microbial pathogenesis and plant immunity
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Rescooped by Jim Alfano from Plants and Microbes
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Zenodo: NLR singletons, pairs and networks: evolution, assembly and regulation of the intracellular immunoreceptor circuitry of plants (2019)

Zenodo: NLR singletons, pairs and networks: evolution, assembly and regulation of the intracellular immunoreceptor circuitry of plants (2019) | microbial pathogenesis and plant immunity | Scoop.it

NLRs are modular plant and animal proteins that are intracellular sensors of pathogen-associated molecules that trigger a potent broad-spectrum immune reaction known as the hypersensitive response. An emerging paradigm is that plant NLRs form immune signalling networks with varying degrees of complexity. NLRs may have evolved from multifunctional singleton receptors, which combine pathogen detection (sensor activity) and immune signalling (helper or executor activity) into a single protein, to functionally specialized interconnected receptor pairs and networks. In this article, we highlight some of the recent advances in plant NLR biology by discussing models of NLR evolution, NLR complex formation, and how NLR (mis)regulation modulates immunity and autoimmunity. Multidisciplinary approaches are required to dissect the evolution, assembly and regulation of the immune receptor circuitry of plants.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Rescooped by Jim Alfano from Plant-Microbe Symbiosis
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The Role of Host Genetic Signatures on Root–Microbe Interactions in the Rhizosphere and Endosphere

Microbiomes inhabiting plants are crucial for plant productivity and well-being. A plethora of interactions between roots, microbiomes, and soil shapes the self-organization of the microbial community associated with the root system. The rhizosphere (i.e., the soil close to the root surface) and endosphere (i.e., all inner root tissues) are critical interfaces for the exchange of resources between roots and the soil environment. In recent years, next-generation sequencing technologies have enabled systemic studies of root-associated microbiomes in the endosphere and interactions between roots and microbes at the root-soil interfaces. Genetic factors such as species and genotype of host plants are the driving force of microbial community differentiation and composition. In this mini-review, we will survey the role of these factors on plant–microbe interactions by highlighting the results of next-generation genomic and transcriptomic studies in the rhizosphere and endosphere of land plants. Moreover, environmental factors such as geography and soil type shape the microbiome. Relationships between the root-associated microbiome, architectural variations and functional switches within the root system determine the health and fitness of the whole plant system. A detailed understanding of plant–microbe interactions is of fundamental agricultural importance and significance for crop improvement by plant breeding.


Via Jean-Michel Ané
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Rescooped by Jim Alfano from Plant-Microbe Interactions: Pathogenesis & Symbiosis
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Autoimmunity and effector recognition in Arabidopsis thaliana can be uncoupled by mutations in the RRS1‐R immune receptor - Newman - - New Phytologist - Wiley Online Library

Plant nucleotide‐binding leucine‐rich repeat (NLR) disease resistance proteins recognize specific pathogen effectors and activate a cellular defense program. In Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) Resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum 1 (RRS1‐R) and Resistance to Pseudomonas syringae 4 (RPS4) function together to recognize the unrelated bacterial effectors PopP2 and AvrRps4. In the plant cell nucleus, the RRS1‐R/RPS4 complex binds to and signals the presence of AvrRps4 or PopP2.

The exact mechanism underlying NLR signaling and immunity activation remains to be elucidated. Using genetic and biochemical approaches we characterized the intragenic suppressors of sensitive to low humidity 1 (slh1), a temperature‐sensitive auto‐immune allele of RRS1‐R.

Our analyses identified 5 amino acid residues that contribute to RRS1‐RSLH1 auto‐activity. We investigated the role of these residues in the RRS1‐R allele by genetic complementation and found that C15 in the TIR domain and L816 in the LRR domain were also important for effector recognition. Further characterization of the intragenic suppressive mutations located in the RRS1‐R TIR domain revealed differing requirements for RRS1‐R/RPS4‐dependent autoimmunity and effector‐triggered immunity.

