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Patterning and growth control in vivo by an engineered GFP gradient | Science

Patterning and growth control in vivo by an engineered GFP gradient | Science | lignocellulosic biomass | Scoop.it
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Nobelist Talks CRISPR Uses

Nobelist Talks CRISPR Uses | lignocellulosic biomass | Scoop.it
New Nobel laureate in chemistry Jennifer Doudna talks about various applications of the gene-editing tool CRISPR.
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Pierre-Henri Gouyon, ou l'anxiété à géométrie variable | Le

Pierre-Henri Gouyon, ou l'anxiété à géométrie variable | Le | lignocellulosic biomass | Scoop.it
Le Club est l'espace de libre expression des abonnés de Mediapart.
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Transparent Wood Could Be the Window of the Future | USDA

Transparent Wood Could Be the Window of the Future | USDA | lignocellulosic biomass | Scoop.it
Could looking through trees be the view to a greener future? Trees replacing the clear pane glass in your windows is not a work of science fiction. It’s happening now.
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EU Regulation of New Plant Breeding Technologies and Their Possible Economic Implications for the EU and Beyond - Purnhagen - - Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy

EU Regulation of New Plant Breeding Technologies and Their Possible Economic Implications for the EU and Beyond - Purnhagen - - Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy | lignocellulosic biomass | Scoop.it
New plant breeding technologies (NPBTs), including CRISPR gene editing, are being used widely, and they are driving the development of new crops. They are nevertheless a subject of criticism an
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A comprehensive fluorescent sensor for spatiotemporal cell cycle analysis in Arabidopsis

A comprehensive fluorescent sensor for spatiotemporal cell cycle analysis in Arabidopsis | lignocellulosic biomass | Scoop.it
Assessing cell proliferation dynamics is crucial to understand the spatiotemporal control of organogenesis. Here we have generated a versatile fluorescent sensor, PlaCCI (plant cell cycle indicator) on the basis of the expression of CDT1a-CFP, H3.1-mCherry and CYCB1;1-YFP, that identifies cell cycle phases in Arabidopsis thaliana. This tool works in a variety of organs, and all markers and the antibiotic resistance are expressed from a single cassette, facilitating the selection in mutant backgrounds. We also show the robustness of PlaCCI line in live-imaging experiments to follow and quantify cell cycle phase progression. A new multicolour tool named PlaCCI allows for visualization and quantification of discrete cell cycle phases thanks to the sequential expression of three specific fluorescent markers.
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Discovery of broad-spectrum fungicides that block septin-dependent infection processes of pathogenic fungi

Discovery of broad-spectrum fungicides that block septin-dependent infection processes of pathogenic fungi | lignocellulosic biomass | Scoop.it
Many pathogenic fungi depend on the development of specialized infection structures called appressoria to invade their hosts and cause disease. Impairing the function of fungal infection structures therefore provides a potential means by which diseases could be prevented. In spite of this extraordinary potential, however, relatively few anti-penetrant drugs have been developed to control fungal diseases, of either plants or animals. In the present study, we report the identification of compounds that act specifically to prevent fungal infection. We found that the organization of septin GTPases, which are essential for appressorium-mediated infection in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, requires very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), which act as mediators of septin organization at membrane interfaces. VLCFAs promote septin recruitment to curved plasma membranes and depletion of VLCFAs prevents septin assembly and host penetration by M. oryzae. We observed that VLCFA biosynthesis inhibitors not only prevent rice blast disease, but also show effective, broad-spectrum fungicidal activity against a wide range of fungal pathogens of maize, wheat and locusts, without affecting their respective hosts. Our findings reveal a mechanism underlying septin-mediated infection structure formation in fungi and provide a class of fungicides to control diverse diseases of plants and animals. Very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) mediate recruitment of septins to the plasma membrane in fungal appressoria, leading to formation of a septin ring at the point of plant infection. VLCFA biosynthesis-inhibiting chemicals prevent septin assembly and have broad-spectrum fungicidal activity.
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Formation of NPR1 Condensates Promotes Cell Survival during the Plant Immune Response - ScienceDirect

