Pest risk analysis
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Pest risk analysis
Sharing information on risk assessment and risk management performed to protect plant health and agricultural plant production in the EPPO region and worldwide. Sharing information on PRA methodology (e.g. climate mapping, PRA schemes, evaluation of impact)
Curated by Muriel Suffert
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EPPO and Pest Risk Analysis

This e-journal on 'Pest Risk Analysis' is maintained by the EPPO Secretariat. Its aim is to share information on pest risk analyses and on PRA tools.

 

The European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization is an intergovernmental organization which currently has 51 member countries. 

 On its official website, EPPO also provides:

- PRAs conducted by EPPO Expert Working Groups: http://www.eppo.int/QUARANTINE/Pest_Risk_Analysis/PRA_intro.htm

- national PRAs which have been presented to EPPO Panels: http://www.eppo.int/QUARANTINE/Pest_Risk_Analysis/PRA_documents.htm

- the EPPO Alert List (emerging pests for the Euro-Mediterranean region): www.eppo.int/QUARANTINE/Alert_List/alert_list.htm

 

Read more on EPPO work on PRA on http://www.eppo.int/QUARANTINE/Pest_Risk_Analysis/PRA_intro.htm.

 

Visit the EPPO website: www.eppo.int

Muriel Suffert's insight:

You can also follow updates on this page via twitter (@MurielSuffert)

Discover the new EPPO Platform on PRA at https://pra.eppo.int/

Mehmet Levent's comment, August 4, 2014 7:40 AM
good
Neohouse's comment, July 27, 2017 6:02 AM
Woa bài viết rấy hay . Mong nhận được nhiều bài viết từ bạn
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Saperda tridentata added to the EPPO Alert List

Saperda tridentata added to the EPPO Alert List | Pest risk analysis | Scoop.it

Saperda tridentata (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae – elm borer) is a pest of Ulmus species native to North America. Because it has been intercepted in the EPPO region several times on traded elm wood from the USA, and it is now included in the EU Commission Implementing Regulation 2018/2019 of 18 December 2018, the EPPO Panel on Quarantine Pests for Forestry suggested that S. tridentata is added to the EPPO Alert List.

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Beech leaf disease and its potential causal agent (Litylenchus crenatae) added to the EPPO Alert List

Beech leaf disease and its potential causal agent (Litylenchus crenatae) added to the EPPO Alert List | Pest risk analysis | Scoop.it

 A new disease of beech trees (Fagus spp.) called 'Beech leaf disease' (BLD) has increasingly been observed in forest areas in Eastern USA and Canada and is raising serious concerns among foresters and local communities in affected areas. The disease was first reported on Fagus grandifolia in Ohio (Lake county) in 2012, and it rapidly spread to other counties in Ohio, as well as to Pennsylvania, New York, and Ontario (Canada). The disease has mainly been observed in forests but also in landscaped areas. The cause of this emerging disease remains to be elucidated, but a nematode species, Litylenchus crenatae n. sp., newly described from Japan on Fagus crenata, is now suspected to be at least one of the causal agents of BLD. Considering the threat that this new disease of uncertain etiology represents to beech trees, the NPPO of the United Kingdom has added it to the UK Plant Health Risk Register and also suggested to add it to the EPPO Alert List. This proposal was supported by the Panel on Phytosanitary Measures.

 

 

Photo: Kanzaki et al. https://brill.com/view/journals/nemy/21/1/article-p5_2.xml?lang=en

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EPPO Global Database - off line version

EPPO Global Database - off line version | Pest risk analysis | Scoop.it

EPPO GD Desktop is the 'off-line' version of the EPPO Global Database which replaced PQR in July 2018. It is a piece of software which first needs to be installed on computers. Once installed, no Internet connection is needed to run it.

Contents

The EPPO GD Desktop contains the following data which is directly extracted from the EPPO Global Database:

  • Basic information for many species of interest to agriculture, forestry and plant protection (scientific names, synonyms, common names, taxonomic position and EPPO Codes).
  • Geographical distribution of regulated pests (including invasive alien plants) with world maps.
  • Lists of host plants of regulated pests
  • Categorization (quarantine status) of pests
  • Articles of the EPPO Reporting Service
  • Pictures of plants and pests
Muriel Suffert's insight:

 EPPO GD Desktop does not contain EPPO Standards, PRAs and other EPPO pest-specific documents (these are only available via the EPPO Global Database).