Our results provide novel information about the mechanisms that, in turn, hold an NLR protein complex inactive and allow adequate activation in the presence of pathogens.

Via Philip Carella
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Rescooped by Jim Alfano from Plant-Microbe Interactions: Pathogenesis & Symbiosis
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A Phytophthora effector recruits a host cytoplasmic transacetylase into nuclear speckles to enhance plant susceptibility

Oomycete pathogens secrete host cell-entering effector proteins to manipulate host immunity during infection. We previously showed that PsAvh52, an early-induced RxLR effector secreted from the soybean root rot pathogen, Phytophthora sojae, could suppress plant immunity. Here, we found that PsAvh52 is required for full virulence on soybean and binds to a novel soybean transacetylase, GmTAP1, in vivo and in vitro. PsAvh52 could cause GmTAP1 to relocate into the nucleus where GmTAP1 could acetylate histones H2A and H3 during early infection, thereby promoting susceptibility to P. sojae. In the absence of PsAvh52, GmTAP1 remained confined to the cytoplasm and did not modify plant susceptibility. These results demonstrate that GmTAP1 is a susceptibility factor that is hijacked by PsAvh52 in order to promote epigenetic modifications that enhance the susceptibility of soybean to P. sojae infection.

Via Philip Carella
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Rescooped by Jim Alfano from Host-Microbe Interactions. Plant Biology.
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BED-domain-containing immune receptors confer diverse resistance spectra to yellow rust

BED-domain-containing immune receptors confer diverse resistance spectra to yellow rust | microbial pathogenesis and plant immunity | Scoop.it
Crop fungal diseases pose great threats to global food security. This study isolates and characterizes three BED-domain-containing immune receptor genes from hexaploid wheat that confer resistance to yellow rust with distinct recognition specificities.

Via Tatsuya Nobori
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Rescooped by Jim Alfano from Host-Microbe Interactions. Plant Biology.
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Defining microbiome function

Defining microbiome function | microbial pathogenesis and plant immunity | Scoop.it
This Perspective argues that microbiome research needs to consider the different philosophical definitions of function to avoid confusion in the field, and uses the hologenome concept as an example.

Via Tatsuya Nobori
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Rescooped by Jim Alfano from Plant-Microbe Interactions: Pathogenesis & Symbiosis
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A Secreted ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ Peroxiredoxin Simultaneously Suppresses Both Localized and Systemic Innate Immune Responses in Planta | Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions

The oxidative (H2O2) burst is a seminal feature of the basal plant defense response to attempted pathogen invasions. In ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ strain UF506, expression of the SC2 prophage-encoded secreted peroxidase (F489_gp15) likely increases bacterial fitness and delays symptom progression in citrus. Two chromosomal 1-Cys peroxiredoxins genes, CLIBASIA_RS00940 (Lasprx5) and CLIBASIA_RS00445 (Lasbcp), are conserved among all sequenced ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ strains, including those lacking prophages. Both LasBCP and LasdPrx5 have only a single conserved peroxidatic Cys (CP/SH) and lack the resolving Cys (CR/SH). Lasprx5 appeared to be a housekeeping gene with similar moderate transcript abundance in both ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’-infected psyllids and citrus. By contrast, Lasbcp was expressed only in citrus, similar to the expression of the SC2 peroxidase. Since ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ is uncultured, Lasbcp and Lasprx5 were functionally validated in a cultured surrogate species, L. crescens; and both genes significantly increased oxidative stress tolerance and cell viability in culture. LasBCP was nonclassically secreted and in L. crescens, conferred 214-fold more resistance to tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBOOH) than wild type. Transient overexpression of Lasbcp in tobacco suppressed H2O2-mediated transcriptional activation of RbohB, the key gatekeeper of the systemic plant defense signaling cascade. Lasbcp expression did not interfere with the perception of ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ flagellin (flg22Las) but interrupted the downstream activation of RbohB and stereotypical deposition of callose in tobacco. Critically, LasBCP also protected against tBOOH induced peroxidative degradation of lipid membranes in planta, preventing subsequent accumulation of antimicrobial oxylipins that can also trigger the localized hypersensitive cell death response.

