Plant and Seed Biology
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Transgenerational transmission of environmental information in C. elegans

Transgenerational transmission of environmental information in C. elegans | Plant and Seed Biology | Scoop.it
Environmental change can critically affect the lifestyle, reproductive success, and life span of adult animals and their for generations. Klosin et al. showed that in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans , exposure to high temperatures led to expression of endogenously repressed copies of genes—sometimes called “junk” DNA. This effect persisted for >10 generations of worms. The changes in chromatin occurred in the early embryo before the onset of transcription and were inherited through eggs and sperm.

Science , this issue p. [320][1]

[1]: /lookup/doi/10.1126/science.aah6412
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Rescooped by Loïc Lepiniec from Plant hormones and signaling peptides
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Arabidopsis 14-3-3 epsilon members contribute to polarity of PIN auxin carrier and auxin transport-related development

Arabidopsis 14-3-3 epsilon members contribute to polarity of PIN auxin carrier and auxin transport-related development | Plant and Seed Biology | Scoop.it
Eukaryotic 14-3-3 proteins have been implicated in the regulation of diverse biological processes by phosphorylation-dependent protein-protein interactions. The Arabidopsis genome encodes two groups of 14-3-3s, one of which – epsilon – is thought to fulfill conserved cellular functions. Here, we assessed the in vivo role of the ancestral 14-3-3 epsilon group members. Their simultaneous and conditional repression by RNA interference and artificial microRNA in seedlings led to altered distribution patterns of the phytohormone auxin and associated auxin transport-related phenotypes, such as agravitropic growth. Moreover, 14-3-3 epsilon members were required for pronounced polar distribution of PIN-FORMED auxin efflux carriers within the plasma membrane. Defects in defined post-Golgi trafficking processes proved causal for this phenotype and might be due to lack of direct 14-3-3 interactions with factors crucial for membrane trafficking. Taken together, our data demonstrate a fundamental role for the ancient 14-3-3 epsilon group members in regulating PIN polarity and plant development.

Via Christophe Jacquet
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Transcriptional integration of paternal and maternal factors in the Arabidopsis zygote

Transcriptional integration of paternal and maternal factors in the Arabidopsis zygote | Plant and Seed Biology | Scoop.it
In many plants, the asymmetric division of the zygote sets up the apical–basal axis of the embryo. Unlike animals, plant zygotes are transcriptionally active, implying that plants have evolved specific mechanisms to control transcriptional activation of patterning genes in the zygote. In Arabidopsis, two pathways have been found to regulate zygote asymmetry: YODA (YDA) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, which is potentiated by sperm-delivered mRNA of the SHORT SUSPENSOR (SSP) membrane protein, and up-regulation of the patterning gene WOX8 by the WRKY2 transcription factor. How SSP/YDA signaling is transduced into the nucleus and how these pathways are integrated have remained elusive. Here we show that paternal SSP/YDA signaling directly phosphorylates WRKY2, which in turn leads to the up-regulation of WOX8 transcription in the zygote. We further discovered the transcription factors HOMEODOMAIN GLABROUS11/12 (HDG11/12) as maternal regulators of zygote asymmetry that also directly regulate WOX8 transcription. Our results reveal a framework of how maternal and paternal factors are integrated in the zygote to regulate embryo patterning.
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Last issue of Development.. nice cover / paper about integument development  ;-)!

Last issue of Development.. nice cover / paper about integument development  ;-)! | Plant and Seed Biology | Scoop.it

Cover: Central longitudinal section of an Arabidopsis seed, taken from a three-dimensional reconstruction created using the modified pseudo-Schiff propidiumiodide imaging technique. The innermost epidermal integument cell layer is highlighted in yellow whereas the sub-epidermal cell layers are marked in red and green. See Research report by Coen et al. on p. 1490.  "Developmental patterning of the sub-epidermal integument cell layer in Arabidopsis seeds"

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Thermo-Induced Maintenance of Photo-oxidoreductases Underlies Plant Autotrophic Development