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Tomato brown rugose fruit virus is added to the EPPO Alert List

Tomato brown rugose fruit virus is added to the EPPO Alert List | Pest risk analysis | Scoop.it

Tomato brown rugose fruit virus (Tobamovirus, ToBRFV) was first identified on tomatoes in Jordan in 2015, outbreaks have recently occurred in Germany, in Italy and in Mexico where the virus causes major concerns for growers of tomato and capsicum. As ToBRFV is an emerging virus and tomato is an important crop in the EPPO region, the EPPO Secretariat decided to add it to the EPPO Alert List.

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New EPPO Platform on Pest Risk Analyses

New EPPO Platform on Pest Risk Analyses | Pest risk analysis | Scoop.it

The new online EPPO Platform aims to share information on activities that are related to the evaluation of pest risk in the EPPO region. It includes Pest Risk Analyses (PRAs) produced by EPPO, EFSA, NPPOs or other related agencies from EPPO countries (e.g. Express PRAs, quick scans, interception PRAs, commodity PRAs). These PRAs cover a wide range of pests. Part of the platform is restricted to registered users, so that they can also share draft PRAs or plans for future PRAs. The EPPO Platform on PRAs was released in September 2018.

Muriel Suffert's insight:

More than 400 Pest risk analyses or short risk assessments are already freely available on https://pra.eppo.int/

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Assessment and prioritisation of pathways

Assessment and prioritisation of pathways | Pest risk analysis | Scoop.it

The project is focussed on initiating a network of practitioners of pathway analyses for plant health. As a starting point for the network, the project partners considered addressing 4 objectives: --Identify current systems and methodologies used to assess new and emerging horticultural trade pathways

-Identify knowledge gaps regarding current industry practices in exporting countries

-Develop proposals to overcome existing difficulties in assessing pathways

-Provide a report on options for the systematic evaluation and prioritisation of pathway

The project partners identified a series of knowledge gaps which would need addressing to allow pathways assessments to be more widely performed, along with suggestions for approaches to filling these knowledge gaps.

Muriel Suffert's insight:

This is the result of a Euphresco project

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Grapevine Roditis leaf discoloration-associated virus added to the EPPO Alert List

Grapevine Roditis leaf discoloration-associated virus added to the EPPO Alert List | Pest risk analysis | Scoop.it

In the 1980s, a virus-like disease ‘Grapevine Roditis leaf discoloration’ was first observed and described in Greece. This disease was initially found on 4-year old plants (Vitis vinifera cv. Roditis, a redberry cultivar, grafted on 110R) in the vineyards of Almyros province. The aetiology of the disease remained undermined for a long time. In 2015, a new virus species called Grapevine Roditis leaf discoloration-associated virus (GRLDaV) and belonging to the genus Badnavirus was isolated from symptomatic vines using high throughput sequencing (HTS). In 2015, GRLDaV was detected (by HTS) in a symptomless grapevine plant (V. vinifera cv. Bombino nero) growing in a foundation block in Apulia, Italy. In June 2016, GRLDaV was detected in 4 samples collected from 3 different vineyards in the Adana province in Turkey. More recently, GRLDaV was detected in some grapevine cultivars in Croatia using HTS. Considering the emergence of GRLDaV in grapevine, the EPPO Panel on Phytosanitary Measures suggested that this virus should be added to the EPPO Alert List.

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Dispersal of quarantine pests from businesses receiving potatoes or vegetables, both washed and unwashed

Dispersal of quarantine pests from businesses receiving potatoes or vegetables, both washed and unwashed | Pest risk analysis | Scoop.it

Quarantine pests may be dispersed with organic waste, wastewater or sludge from packing plants that handle domestic and imported potatoes and vegetables. The effectiveness of risk reduction options varies.

This is the key message in a risk assessment that the Norwegian Scientific Committee on Food and Environment, VKM, has conducted on the request of The Norwegian Food Safety Authority (NFSA).

The crops relevant for the assessment are potatoes, bulb, carrots, onions and other root vegetables that are susceptible to damage from quarantine pests. A quarantine pest is a pest of potential economic importance to the area endangered thereby and not yet present there, or present but not widely distributed and being officially controlled.