Formation of NPR1 Condensates Promotes Cell Survival during the Plant Immune Response - ScienceDirect | lignocellulosic biomass | Scoop.it
In plants, pathogen effector-triggered immunity (ETI) often leads to programmed cell death, which is restricted by NPR1, an activator of systemic acqu…
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The calcium-permeable channel OSCA1.3 regulates plant stomatal immunity

Perception of biotic and abiotic stresses often leads to stomatal closure in plants1,2. Rapid influx of calcium ions (Ca2+) across the plasma membrane plays an important role in this response, but the identity of Ca2+ channels involved has remained elusive3,4. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis thaliana Ca2+-permeable channel OSCA1.3 controls stomatal closure during immunity. OSCA1.3 is rapidly phosphorylated upon perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Biochemical and quantitative phospho-proteomics analyses reveal that the immune receptor-associated cytosolic kinase BIK1 interacts with and phosphorylates the N-terminal cytosolic loop of OSCA1.3 within minutes of treatment with the peptidic PAMP flg22 derived from bacterial flagellin. Genetic and electrophysiological data reveal that OSCA1.3 is permeable to Ca2+, and that BIK1-mediated phosphorylation on its N-terminus increases this channel activity. Importantly, OSCA1.3 and its phosphorylation by BIK1 are critical for stomatal closure during immunity. Notably, OSCA1.3 does not regulate stomatal closure upon perception of abscisic acid – a plant hormone associated with abiotic stresses. Our study thus identifies a long sought-after plant Ca2+ channel and its activation mechanisms underlying stomatal closure during immune signaling, and suggests specificity in Ca2+ influx mechanisms in response to different stresses.
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Constitutive Activation of Leucine-Rich Repeat Receptor Kinase Signaling Pathways by BAK1-Interacting Receptor-Like Kinase 3 Chimera | Plant Cell

Constitutive Activation of Leucine-Rich Repeat Receptor Kinase Signaling Pathways by BAK1-Interacting Receptor-Like Kinase 3 Chimera | Plant Cell | lignocellulosic biomass | Scoop.it
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Frontiers | Phenotypic Variation of Botrytis cinerea Isolates Is Influenced by Spectral Light Quality | Plant Science

Frontiers | Phenotypic Variation of Botrytis cinerea Isolates Is Influenced by Spectral Light Quality | Plant Science | lignocellulosic biomass | Scoop.it
Botrytis cinerea, a fungal pathogen that causes gray mold, displays a high degree of phenotypic diversity. Light emitting diodes (LEDs) with specific light spectrum are increasingly used as lighting resource for plant greenhouse production. The chosen light spectrum can also have an effect on the pathogens in this production system. In this study, we investigated the phenological diversity in 15 B. cinerea isolates upon different light treatments. Daylight, darkness, and LED lights with different wavelengths (white, blue, red, blue+red) were chosen as treatments. The 15 Botrytis isolates differed in their mycelial growth rate, conidia production, and sclerotia formation. Light quality had a limited effect on growth rate. All isolates sporulated under daylight treatment, red light resulted in lower sporulation, while white, blue, and blue+red light inhibited sclerotia formation in all isolates, and sporulation in most, but not all isolates. Pathogenicity of the Botrytis isolates was studied on 2-week-old strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa ‘Elsanta’) leaves grown under white, blue, and red LED lights. The isolates differed in virulence on strawberry leaves, and this was positively correlated to oxalic acid production by B. cinerea in vitro. Red LED light improved leaf basal resistance to all the tested Botrytis isolates. Blue light pretreatment resulted in decreased leaf resistance to some isolates. Furthermore, we used image analysis to quantify the virulence of the differen
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Cell-cell adhesion in plant grafting is facilitated by β-1,4-glucanases 

Cell-cell adhesion in plant grafting is facilitated by β-1,4-glucanases  | lignocellulosic biomass | Scoop.it