Thermo-Induced Maintenance of Photo-oxidoreductases Underlies Plant Autotrophic Development | Plant and Seed Biology | Scoop.it
Ha et al. show that the RNA-binding protein FCA modulates the function of the chlorophyll
biosynthesis enzyme POR by suppressing its protein degradation and inducing its gene
expression at warm temperatures to achieve thermal adaptation during the autotrophic
transition of developing seedlings in Arabidopsis.
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SINAT E3 Ligases Control the Light-Mediated Stability of the Brassinosteroid-Activated Transcription Factor BES1 in Arabidopsis

SINAT E3 Ligases Control the Light-Mediated Stability of the Brassinosteroid-Activated Transcription Factor BES1 in Arabidopsis | Plant and Seed Biology | Scoop.it
Highlights
•SINAT E3 ligases mediate ubiquitination and degradation of dephosphorylated BES1
•SINATs negatively regulate BR signaling through BES1
•Light promotes SINAT protein accumulation to regulate BES1 level
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Rescooped by Loïc Lepiniec from Plant development and evolution
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Transcription factor Interplay between LEAFY and APETALA1/ CAULIFLOWER during Floral Initiation

Transcription factor Interplay between LEAFY and APETALA1/ CAULIFLOWER during Floral Initiation | Plant and Seed Biology | Scoop.it
"The transcription factors LEAFY (LFY) and APETALA1 (AP1), together with the AP1 paralog CAULIFLOWER (CAL), control the onset of flower development in a partially redundant manner. This redundancy is thought to be mediated, at least in part, through the regulation of a shared set of target genes. However, whether these genes are independently or cooperatively regulated by LFY and AP1/CAL, is currently unknown. To better understand the regulatory relationship between LFY and AP1/CAL during floral initiation, we monitored the activity of LFY in the absence of AP1/CAL function. We found that the regulation of several known LFY target genes is unaffected by AP1/CAL perturbation, while others appear to require AP1/CAL activity. Furthermore, we obtained evidence that LFY and AP1/CAL control the expression of some genes in an antagonistic manner. Notably, these include key regulators of floral initiation such as TERMINAL FLOWER1 (TFL1), which had been previously reported to be directly repressed by both LFY and AP1. We show here that TFL1 expression is suppressed by AP1 but promoted by LFY. We further demonstrate that LFY has an inhibitory effect on flower formation in the absence of AP1/CAL activity. We propose that LFY and AP1/CAL may act as part of an incoherent feed-forward loop to control the establishment of a stable developmental program for the formation of flowers"

Via CHAHTANE Hicham
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Genome editors take on crops

Genome editors take on crops | Plant and Seed Biology | Scoop.it
The global population is expected to rise from 7.3 billion to 9.7 billion by 2050 ( 1 ). At the same time, climate change poses increasing risks to crop production through droughts and pests ( 2 ). Improved crops are thus urgently needed to meet growing demand for food and address changing climatic conditions. Genome-editing technologies such as the CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)/Cas (CRISPR-associated protein) system ( 3 ) show promise for helping to address these challenges, if the precision of genome editing is improved and the technology is approved and accepted by regulators, producers, and consumers.
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Root microbiota drive direct integration of phosphate stress and immunity : Nature

Root microbiota drive direct integration of phosphate stress and immunity : Nature | Plant and Seed Biology | Scoop.it
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How did the domestication of Fertile Crescent grain crops increase their yields?