 

VKM, Rafoss T, Magnusson C, Sletten A, Wendell M, Sundheim L, Brodal G, Ergon Å, Solheim H, Tronsmo AM. (2018) Assessment of quarantine pest dispersal in waste from potato and root vegetable packing plants in Norway. Opinion of the Panel on Plant Health of the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food and Environment. VKM report 2018:15, ISBN: 978-82-8259-312-0, ISSN: 2535-4019. Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food and Environment (VKM), Oslo, Norway.  

Muriel Suffert's insight:

VKM has identified in total 13 plant pathogenic viruses, five plant pathogenic bacteria and phytoplasmas, five plant pathogenic fungi, six plant parasitic nematodes and four plant parasitic insects are considered to have potential for dispersal with waste from packing plants.

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56th meeting of the EPPO Working Party on Phytosanitary Regulations

56th meeting of the EPPO Working Party on Phytosanitary Regulations | Pest risk analysis | Scoop.it

The 56th meeting of the Working Party on Phytosanitary Regulations took place in Bergen, Norway, on 2018-06-19/22 at the kind invitation of the NPPO of Norway. There were 20 participants from 16 EPPO countries and 2 observers from the European Commission and USDA-APHIS. This EPPO Working Party directs and supervises the technical work of many EPPO Panels related to plant health. A summary of the different Panel meetings and Workshops which took place since the last meeting was presented to the Working Party (short summaries of these meetings are posted on this website). The Working Party also discussed the work programme for 2019 and made several recommendations that will be presented to the EPPO Council.

Muriel Suffert's insight:

The Working Party recommended that 16 new pests (including 10 invasive alien plants) should be added to the EPPO Lists of pests recommended for regulation as quarantine pests. 

15 new Standards were considered ready to be presented for approval at Council:

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Update of the Xylella spp. host plant database 

Following a request from the European Commission, EFSA periodically updates the database on the host plants of Xylella spp. While previous editions of the database (2015 and 2016) dealt with the species Xylella fastidiosa only, this database version addresses the whole genus Xylella, including therefore both species X. fastidiosa and Xylella taiwanensis. The database now includes information on host plants of Xylella spp. retrieved from scientific literature up to November 2017 and from EUROPHYT notifications up to May 2018.

This report also includes published information on resistance or tolerance of plant varieties to Xylella spp. The current database includes 563 plant species reported to be infected by X. fastidiosa, of which for 312 plant species the infection has been determined with at least two different detection methods. These species cover hundreds of host plant genera in 82 botanical families (61 botanical families when considering only records with at least two different detection methods). 

 

Raw data and related metadata are published in Zenodo in the EFSA Knowledge Junction community (https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1339344).

Data will be available soon as interactive reports at the following link (expected to be active by end September 2018): https://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/microstrategy/xylella

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EFSA Pest risk assessment of Spodoptera frugiperda for the European Union

EFSA was asked for a partial risk assessment of Spodoptera frugiperda for the territory of the EU focussing on the main pathways for entry, factors affecting establishment, risk reduction options and pest management. 

 

EFSA PHL (2018) Pest risk assessment of Spodoptera frugiperda for the European Union

https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.2903/j.efsa.2018.5351

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Norwegian PRA on Dendrolimus sibiricus and Dendrolimus superans

The two lappet moths, Dendrolimus sibiricus and D. superans, are largely native to Russia and restricted parts of Northern China, Mongolia, Kazakhstan and Japan. The pests feed on the needles several native conifer species (Pinaceae), including species found in Norway; Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). In Russia, these moths can be major pests, where reoccurring defoliation of Coniferous trees under drought conditions eventually lead to death.

Unlikely to establish

VKM is of the opinion that the probability for the two lappet moths to spread naturally to Norway is unlikely, mainly because of the geographical distance and partial sea barriers between Norway and the infested areas.

The overall probability of entry by human mediated pathways for D. superans and D. sibiricus is considered as unlikely.

VKM is of the opinion that, should D. sibiricus enter the pest risk analysis (PRA) area, the probability of establishment and spread are considered as unlikely, due to the combination of suboptimal environmental conditions and the fact that the two potential host trees, Norway spruce (P. abies) and Scots pine (P. sylvestris), are intermediate and poor hosts, respectively.