Via Philip Carella
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Rescooped by Jim Alfano from Publications
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eLife: Host autophagy machinery is diverted to the pathogen interface to mediate focal defense responses against the Irish potato famine pathogen (2018)

eLife: Host autophagy machinery is diverted to the pathogen interface to mediate focal defense responses against the Irish potato famine pathogen (2018) | microbial pathogenesis and plant immunity | Scoop.it

During plant cell invasion, the oomycete Phytophthora infestans remains enveloped by host-derived membranes whose functional properties are poorly understood. P. infestans secretes a myriad of effector proteins through these interfaces for plant colonization. Recently we showed that the effector protein PexRD54 reprograms host-selective autophagy by antagonising antimicrobial-autophagy receptor Joka2/NBR1 for ATG8CL binding (Dagdas, 2016). Here, we show that during infection, ATG8CL/Joka2 labelled defense-related autophagosomes are diverted toward the perimicrobial host membrane to restrict pathogen growth. PexRD54 also localizes to autophagosomes across the perimicrobial membrane, consistent with the view that the pathogen remodels host-microbe interface by co-opting the host autophagy machinery. Furthermore, we show that the host-pathogen interface is a hotspot for autophagosome biogenesis. Notably, overexpression of the early autophagosome biogenesis protein ATG9 enhances plant immunity. Our results implicate selective autophagy in polarized immune responses of plants and point to more complex functions for autophagy than the widely known degradative roles.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Rescooped by Jim Alfano from Host-Microbe Interactions. Plant Biology.
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Novel soil bacteria possess diverse genes for secondary metabolite biosynthesis

Novel soil bacteria possess diverse genes for secondary metabolite biosynthesis | microbial pathogenesis and plant immunity | Scoop.it
Metagenomic and soil microcosm analyses identify abundant biosynthetic gene clusters in genomes of microorganisms from a northern Californian grassland ecosystem that provide a potential source for the future development of bacterial natural products.

Via Tatsuya Nobori
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Rescooped by Jim Alfano from Host-Microbe Interactions. Plant Biology.
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Best practices for analysing microbiomes

Best practices for analysing microbiomes | microbial pathogenesis and plant immunity | Scoop.it
Review Article

Via Tatsuya Nobori
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Rescooped by Jim Alfano from Host-Microbe Interactions. Plant Biology.
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Organic Amendments, Beneficial Microbes, and Soil Microbiota: Toward a Unified Framework for Disease Suppression | Annual Review of Phytopathology

Organic Amendments, Beneficial Microbes, and Soil Microbiota: Toward a Unified Framework for Disease Suppression | Annual Review of Phytopathology | microbial pathogenesis and plant immunity | Scoop.it

Via Tatsuya Nobori
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Rescooped by Jim Alfano from Plants and Microbes
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Science: Plants send small RNAs in extracellular vesicles to fungal pathogen to silence virulence genes (2018)

Science: Plants send small RNAs in extracellular vesicles to fungal pathogen to silence virulence genes (2018) | microbial pathogenesis and plant immunity | Scoop.it

Some pathogens and pests deliver small RNAs (sRNAs) into host cells to suppress host immunity. Conversely, hosts also transfer sRNAs into pathogens and pests to inhibit their virulence. Although sRNA trafficking has been observed in a wide variety of interactions, how sRNAs are transferred, especially from hosts to pathogens/pests, is still unknown. Here we show that host Arabidopsis cells secrete exosome-like extracellular vesicles to deliver sRNAs into fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. These sRNA-containing vesicles accumulate at the infection sites and are taken up by the fungal cells. Transferred host sRNAs induce silencing of fungal genes critical for pathogenicity. Thus, Arabidopsis has adapted exosome-mediated cross-kingdom RNA interference as part of its immune responses during the evolutionary arms race with the pathogen.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Rescooped by Jim Alfano from xiao lin
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Cladosporium fulvum Effectors: Weapons in the Arms Race with Tomato | Annual Review of Phytopathology