Plant grafting is conducted for fruit and vegetable propagation, whereby a piece of living tissue is attached to another through cell-cell adhesion. However, graft compatibility limits combinations to closely related species, and the mechanism is poorly understood. We found that Nicotiana is capable of graft adhesion with a diverse range of angiosperms. Comparative transcriptomic analyses on graft combinations indicated that a subclade of b-1,4-glucanases secreted into the extracellular region facilitates cell wall reconstruction near the graft interface. Grafting was promoted by overexpression of the b-1,4-glucanase. Using Nicotiana stem as an interscion, we produced tomato fruits on rootstocks from other plant families. These findings demonstrate that the process of cell-cell adhesion is a potential target to enhance plant grafting techniques.


Via Loïc Lepiniec
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Tomato Wall-Associated Kinase SlWak1 Depends on Fls2/Fls3 to Promote Apoplastic Immune Responses to Pseudomonas syringae | Plant Physiology

Tomato Wall-Associated Kinase SlWak1 Depends on Fls2/Fls3 to Promote Apoplastic Immune Responses to Pseudomonas syringae | Plant Physiology | lignocellulosic biomass | Scoop.it
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WUSCHEL triggers innate antiviral immunity in plant stem cells | Science

WUSCHEL triggers innate antiviral immunity in plant stem cells | Science | lignocellulosic biomass | Scoop.it
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Le prix Nobel de chimie décerné à la Française Emmanuelle Charpentier et l’Américaine Jennifer Doudna pour les « ciseaux moléculaires »

Le prix Nobel de chimie décerné à la Française Emmanuelle Charpentier et l’Américaine Jennifer Doudna pour les « ciseaux moléculaires » | lignocellulosic biomass | Scoop.it
L’Académie suédoise a récompensé les deux chercheuses pour la mise au point du système universel d’édition du génome Crispr-Cas9.
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Julien Denormandie: «Il faut remettre la souveraineté alimentaire au cœur des décisions agricoles européennes» – Politique

Julien Denormandie: «Il faut remettre la souveraineté alimentaire au cœur des décisions agricoles européennes» – Politique | lignocellulosic biomass | Scoop.it
Julien Denormandie: « L’agroécologie est un moyen et non une finalité »
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A single bacterial genus maintains root growth in a complex microbiome

A single bacterial genus maintains root growth in a complex microbiome | lignocellulosic biomass | Scoop.it
Plants grow within a complex web of species that interact with each other and with the plant1–10. These interactions are governed by a wide repertoire of chemical signals, and the resulting chemical landscape of the rhizosphere can strongly affect root health and development7–9,11–18. Here, to understand how interactions between microorganisms influence root growth in Arabidopsis, we established a model system for interactions between plants, microorganisms and the environment. We inoculated seedlings with a 185-member bacterial synthetic community, manipulated the abiotic environment and measured bacterial colonization of the plant. This enabled us to classify the synthetic community into four modules of co-occurring strains. We deconstructed the synthetic community on the basis of these modules, and identified interactions between microorganisms that determine root phenotype. These interactions primarily involve a single bacterial genus (Variovorax), which completely reverses the severe inhibition of root growth that is induced by a wide diversity of bacterial strains as well as by the entire 185-member community. We demonstrate that Variovorax manipulates plant hormone levels to balance the effects of our ecologically realistic synthetic root community on root growth. We identify an auxin-degradation operon that is conserved in all available genomes of Variovorax and is necessary and sufficient for the reversion of root growth inhibition. Therefore, metabolic signal interference shapes bacteria–plant communication networks and is essential for maintaining the stereotypic developmental programme of the root. Optimizing the feedbacks that shape chemical interaction networks in the rhizosphere provides a promising ecological strategy for developing more resilient and productive crops. Experiments using an ecologically realistic 185-member bacterial synthetic community in the root system of Arabidopsis reveal that Variovorax bacteria can influence plant hormone levels to reverse the inhibitory effect of the community on root growth.
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A trimeric Cr RLK1L-LLG1 complex genetically modulates SUMM2-mediated autoimmunity