 

 

VKM, Trond Rafoss, Daniel Flø, Leif Sundheim, Micael Wendell, Guro Brodal, Åshild Ergon, Christer Magnusson, Arild Sletten, Halvor Solheim (2018). Pest risk assessment of Dendrolimus sibiricus and Dendrolimus superans. Opinion of the Panel on Plant Health of the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food and Environment. VKM report 2018:08, ISBN: 978-82-8259-305-2, ISSN: 2535-4019. Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food and Environment (VKM), Oslo, Norway. https://vkm.no/download/18.4911bf9f162d180eeb634517/1524135550834/Pest%20risk%20assessment%20of%20Dendrolimus%20sibiricus%20and%20Dendrolimus%20superans.pdf

Muriel Suffert's insight:

VKM is of the opinion that the probability for the two lappet moths to spread naturally to Norway is unlikely, mainly because of the geographical distance and partial sea barriers between Norway and the infested areas.

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EPPO Platform on Pest Risk Analysis

EPPO Platform on Pest Risk Analysis | Pest risk analysis | Scoop.it

Many national PRAs from Germany, Netherlands, Poland, and the UK have been recently uploaded on the EPPO PRA Platform (https://pra.eppo.int/). 

Muriel Suffert's insight:

More than 800 PRA documents are now available.  

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Dendroctonus valens added to the EPPO Alert List

Dendroctonus valens added to the EPPO Alert List | Pest risk analysis | Scoop.it

The red turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus valens (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), originating from North America was introduced into China (counties of Yangcheng and Xinshui - Shanxi province) in the early 1980s. In 1999, it was found in Hebei province and by 2003 this bark beetle had spread to 85 counties in 3 provinces of Northern China covering an area of more than 700 000 ha causing damage to pine trees. In China, it is estimated that D. valens has killed more than 10 million pine trees since its introduction, mainly Pinus tabulaeformis (Chinese red pine), a species which has been widely planted in monoculture during reforestation programmes. Genetic studies conducted in China in 2005 indicated that D. valens was introduced from the Pacific Northwest of the USA, probably via multiple introductions. However, other studies comparing the symbiont fungi associated with D. valens in North America and China, suggest an introduction from Eastern North America. It is suspected that the introduction of D. valens into China has been associated with imports of unprocessed logs of Pinus ponderosa for use in mine construction. Considering this ‘continental jump’ and the severity of damage reported from China, the EPPO Panel on Quarantine Pests for Forestry recommended that D. valens should be added to the EPPO Alert List

Maydemtienhuyhoang's curator insight, May 29, 2019 12:25 PM
Máy đếm tiền Huy Hoàng chính hãng 
Chức năng : 
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Điện thoại : 0912794368
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Alternanthera sessilis added to the EPPO Alert List 

Alternanthera sessilis added to the EPPO Alert List  | Pest risk analysis | Scoop.it

Alternanthera sessilis (Amaranthaceae) is an invasive plant species that can grow in a variety of habitats. The species is native to Brazil. Throughout its non-native range it has been shown to grow within a number of crop systems and the species has the potential to block irrigation channels and drainage systems. The species is present in a number of EPPO countries, but the extent of these non-native populations is not clear.

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Crisicoccus pini added to the EPPO alert List

Crisicoccus pini added to the EPPO alert List | Pest risk analysis | Scoop.it

In September 2015, Crisicoccus pini (Hemiptera: Coccidae – Kuwana pine mealybug) was found for the first time in Italy causing damage to Pinus pinaster and P. pinea trees in the city of Cervia (Ravenna province, Emilia-Romagna region). In this city, infested pine trees were randomly distributed both along the roads and in private gardens. Considering the severity of damage observed and the fact that this mealybug of Asiatic origin could threaten pine trees, the Panel on Phytosanitary Measures suggested that C. pini should be added to the EPPO Alert List.

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58th meeting of the EPPO Panel on Phytosanitary Measures

58th meeting of the EPPO Panel on Phytosanitary Measures | Pest risk analysis | Scoop.it

The Panel met in Valencia (ES) at the kind invitation of the National Plant Protection Organization of Spain on 2018-10-23/25. The main task of this Panel is to evaluate risks presented by specific pests and design phytosanitary measures to avoid their introduction and spread.