Cladosporium fulvum Effectors: Weapons in the Arms Race with Tomato | Annual Review of Phytopathology | microbial pathogenesis and plant immunity | Scoop.it

Via Xiao Lin
Xiao Lin's curator insight, May 1, 2018 2:53 PM
#Must read!
#Scientific career 
 
Rescooped by Jim Alfano from Plant pathogens and pests
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Conserved fungal effector suppresses PAMP-triggered immunity by targeting plant immune kinases

Conserved fungal effector suppresses PAMP-triggered immunity by targeting plant immune kinases | microbial pathogenesis and plant immunity | Scoop.it
Plant pathogens have optimized their own effector sets to adapt to their hosts. However, certain effectors, regarded as core effectors, are conserved among various pathogens, and may therefore play an important and common role in pathogen virulence. We report here that the widely distributed fungal effector NIS1 targets host immune components that transmit signaling from pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in plants. NIS1 from two Colletotrichum spp. suppressed the hypersensitive response and oxidative burst, both of which are induced by pathogen-derived molecules, in Nicotiana benthamiana. Magnaporthe oryzae NIS1 also suppressed the two defense responses, although this pathogen likely acquired the NIS1 gene via horizontal transfer from Basidiomycota. Interestingly, the root endophyte Colletotrichum tofieldiae also possesses a NIS1 homolog that can suppress the oxidative burst in N. benthamiana. We show that NIS1 of multiple pathogens commonly interacts with the PRR-associated kinases BAK1 and BIK1, thereby inhibiting their kinase activities and the BIK1-NADPH oxidase interaction. Furthermore, mutations in the NIS1-targeting proteins, i.e., BAK1 and BIK1, in Arabidopsis thaliana also resulted in reduced immunity to Colletotrichum fungi. Finally, M. oryzae lacking NIS1 displayed significantly reduced virulence on rice and barley, its hosts. Our study therefore reveals that a broad range of filamentous fungi maintain and utilize the core effector NIS1 to establish infection in their host plants and perhaps also beneficial interactions, by targeting conserved and central PRR-associated kinases that are also known to be targeted by bacterial effectors.

Via Christophe Jacquet
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Rescooped by Jim Alfano from Plants and Microbes
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MPMI: Tomato 14-3-3 Proteins Are Required for Xv3 Disease Resistance and Interact with a Subset of Xanthomonas euvesicatoria Effectors (2018)

MPMI: Tomato 14-3-3 Proteins Are Required for Xv3 Disease Resistance and Interact with a Subset of Xanthomonas euvesicatoria Effectors (2018) | microbial pathogenesis and plant immunity | Scoop.it

The 14-3-3 phospho-binding proteins with scaffolding activity play central roles in the regulation of enzymes and signaling complexes in eukaryotes. In plants, 14-3-3 isoforms are required for disease resistance and key targets of pathogen effectors. Here, we examined the requirement of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) 14-3-3 isoform (TFT) protein family for Xv3 disease resistance in response to the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas euvesicatoria. In addition, we determined whether TFT proteins interact with the repertoire of X. euvesicatoria type III secretion effector proteins, including AvrXv3, the elicitor of Xv3 resistance. We show that multiple TFT contribute to Xv3resistance. We also show that one or more TFT proteins physically interact with multiple effectors (AvrXv3, XopE1, XopE2, XopN, XopO, XopQ, and XopAU). Genetic analyses indicate that none of the identified effectors interfere with AvrXv3-elicited resistance into Xv3 tomato leaves; however, XopE1, XopE2, and XopO are required to suppress symptom development in susceptible tomato leaves. Phospho-peptide mapping revealed that XopE2 is phosphorylated at multiple residues in planta and residues T66, T131, and S334 are required for maximal binding to TFT10. Together, our data support the hypothesis that multiple TFT proteins are involved in immune signaling during X. euvesicatoria infection.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Rescooped by Jim Alfano from Plant-Microbe Interactions: Pathogenesis & Symbiosis
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The Phytophthora sojae RXLR effector Avh238 destabilizes soybean Type2 GmACSs to suppress ethylene biosynthesis and promote infection - Yang - - New Phytologist - Wiley Online Library