How did the domestication of Fertile Crescent grain crops increase their yields? | Plant and Seed Biology | Scoop.it
Cereal and pulse crops had on average 50% higher yields than their wild progenitors, resulting from a 40% greater final plant size, 90% greater individual seed mass and 38% less chaff or pod material, although this varied between species. Cereal crops also had a higher seed number per spike compared with their wild ancestors. However, there were no differences in growth rate, total seed number, proportion of reproductive biomass or the duration of growth.
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The plant perceptron connects environment to development : Nature 

The plant perceptron connects environment to development : Nature  | Plant and Seed Biology | Scoop.it
Plants cope with the environment in a variety of ways, and ecological analyses attempt to capture this through life-history strategies or trait-based categorization. These approaches are limited because they treat the trade-off mechanisms that underlie plant responses as a black box. Approaches that involve the molecular or physiological analysis of plant responses to the environment have elucidated intricate connections between developmental and environmental signals, but in only a few well-studied model species. By considering diversity in the plant response to the environment as the adaptation of an information-processing network, new directions can be found for the study of life-history strategies, trade-offs and evolution in plants.
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Nature Insight: Plants

Nature Insight: Plants | Plant and Seed Biology | Scoop.it
Plants are a valuable source of nutrition, fuel and building materials, but their sessile nature makes them vulnerable to the environment and pathogens. This Insight highlights pertinent issues in plant research, including signalling in plant immunity, plant interactions with the environment, progress in agricultural genomics and harnessing the quantum properties of photosynthesis for human-made energy conversion systems.
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Rescooped by Loïc Lepiniec from Life Sciences Université Paris-Saclay
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Frontiers in Beneficial Plant-Microbe Interactions

24 - 25 April, 2017

Gif-sur-Yvette - FRANCE

Frontiers in Beneficial Plant-Microbe Interactions<br/><br/>24 - 25 April, 2017<br/><br/>Gif-sur-Yvette - FRANCE | Plant and Seed Biology | Scoop.it

Via Life Sciences UPSaclay
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Rescooped by Loïc Lepiniec from Papers
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Ecosystem Earth

Ecosystem Earth | Plant and Seed Biology | Scoop.it

An ecosystem consists of communities of interacting species and the physical environment on which they depend. Although it is well accepted that Earth consists of many different ecosystems, human societies much less readily recognize that Earth itself is an ecosystem, dependent on interacting species and consisting of finite resources. As the human population has grown and increasingly dominated available resources, “ecosystem Earth” has begun to show increasing signs of stress. Loss of biodiversity, environmental degradation, and conflict over resources among the dominant species are typical signs that a biological system is nearing a state change, which could range from collapse of the dominant species, to development of alternative biological communities, to collapse of the entire system. In this special issue, we identify our impacts on ecosystem Earth, seek to understand the barriers to change, and explore potential solutions. Decades of research on ecosystem dynamics can help to guide our thinking about a sustainable future. Bottom-up reductions in human population growth and resource consumption, changes to how we think about our place in the system, and a willingness to prioritize persistence of the other species within our biological community will lead to a healthier planetary ecosystem. It is essential that humanity begins to better appreciate our role as just one part of a large and interdependent biological community. Our ability to dominate the planet's resources makes us directly responsible for determining the future of the ecosystem on which we, and all other forms of life, depend.

 

Ecosystem Earth
Sacha Vignieri, Julia Fahrenkamp-Uppenbrink

Science  21 Apr 2017:
Vol. 356, Issue 6335, pp. 258-259
DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6335.258


Via Complexity Digest
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The preprophase band of microtubules controls the robustness of division orientation in plants

The preprophase band of microtubules controls the robustness of division orientation in plants | Plant and Seed Biology | Scoop.it
Controlling cell division plane orientation is essential for morphogenesis in multicellular organisms. In plant cells, the future cortical division plane is marked before mitotic entry by the preprophase band (PPB). Here, we characterized an Arabidopsis trm (TON1 Recruiting Motif) mutant that impairs PPB formation but does not affect interphase microtubules. Unexpectedly, PPB disruption neither abolished the capacity of root cells to define a cortical division zone nor induced aberrant cell division patterns but rather caused a loss of precision in cell division orientation. Our results advocate for a reassessment of PPB function and division plane determination in plants and show that a main output of this microtubule array is to limit spindle rotations in order to increase the robustness of cell division.
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Rapid breeding of parthenocarpic tomato plants using CRISPR/Cas9