A trimeric Cr RLK1L-LLG1 complex genetically modulates SUMM2-mediated autoimmunity | lignocellulosic biomass | Scoop.it
Cell death is intrinsically linked with immunity. Disruption of an immune-activated MAPK cascade, consisting of MEKK1, MKK1/2, and MPK4, triggers cell death and autoimmunity through the nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) protein SUMM2 and the MAPK kinase kinase MEKK2. In this study, we identify a Catharanthus roseus receptor-like kinase 1-like (CrRLK1L), named LETUM2/MEDOS1 (LET2/MDS1), and the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein LLG1 as regulators of mekk1-mkk1/2-mpk4 cell death. LET2/MDS1 functions additively with LET1, another CrRLK1L, and acts genetically downstream of MEKK2 in regulating SUMM2 activation. LET2/MDS1 complexes with LET1 and promotes LET1 phosphorylation, revealing an intertwined regulation between different CrRLK1Ls. LLG1 interacts with the ectodomain of LET1/2 and mediates LET1/2 transport to the plasma membrane, corroborating its function as a co-receptor of LET1/2 in the mekk1-mkk1/2-mpk4 cell death pathway. Thus, our data suggest that a trimeric complex consisting of two CrRLK1Ls LET1, LET2/MDS1, and a GPI-anchored protein LLG1 that regulates the activation of NLR SUMM2 for initiating cell death and autoimmunity. MAPK signaling suppresses autoimmunity mediated by the SUMM2 receptor in Arabidopsis. Here Huang et al. show that a trimeric complex consisting of the GPI anchored protein LLG1, and the two receptor-like proteins LET1 and LET2, promotes activation of SUMM2 according to MAPK signaling status.
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Emballage : Stora Enso développe une mousse issue de cellulose

Emballage : Stora Enso développe une mousse issue de cellulose | lignocellulosic biomass | Scoop.it

Le papetier finlandais Stora Enso a annoncé la construction d’une unité pilote pour la production de d’une mousse biosourcée CelluFoam. Destiné aux applications d’emballage et de rembourrage

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Architecture of a catalytically active homotrimeric plant cellulose synthase complex | Science

Architecture of a catalytically active homotrimeric plant cellulose synthase complex | Science | lignocellulosic biomass | Scoop.it
Herman Höftes insight:

A breakthrough in the plant cell wall field !

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A prion-like domain in ELF3 functions as a thermosensor in Arabidopsis

A prion-like domain in ELF3 functions as a thermosensor in Arabidopsis | lignocellulosic biomass | Scoop.it
Temperature controls plant growth and development, and climate change has already altered the phenology of wild plants and crops1. However, the mechanisms by which plants sense temperature are not well understood. The evening complex is a major signalling hub and a core component of the plant circadian clock2,3. The evening complex acts as a temperature-responsive transcriptional repressor, providing rhythmicity and temperature responsiveness to growth through unknown mechanisms2,4–6. The evening complex consists of EARLY FLOWERING 3 (ELF3)4,7, a large scaffold protein and key component of temperature sensing; ELF4, a small α-helical protein; and LUX ARRYTHMO (LUX), a DNA-binding protein required to recruit the evening complex to transcriptional targets. ELF3 contains a polyglutamine (polyQ) repeat8–10, embedded within a predicted prion domain (PrD). Here we find that the length of the polyQ repeat correlates with thermal responsiveness. We show that ELF3 proteins in plants from hotter climates, with no detectable PrD, are active at high temperatures, and lack thermal responsiveness. The temperature sensitivity of ELF3 is also modulated by the levels of ELF4, indicating that ELF4 can stabilize the function of ELF3. In both Arabidopsis and a heterologous system, ELF3 fused with green fluorescent protein forms speckles within minutes in response to higher temperatures, in a PrD-dependent manner. A purified fragment encompassing the ELF3 PrD reversibly forms liquid droplets in response to increasing temperatures in vitro, indicating that these properties reflect a direct biophysical response conferred by the PrD. The ability of temperature to rapidly shift ELF3 between active and inactive states via phase transition represents a previously unknown thermosensory mechanism. The adaptability of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana to different temperatures is regulated by the ability of its ELF3 protein to undergo liquid–liquid phase separation, in a manner that is dependent on the protein’s prion-like domain.
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Structural basis of salicylic acid perception by Arabidopsis NPR proteins