Phytophthora pathogens secrete many effector proteins to manipulate host innate immunity. PsAvh238 is a Phytophthora sojae RXLR effector, which evolved to escape host recognition by mutating one nucleotide whereas retained plant immunity‐suppressing activity to enhance infection. However, the molecular basis of PsAvh238 virulence function remains largely enigmatic.

By using coimmunoprecipitation and liquid chromatography‐tandem mass spectrometry analysis, we identified the 1‐aminocyclopropane‐1‐carboxylate synthase (ACS) isoforms, the key enzymes in ethylene (ET) biosynthesis, as a host target of PsAvh238.

We show that PsAvh238 interacts with soybean ACSs (GmACSs) in vivo and in vitro. By destabilizing Type2 GmACSs, PsAvh238 suppresses Type2 ACS‐catalyzed ET biosynthesis and facilitates Phytophthora infection. Silencing of Type2 GmACSs, and inhibition of ET biosynthesis or signaling increase soybean susceptibility to P. sojae infection, supporting a role for Type2 GmACSs and ET in plant immunity against P. sojae. Moreover, wild‐type P. sojae but not the PsAvh238‐disrupted mutants, inhibits ET induction and promotes P. sojae infection in soybean.

Our results highlights the ET biosynthesis pathway as an essential part in plant immunity against P. sojae and a direct effector target.

Via Philip Carella
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Rescooped by Jim Alfano from Plant-Microbe Symbiosis
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Systemic control of legume susceptibility to rhizobial infection by a mobile microRNA

Systemic control of legume susceptibility to rhizobial infection by a mobile microRNA | microbial pathogenesis and plant immunity | Scoop.it
Nitrogen-fixing root nodules on legumes result from two developmental processes, bacterial infection and nodule organogenesis. To balance symbiosis and plant growth, legume hosts restrict nodule numbers through an inducible autoregulatory process. Here, we present a mechanism where repression of a negative regulator ensures symbiotic susceptibility of uninfected roots of the host Lotus japonicus. We show that microRNA miR2111 undergoes shoot-to-root translocation to control rhizobial infection through posttranscriptional regulation of the symbiosis suppressor TOO MUCH LOVE in roots. miR2111 maintains a susceptible default status in uninfected hosts and functions as an activator of symbiosis downstream of LOTUS HISTIDINE KINASE1–mediated cytokinin perception in roots and HYPERNODULATION ABERRANT ROOT FORMATION1, a shoot factor in autoregulation. The miR2111-TML node ensures activation of feedback regulation to balance infection and nodulation events.


Via Jean-Michel Ané
Jean-Michel Ané's curator insight, September 4, 2018 4:56 PM

Outstanding paper... a MUST read

Rescooped by Jim Alfano from Host-Microbe Interactions. Plant Biology.
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Are microbiome studies ready for hypothesis-driven research?


Via Tatsuya Nobori
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Rescooped by Jim Alfano from Publications from The Sainsbury Laboratory
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Nature Plants: Polymorphic residues in rice NLRs expand binding and response to effectors of the blast pathogen (2018)

Nature Plants: Polymorphic residues in rice NLRs expand binding and response to effectors of the blast pathogen (2018) | microbial pathogenesis and plant immunity | Scoop.it

