruits which never ripe. However, besides fruits, the Nr gene is also constitutively expressed in vegetative tissues. Nr mutant showed a growth enhancement during both the vegetative and reproductive stage, without an earlier onset of leaf senescence, with Nr plants exhibiting a higher number of leaves and an increased dry weight of leaves, stems, roots, and fruits. At metabolic level, Nr also plays a significant role with the mutant showing changes in carbon assimilation, carbohydrates turnover, and an exquisite reprogramming of a large number of metabolite levels. Notably, the expression of genes related to ethylene signaling and biosynthesis are not altered in Nr. We assess our results in the context of those previously published for tomato fruits and of current models of ethylene signal transduction, and conclude that ethylene insensitivity mediated by Nr impacts the whole central metabolism at vegetative stage, leading to increased growth rates."

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The Role of OsYUCCA2 in Auxin Synthesis and Promotion of Rice Growth and Development

The Role of OsYUCCA2 in Auxin Synthesis and Promotion of Rice Growth and Development | Plant hormones (Literature sources on phytohormones and plant signalling being continuously updated; 50 latest postings shown) | Scoop.it

Authors: X. L. Han, F. Y. Zhao, Z. L. Wang, X. Che and G. C. Cui.


Russian Journal of Plant Physiology (2020)


Abstract: "YUCCA (YUC) proteins are essential for auxin production and play critical roles in plant growth and development. Many of the fourteen rice OsYUCs identified to date have been characterized, but the functions and expression patterns of OsYUC2 remain unclear. In this study, transgenic rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L. ‘Nipponbare’) overexpressing GUS-tagged OsYUC2 under the control of the ubiquitin promoter or the native OsYUC2 promoter were used to investigate OsYUC2 expression and function. OsYUC2 distribution was restricted to rapidly dividing cells in callus, vegetative, and reproductive tissues. OsYUC2 overexpression promoted plant growth, leading to proliferation of embryonic, adventitious, and lateral roots, and increases in shoot height and grain weight. OsYUC2 localization correlated with auxin localization, and auxin content analysis showed that IAA levels were higher in OsYUC2 transgenic rice than in the wild-type. Furthermore, exogenous addition of 3-indolebutyric acid (IBA, an analogue of IAA) in wild-type plants produced growth phenotypes similar to those of OsYUC2 transgenic rice seedlings. Our results indicate that OsYUC2 has distinct expression patterns and regulates major growth and developmental processes in rice."

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PSK signaling controls ABA homeostasis and promotes shoot growth under mannitol stress - Preprint

PSK signaling controls ABA homeostasis and promotes shoot growth under mannitol stress - Preprint | Plant hormones (Literature sources on phytohormones and plant signalling being continuously updated; 50 latest postings shown) | Scoop.it

Authors: Martina D. Schönhof, Komathy Rajamanickam, Bettina Hause and Margret Sauter.


bioRxiv (2020)


Abstract: "We hypothesized that the growth-promoting activity of the peptide hormone phytosulfokine (PSK), may be important to maintain growth under abiotic stress. To test this hypothesis, we employed mannitol as a stressor and analyzed the involvement of abscisic acid (ABA) that mediates a subset of mannitol responses. Inhibition of seed germination by ABA or mannitol was independent of PSK receptor signaling whereas repression of cotyledon greening was partially dependent on PSKR signaling with receptor null pskr1-3 pskr2-1 seedlings showing enhanced greening. Mannitol led to dose-dependent shoot growth inhibition that was alleviated by PSKR signaling. With mannitol, pskr1-3 pskr2-1 seedlings had strongly reduced shoot fresh and dry weights compared to wild type. Analysis of pskr1-3 and pskr2-1 single receptor loss-of-function lines revealed that signaling via PSKR1 is crucial for shoot growth promotion under mannitol stress. Mannitol and ABA induced expression of PSK3 and PSKR1 and ABA promoted expression of PSK2 and PSK4. In turn, PSKR signaling was required for mannitol-induced accumulation of ABA in the shoot revealing a regulatory feedback loop. PSKRs repressed expression of UGT71B6 encoding an ABA UDP-glucosyltransferase and maintained expression of BG1, an ABA glucosidase which may lead to reduced ABA-glucose conjugation and enhanced ABA remobilization. Marker gene expression analyses supported the conclusion that PSKR and mannitol signaling pathways crosstalk, a conclusion that was supported by the observation that PSK receptor signaling enhanced sensitivity to ABA in mannitol-stressed shoots. In conclusion, PSKR signaling maintains shoot growth under mannitol stress in part by interfering with the ABA pathway."

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Zones of Defense? SA Receptors Have It Under Control 

Zones of Defense? SA Receptors Have It Under Control  | Plant hormones (Literature sources on phytohormones and plant signalling being continuously updated; 50 latest postings shown) | Scoop.it
Author: Hanna Hõrak.