Muriel Suffert's insight:

The EPPO Panel on Phytosanitary Measures discussed the EPPO Study on bark and  ambrosia beetles on non-coniferous wood, and the draft standard on official measures against Huanglongbing

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Dutch Quick scan on Tetranychus mexicanus

Dutch Quick scan on Tetranychus mexicanus | Pest risk analysis | Scoop.it

Tetranychus mexicanus has been observed for the first time in Europe on Beaucarnea plants in a commercial glasshouse in the Netherlands. The plants had been imported from Central America. The species is known to be present in South and Central America and the Caribbean where it is known as a pest on various crops in different countries. The species seems a potential pest for glasshouse crops for the entire EU and a potential pest for outdoor crops, including Citrus, in southern EU memberstates.

 

Quick scan number: QS-ENT-2018-007 Tetranychus mexicanus  https://english.nvwa.nl/binaries/nvwa-en/documents/plant/plant-health/pest-risk-analysis/documents/pest-risk-analysis-tetranychus-mexicanus-quick-scan/pest-risk-analysis-tetranychus-mexicanus+-quick-scan.pdf

Muriel Suffert's insight:

Beaucarnea was not known as a host plant of this pest.

Official measure to eradicate Tetranychyus mexicanus are applied in the glasshouse.

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German Express PRA on Tomato brown rugose fruit virus

German Express PRA on Tomato brown rugose fruit virus | Pest risk analysis | Scoop.it

JKI recently published an Express PRA on Tomato brown rugose fruit virus after a finding in a tomato production place in Nordrhein-Westfalen. This virus is transmitted by seed or contact. 

If was already reported from Israel and Jordan. 

 

The phytosanitary risk for Germany and other EU countries is assessed as high.

 

JKI (2018) Express – PRA zum Tomato brown rugose fruit virus https://pflanzengesundheit.julius-kuehn.de/dokumente/upload/ToBRFV_express-pra.pdf

 

Photo from Dombrovsky and Smith. Seed Transmission of Tobamoviruses: Aspects of Global Disease Distribution DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.70244

Muriel Suffert's insight:

This new virus was first descrided in 2016.

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Pest Risk Analysis on Xylella fastidiosa in Morocco

Pest Risk Analysis on Xylella fastidiosa in Morocco | Pest risk analysis | Scoop.it

Morocco is basically an agricultural country; almost 40% of the workforce is employed in this sector. Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-inhabiting pathogen which can infect more than 300 plant species, although most host species are symptomless. Until relatively recently, X. fastidiosa was primarily limited to North and South America, but in 2013 a widespread epidemic of olive quick decline syndrome caused by this fastidious pathogen appeared in southeastern Italy, and later several cases of X. fastidiosa outbreaks have been reported in other European countries (France, Germany and Spain). Following these recently confirmed findings of X. fastidiosa in the European Union, this bacterium has become a serious threat to the Moroccan flora. The national phytosanitary authorities have adopted several measures to prevent the introduction of X. fastidiosa into the national territory by deciding, inter alia, to suspend importation of host plant species to the bacterium from infected areas. 

Muriel Suffert's insight:

This paper presents the phytosanitary risk of Xylella fastidiosa in Morocco.

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Fiorinia phantasma recently added to EPPO Alert List

Fiorinia phantasma recently added to EPPO Alert List | Pest risk analysis | Scoop.it

The attention of the EPPO Secretariat was attracted by colleagues from USDA-PPQ-APHIS to the emergence of Fiorinia phantasma (=Fiorinia coronata - Hemiptera: Diaspididae) in the USA. F. phantasma is a polyphagous pest of ornamental plants, with a preference for palm tree species. It was initially described from specimens collected in 1914 on Neolitsea sp. in the Philippines (Mount Makiling, Luzon Island). It was found in 2004 in Hawaii (US), first on the island of Oahu infesting landscape palm trees, and then on other ornamentals (in nurseries and the landscape) on the island of Maui. A recent taxonomic review of this scale species concluded that Fiorinia coronata was a synonym of F. phantasma, and that this scale was present in more than 20 countries, thus suggesting that it is spreading. Finally, heavy infestations F. phantasma were discovered in March 2018 in continental USA, in Florida (Miami-Dade county) on Phoenix canariensis. Considering the polyphagy of F. phantasma and its capacity to be moved between continents on plant material, the EPPO Secretariat felt that it could usefully be added to the EPPO Alert List.