Accelerated adaptive evolution is a hallmark of plant–pathogen interactions. Plant intracellular immune receptors (NLRs) often occur as allelic series with differential pathogen specificities. The determinants of this specificity remain largely unknown. Here, we unravelled the biophysical and structural basis of expanded specificity in the allelic rice NLR Pik, which responds to the effector AVR-Pik from the rice blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. Rice plants expressing the Pikm allele resist infection by blast strains expressing any of three AVR-Pik effector variants, whereas those expressing Pikp only respond to one. Unlike Pikp, the integrated heavy metal-associated (HMA) domain of Pikm binds with high affinity to each of the three recognized effector variants, and variation at binding interfaces between effectors and Pikp-HMA or Pikm-HMA domains encodes specificity. By understanding how co-evolution has shaped the response profile of an allelic NLR, we highlight how natural selection drove the emergence of new receptor specificities. This work has implications for the engineering of NLRs with improved utility in agriculture.


Via The Sainsbury Lab
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Rescooped by Jim Alfano from Host-Microbe Interactions. Plant Biology.
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Large-scale replicated field study of maize rhizosphere identifies heritable microbes


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Defining essential processes in plant pathogenesis with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 disarmed polymutants and a subset of key type III effectors - Wei - 2018 - Molecular Plant Pathology -...

Defining essential processes in plant pathogenesis with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 disarmed polymutants and a subset of key type III effectors - Wei - 2018 - Molecular Plant Pathology -... | microbial pathogenesis and plant immunity | Scoop.it
Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 and its derivatives cause disease in tomato, Arabidopsis and Nicotiana benthamiana. The primary virulence factors include a repertoire of 29 effector proteins injected into plant cells by the type III secretion system and the phytotoxin coronatine. The complete repertoire of effector genes and key coronatine biosynthesis genes have been progressively deleted and minimally reassembled to reconstitute basic pathogenic ability in N. benthamiana, and in Arabidopsis plants that have mutations in target genes that mimic effector actions. This approach and molecular studies of effector activities and plant immune system targets have highlighted a small subset of effectors that contribute to essential processes in pathogenesis. Most notably, HopM1 and AvrE1 redundantly promote an aqueous apoplastic environment, and AvrPtoB and AvrPto redundantly block early immune responses, two conditions that are sufficient for substantial bacterial growth in planta. In addition, disarmed DC3000 polymutants have been used to identify the individual effectors responsible for specific activities of the complete repertoire and to more effectively study effector domains, effector interplay and effector actions on host targets. Such work has revealed that AvrPtoB suppresses cell death elicitation in N. benthamiana that is triggered by another effector in the DC3000 repertoire, highlighting an important aspect of effector interplay in native repertoires. Disarmed DC3000 polymutants support the natural delivery of test effectors and infection readouts that more accurately reveal effector functions in key pathogenesis processes, and enable the identification of effectors with similar activities from a broad range of other pathogens that also defeat plants with cytoplasmic effectors.
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Two chloroplast-localized proteins: AtNHR2A and AtNHR2B, contribute to callose deposition during nonhost disease resistance in Arabidopsis | Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions

Plants are naturally resistant to most pathogens through a broad and durable defense response called nonhost disease resistance. Nonhost disease resistance is a complex process that includes preformed physical and chemical barriers and induced responses. In spite of its importance, many components of nonhost disease resistance remain to be identified and characterized. Using virus-induced gene silencing in Nicotiana benthamiana, we discovered a novel gene that we named NbNHR2 (N. benthamiana nonhost resistance 2). NbNHR2-silenced plants were susceptible to the non-adapted pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato T1 that does not cause disease in wild-type or non-silenced N. benthamiana plants. We found two orthologous genes in Arabidopsis thaliana: AtNHR2A and AtNHR2B. Similar to the results obtained in N. benthamiana, Atnhr2a and Atnhr2b mutants were susceptible to the non-adapted bacterial pathogen of A. thaliana, P. syringae pv. tabaci. We further found that these mutants were also defective in callose deposition. AtNHR2A and AtNHR2B fluorescent protein fusions transiently expressed in N. benthamiana localized predominantly to chloroplasts and a few unidentified dynamic puncta. RFP-AtNHR2A and AtNHR2B-GFP displayed overlapping signals in chloroplasts indicating that the two proteins could interact; a notion supported by co-immunoprecipitation studies. We propose that AtNHR2A and AtNHR2B are new components of a chloroplast-signaling pathway that activates callose deposition to the cell wall in response to bacterial pathogens.