Rapid breeding of parthenocarpic tomato plants using CRISPR/Cas9 | Plant and Seed Biology | Scoop.it
Parthenocarpy in horticultural crop plants is an important trait with agricultural value for various industrial purposes as well as direct eating quality. Here, we demonstrate a breeding strategy to generate parthenocarpic tomato plants using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. We optimized the CRISPR/Cas9 system to introduce somatic mutations effectively into SlIAA9—a key gene controlling parthenocarpy—with mutation rates of up to 100% in the T0 generation. Furthermore, analysis of off-target mutations using deep sequencing indicated that our customized gRNAs induced no additional mutations in the host genome. Regenerated mutants exhibited morphological changes in leaf shape and seedless fruit—a characteristic of parthenocarpic tomato. And the segregated next generation (T1) also showed a severe phenotype associated with the homozygous mutated genome. The system developed here could be applied to produce parthenocarpic tomato in a wide variety of cultivars, as well as other major horticultural crops, using this precise and rapid breeding technique.
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Rescooped by Loïc Lepiniec from The Plant Cell
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Exploiting the Genetic Diversity of Maize using a Combined Metabolomic, Enzyme Activity Profiling, and Metabolic Modelling Approach to Link Leaf Physiology to Kernel Yield

Exploiting the Genetic Diversity of Maize using a Combined Metabolomic, Enzyme Activity Profiling, and Metabolic Modelling Approach to Link Leaf Physiology to Kernel Yield | Plant and Seed Biology | Scoop.it

Rafael A Cañas, Zhazira Yesbergenova-Cuny, Margaret Simons, Fabien Chardon, Patrick Armengaud, Isabelle Quilleré, Caroline Cukier, Yves Gibon, Anis M. Limami, Stéphane D Nicolas, Lénaïg Brulé, Peter J. Lea, Costas D. Maranas, and Bertrand Hirel

Exploiting the Genetic Diversity of Maize using a Combined Metabolomic, Enzyme Activity Profiling, and Metabolic Modelling Approach to Link Leaf Physiology to Kernel Yield

Plant Cell tpc.00613.2016; Advance Publication April 10, 2017; doi:10.1105/tpc.16.00613


Via Mary Williams
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Selective Autophagy of BES1 Mediated by DSK2 Balances Plant Growth and Survival

Selective Autophagy of BES1 Mediated by DSK2 Balances Plant Growth and Survival | Plant and Seed Biology | Scoop.it
BES1 is targeted to selective autophagy by ubiquitin receptor DSK2
•BIN2 phosphorylates DSK2, enhancing DSK2's interaction with ATG8
•BES1 is ubiquitinated by SINAT2 during starvation stress
•Impaired BES1 degradation results in compromised drought and starvation survival
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Large historical growth in global terrestrial gross primary production : Nature 

Large historical growth in global terrestrial gross primary production : Nature  | Plant and Seed Biology | Scoop.it
Growth in terrestrial gross primary production (GPP)—the amount of carbon dioxide that is ‘fixed’ into organic material through the photosynthesis of land plants—may provide a negative feedback for climate change. It remains uncertain, however, to what extent biogeochemical processes can suppress global GPP growth. As a consequence, modelling estimates of terrestrial carbon storage, and of feedbacks between the carbon cycle and climate, remain poorly constrained. Here we present a global, measurement-based estimate of GPP growth during the twentieth century that is based on long-term atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (COS) records, derived from ice-core, firn and ambient air samples. We interpret these records using a model that simulates changes in COS concentration according to changes in its sources and sinks—including a large sink that is related to GPP. We find that the observation-based COS record is most consistent with simulations of climate and the carbon cycle that assume large GPP growth during the twentieth century (31% ± 5% growth; mean ± 95% confidence interval). Although this COS analysis does not directly constrain models of future GPP growth, it does provide a global-scale benchmark for historical carbon-cycle simulations.
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Plants in Action! Developing a free expert-written plant science textbook