Structural basis of salicylic acid perception by Arabidopsis NPR proteins | lignocellulosic biomass | Scoop.it
Salicylic acid (SA) is a plant hormone that is critical for resistance to pathogens1–3. The NPR proteins have previously been identified as SA receptors4–10, although how they perceive SA and coordinate hormonal signalling remain unknown. Here we report the mapping of the SA-binding core of Arabidopsis thaliana NPR4 and its ligand-bound crystal structure. The SA-binding core domain of NPR4 refolded with SA adopts an α-helical fold that completely buries SA in its hydrophobic core. The lack of a ligand-entry pathway suggests that SA binding involves a major conformational remodelling of the SA-binding core of NPR4, which we validated using hydrogen–deuterium-exchange mass spectrometry analysis of the full-length protein and through SA-induced disruption of interactions between NPR1 and NPR4. We show that, despite the two proteins sharing nearly identical hormone-binding residues, NPR1 displays minimal SA-binding activity compared to NPR4. We further identify two surface residues of the SA-binding core, the mutation of which can alter the SA-binding ability of NPR4 and its interaction with NPR1. We also demonstrate that expressing a variant of NPR4 that is hypersensitive to SA could enhance SA-mediated basal immunity without compromising effector-triggered immunity, because the ability of this variant to re-associate with NPR1 at high levels of SA remains intact. By revealing the structural mechanisms of SA perception by NPR proteins, our work paves the way for future investigation of the specific roles of these proteins in SA signalling and their potential for engineering plant immunity. Structural determination of the salicylic-acid-binding core of Arabidopsis NPR4 sheds light on the mechanisms through which this plant hormone interacts with its receptors, providing insights that are of potential use in engineering enhanced immunity.
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Viburnum tinus Fruits Use Lipids to Produce Metallic Blue Structural Color

Viburnum tinus Fruits Use Lipids to Produce Metallic Blue Structural Color | lignocellulosic biomass | Scoop.it
Middleton et al. report that the metallic blue appearance of Viburnum tinus fruits
relies on a layered nanostructure of lipid globules in the epidermal cell wall. As
this lipid-based structural coloration correlates with a high fat content, it is proposed
that this represents an honest signal of nutritional value.
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Auxin-induced signaling protein nanoclustering contributes to cell polarity formation

Auxin-induced signaling protein nanoclustering contributes to cell polarity formation | lignocellulosic biomass | Scoop.it
Cell polarity is fundamental to the development of both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, yet the mechanisms behind its formation are not well understood. Here we found that, phytohormone auxin-induced, sterol-dependent nanoclustering of cell surface transmembrane receptor kinase 1 (TMK1) is critical for the formation of polarized domains at the plasma membrane (PM) during the morphogenesis of cotyledon pavement cells (PC) in Arabidopsis. Auxin-induced TMK1 nanoclustering stabilizes flotillin1-associated ordered nanodomains, which in turn promote the nanoclustering of ROP6 GTPase that acts downstream of TMK1 to regulate cortical microtubule organization. In turn, cortical microtubules further stabilize TMK1- and flotillin1-containing nanoclusters at the PM. Hence, we propose a new paradigm for polarity formation: A diffusive signal triggers cell polarization by promoting cell surface receptor-mediated nanoclustering of signaling components and cytoskeleton-mediated positive feedback that reinforces these nanodomains into polarized domains. The significance of protein nanoclustering in cell polarization is unclear. Here Pan et al. show that auxin-induced TMK1/sterol nanoclustering as well as microtubule-based positive feedback regulation of the TMK1/sterol nanoclusters is critical for cell polarity formation in Arabidopsis.
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