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interesting paper

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The Defense Phytohormone Signaling Network Enables Rapid, High-amplitude Transcriptional Reprogramming During Effector-Triggered Immunity

The Defense Phytohormone Signaling Network Enables Rapid, High-amplitude Transcriptional Reprogramming During Effector-Triggered Immunity | microbial pathogenesis and plant immunity | Scoop.it
The phytohormone network consisting of jasmonate (JA), ethylene, PHYTOALEXIN-DEFICIENT 4 (PAD4) and salicylic acid (SA) signaling is required for the two modes of plant immunity, pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI). A previous study showed that during PTI, the transcriptional responses of over five thousand genes qualitatively depend on complex interactions between the network components. However, the role of the network in transcriptional reprogramming during ETI and whether it differs between PTI and ETI remain elusive. Here, we generated time-series RNA-sequencing data of Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type and combinatorial mutant plants deficient in components of the network upon challenge with virulent or ETI-triggering avirulent strains of the foliar bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. Resistant plants such as the wild type achieved high-amplitude transcriptional reprogramming four hours after challenge with avirulent strains and sustained this transcriptome response. Strikingly, susceptible plants including the quadruple network mutant showed almost identical transcriptome responses to resistant plants but with several hours delay. Furthermore, gene co-expression network structure was highly conserved between the wild-type and quadruple mutant. Thus, in contrast to PTI, the phytohormone network is required only for achieving high-amplitude transcriptional reprogramming within the early time window of ETI against this bacterial pathogen.

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Modular Study of the Type III Effector Repertoire in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 Reveals a Matrix of Effector Interplay in Pathogenesis

Modular Study of the Type III Effector Repertoire in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 Reveals a Matrix of Effector Interplay in Pathogenesis | microbial pathogenesis and plant immunity | Scoop.it
The bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 suppresses the two-tiered innate immune system of Nicotiana benthamiana and other plants by injecting a complex repertoire of type III secretion effector (T3E) proteins. Effectorless polymutant DC3000D36E was used with a modularized system for native delivery of the 29 DC3000 T3Es singly and in pairs. Assays of the performance of this T3E library in N. benthamiana leaves revealed a matrix of T3E interplay, with six T3Es eliciting death and eight others variously suppressing the death activity of the six. The T3E library was also interrogated for effects on DC3000D36E elicitation of a reactive oxygen species burst, for growth in planta, and for T3Es that reversed these effects. Pseudomonas fluorescens and Agrobacterium tumefaciens heterologous delivery systems yielded notably different sets of death-T3Es. The DC3000D36E T3E library system highlights the importance of 13 T3Es and their interplay in interactions with N. benthamiana.

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Phyllosphere microbiology: at the interface between microbial individuals and the plant host - Remus‐Emsermann - 2018 - New Phytologist -

Phyllosphere microbiology: at the interface between microbial individuals and the plant host - Remus‐Emsermann - 2018 - New Phytologist - | microbial pathogenesis and plant immunity | Scoop.it
Leaf surfaces are home to diverse bacterial communities. Within these communities, every individual cell perceives its unique environment and responds accordingly. In this insight article, the perspective of the bacterial individual is assumed in an attempt to describe how the spatially heterogeneous leaf surface determines the fate of bacteria. To investigate behaviour at scales relevant to bacteria, single‐cell approaches are essential. Single‐cell studies provide important lessons about how current ‘omics’ approaches fail to give an accurate picture of the behaviour of bacterial populations in heterogeneous environments. Upcoming techniques will soon allow us to combine the power of single‐cell and omics approaches.
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