Plants in Action! Developing a free expert-written plant science textbook | Plant and Seed Biology | Scoop.it
Alert: Teachers of plant physiology! Have you ever wanted a free, on-line textbook written by experts and regularly updated? Plants in Action is an on-line resource for students and academics teach…
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A Phase Separation Model for Transcriptional Control

A Phase Separation Model for Transcriptional Control | Plant and Seed Biology | Scoop.it
Phase-separated multi-molecular assemblies provide a general regulatory mechanism to compartmentalize biochemical reactions within cells. We propose that a phase separation model explains established and recently described features of transcriptional control. These features include the formation of super-enhancers, the sensitivity of super-enhancers to perturbation, the transcriptional bursting patterns of enhancers, and the ability of an enhancer to produce simultaneous activation at multiple genes. This model provides a conceptual framework to further explore principles of gene control in mammals.
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Plant Sex Determination

Plant Sex Determination | Plant and Seed Biology | Scoop.it
Sex determination is as important for the fitness of plants as it is for animals, but its mechanisms appear to vary much more among plants than among animals, and the expression of gender in plants differs in important respects from that in most animals. In this Minireview,
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Reconstructing the genome of the most recent common ancestor of flowering plants, Nature Genetics 

Reconstructing the genome of the most recent common ancestor of flowering plants, Nature Genetics  | Plant and Seed Biology | Scoop.it
We describe here the reconstruction of the genome of the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of modern monocots and eudicots, accounting for 95% of extant angiosperms, with its potential repertoire of 22,899 ancestral genes conserved in present-day crops. The MRCA provides a starting point for deciphering the reticulated evolutionary plasticity between species (rapidly versus slowly evolving lineages), subgenomes (pre- versus post-duplication blocks), genomic compartments (stable versus labile loci), genes (ancestral versus species-specific genes) and functions (gained versus lost ontologies), the key mutational forces driving the success of polyploidy in crops. The estimation of the timing of angiosperm evolution, based on MRCA genes, suggested that this group emerged 214 million years ago during the late Triassic era, before the oldest recorded fossil. Finally, the MRCA constitutes a unique resource for scientists to dissect major agronomic traits in translational genomics studies extending from model species to crops.
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Genomic innovation for crop improvement : Nature Research

Genomic innovation for crop improvement : Nature Research | Plant and Seed Biology | Scoop.it
Crop production needs to increase to secure future food supplies, while reducing its impact on ecosystems. Detailed characterization of plant genomes and genetic diversity is crucial for meeting these challenges. Advances in genome sequencing and assembly are being used to access the large and complex genomes of crops and their wild relatives. These have helped to identify a wide spectrum of genetic variation and permitted the association of genetic diversity with diverse agronomic phenotypes. In combination with improved and automated phenotyping assays and functional genomic studies, genomics is providing new foundations for crop-breeding systems.
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Aflatoxin-free transgenic maize using host-induced gene silencing

Aflatoxin-free transgenic maize using host-induced gene silencing | Plant and Seed Biology | Scoop.it
Aflatoxins, toxic secondary metabolites produced by some Aspergillus species, are a universal agricultural economic problem and a critical health issue. Despite decades of control efforts, aflatoxin contamination is responsible for a global loss of millions of tons of crops each year. We show that host-induced gene silencing is an effective method for eliminating this toxin in transgenic maize. We transformed maize plants with a kernel-specific RNA interference (RNAi) gene cassette targeting the aflC gene, which encodes an enzyme in the Aspergillus aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway. After pathogen infection, aflatoxin could not be detected in kernels from these RNAi transgenic maize plants, while toxin loads reached thousands of parts per billion in nontransgenic control kernels. A comparison of transcripts in developing aflatoxin-free transgenic kernels with those from nontransgenic kernels showed no significant differences between these two groups. These results demonstrate that small interfering RNA molecules can be used to silence aflatoxin biosynthesis in maize, providing an attractive and precise engineering strategy that could also be extended to other crops to improve food security.

Via Saclay Plant Sciences
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