Plant Cell (2020)

Excepts: "In this issue of The Plant Cell, first authors Yanan Liu and Tongjun Sun and colleagues (Liu et al., 2020) systematically dissected the roles of the SA receptors in immunity with the help of the npr1-1 npr4-4D double mutant, in which the perception of SA by all three receptors (NPR1, NPR3, and NPR4) is blocked.They discovered that SA perception and signaling through both receptor types is required for PTI, ETI, biosynthesis of NHP and activation of SAR, as well as regulation of SA catabolism."

"After establishing that both classes of SA receptor were required for systemic immune responses, the authors analyzed their role in PTI and ETI. They determined that both PTI and ETI responses and the induction of respective immune response marker genes were more severely compromised in npr1-1 npr4-4D plants than in the single mutants, suggesting that SA perception participates in PTI and ETI responses."

"The study by Liu et al. (2020) provides a thorough analysis of the contribution of SA signaling through NPR1 and NPR3/4 to local and systemic defense responses and indicates that most SA-triggered immune responses in plants require both types of SA receptors."
Julio Retamaless insight:
Commentary on the article by Li et al. ("Diverse Roles of the Salicylic Acid Receptors NPR1 and NPR3/NPR4 in Plant Immunity") in Plant Cell. Such paper was already posted here and is to be found at.

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Cell Dynamics in WOX5-Overexpressing Root Tips: The Impact of Local Auxin Biosynthesis 

Cell Dynamics in WOX5-Overexpressing Root Tips: The Impact of Local Auxin Biosynthesis  | Plant hormones (Literature sources on phytohormones and plant signalling being continuously updated; 50 latest postings shown) | Scoop.it

Authors: Maria S. Savina, Taras Pasternak, Nadya A. Omelyanchuk, Daria D. Novikova, Klaus Palme, Victoria V. Mironova and Viktoriya V. Lavrekha.


Frontiers in Plant Science (2020)


Abstract: "Root stem cell niche functioning requires the formation and maintenance of the specific “auxin-rich domain” governed by directional auxin transport and local auxin production. Auxin maximum co-localizes with the WOX5 expression domain in the quiescent center that separates mitotically active proximal and distal root meristems. Here we unravel the interconnected processes happening under WOX5 overexpression by combining in vivo experiments and mathematical modeling. We showed that WOX5-induced TAA1-mediated auxin biosynthesis is the cause, whereas auxin accumulation, PIN transporters relocation, and auxin redistribution between proximal and distal root meristems are its subsequent effects that influence the formation of the well-described phenotype with an enlarged root cap. These findings helped us to clarify the role of WOX5, which serves as a local QC-specific regulator that activates biosynthesis of non-cell-autonomous signal auxin to regulate the distal meristem functioning. The mathematical model with WOX5-mediated auxin biosynthesis and auxin-regulated cell growth, division, and detachment reproduces the columella cells dynamics in both wild type and under WOX5 dysregulation."

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LAZY1 Controls Tiller Angle and Shoot Gravitropism by Regulating the Expression of Auxin Transporters and Signaling Factors in Rice  

LAZY1 Controls Tiller Angle and Shoot Gravitropism by Regulating the Expression of Auxin Transporters and Signaling Factors in Rice   | Plant hormones (Literature sources on phytohormones and plant signalling being continuously updated; 50 latest postings shown) | Scoop.it

Authors: Mo Zhu, Yanjuan Hu, Aizi Tong, Bowen Yan, Yanpeng Lv, Shiyu Wang, Wenhong Ma, Zhibo Cui and Xiaoxue Wang.


Plant and Cell Physiology (2020)


Abstract: "Tiller angle is a key factor determining rice plant architecture, planting density, light interception, photosynthetic efficiency, disease resistance, and grain yield. However, the mechanisms underlying tiller angle control are far from clear. In this study, we identified a mutant, termed bta1–1, with an enlarged tiller angle throughout its life cycle. A detailed analysis reveals that BTA1 has multiple functions because tiller angle, shoot gravitropism, and tolerance to drought stress are changed in bta1–1 plants. Moreover, BTA1 is a positive regulator of shoot gravitropism in rice. Shoot responses to gravistimulation are disrupted in bta1-1 under both light and dark conditions. Gene cloning reveals that bta1-1 is a novel mutant allele of LA1 renamed la1-SN. LA1 is able to rescue the tiller angle and shoot gravitropism defects observed in la1-SN. The nuclear localization signal of LA1 is disrupted by la1-SN, causing changes of its subcellular localization. LA1 is required to regulate the expression of auxin transporters and signaling factors that control shoot gravitropism and tiller angle. High-throughput mRNA sequencing is performed to elucidate the molecular and cellular functions of LA1. The results show that LA1 may be involved in the nucleosome and chromatin assembly, and protein-DNA interactions to control gene expression, shoot gravitropism, and tiller angle. Our results provide new insight into the mechanisms whereby LA1 controls shoot gravitropism and tiller angle in rice."

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