 

Photo: Fiorinia phantasma adults- Muhammad. Z Ahmed, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Bugwood.org

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Platynota rostrana and Platynota stultana: short pest risk analysis for the EU

Platynota rostrana and Platynota stultana: short pest risk analysis for the EU | Pest risk analysis | Scoop.it

The Dutch NVWA recently published a short Pest Risk Analysis (PRA)  for the leaf-roller moths Platynota rostrana and P. stultana following findings of these organisms on imported lots of plants for planting in the Netherlands and in the field in southern Spain, respectively. The PRA does not include a pathway-analysis but used information on pathways from PRAs made by the United Kingdom and Spain.

 

NVWA (van der Gaar & van der Straten) 2017. https://english.nvwa.nl/binaries/nvwa-en/documents/plant/plant-health/pest-risk-analysis/documents/platynota-rostrana-and-platynota-stultana-short-pest-risk-analysis/platynota-rostrana-and-platynota-stultana-short-pest-risk-analysis.pdf

 

Photo Platynota rostrana on plants of Dracaena (© NPPO of the Netherlands, June 2015).

Muriel Suffert's insight:

P. stultana has been present in Spain for several years and NVWA assessed that both species can likely establish outdoors in southern parts of the EU. 

P. stultana was recommended for regulation as a quarantine pest by EPPO in 2017. More information at https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/PLAAST

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Xylotrechus chinensis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) added to the EPPO Alert List

Xylotrechus chinensis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) added to the EPPO Alert List | Pest risk analysis | Scoop.it

Xylotrechus chinensis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae - Tiger longicorn beetle) is an Asian wood borer which has recently been found in two EPPO countries (Spain, Greece), causing mortality of Morus trees. In its area of origin, other reported hosts include Malus spp. (apple), Pyrus spp. (pear), and Vitis vinifera (grapevine). Considering the importance of the host plants in the EPPO region, and its recent introduction in several places almost simultaneously, the EPPO Secretariat considered that X. chinensis should be added to the EPPO Alert List.

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Training Workshop on PRA methodologies for Invasive Alien Plants

Training Workshop on PRA methodologies for Invasive Alien Plants | Pest risk analysis | Scoop.it

A training workshop on methodologies for conducting pest risk analysis for invasive alien plants will be held in Belgrade, Serbia. The workshop will start on Friday 30th November at 09:00 and will finish on Saturday 1st  December at 18:00.

The two-day course will combine introductory lecture material with practical exercises to familiarize participants with the EPPO Decision-support scheme for an Express Pest Risk Analysis (PRA) and methodologies for collecting and interpretation of information. The training workshop is intended to stimulate participants to think about what information should be included in a PRA and where this information can be sourced.

Pre-registration should be made using the following link before 2018-09-30: http://meeting.eppo.int/index.php/K5742

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Proceedings of the International Symposium for Risk-Based Sampling (Baltimore, Maryland, June 26-30, 2017)

Australia, New Zealand, and the United States have started shifting their inspection procedures toward statistically-based designs that are consistent with the principles of the SPS Agreement and the guidance provided by ISPMs 23 and 31. Other countries have similar plans or are considering strategies that move in the same direction. Sharing views and experiences contributes to a better understanding of the conceptual foundation, the operational and regulatory challenges, and
responses to inspector and stakeholder perceptions.
The International Symposium for Risk-Based Sampling (RBS) was conceived as a forum for sharing knowledge, expertise, needs, and experience. It was designed to encourage collaboration, advance harmonization, and facilitate implementation. The ultimate objective of the Symposium was to support the evolution of the phytosanitary community toward more efficient and effective inspection programs that are consistent with the international regulatory framework. 

 

Proceedings International Symposium for Risk-Based Sampling
(Baltimore, Maryland June 26-30, 2017) https://www.nappo.org/files/8215/3486/9818/RBS_Symposium_Proceedings_-_08212018-e.pdf

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