Although female sex workers are known to be vulnerable to HIV infection, little is known about the epidemiology of HIV infection among this high-risk population in the United States.
We systematically identified and critically assessed published studies reporting HIV prevalence among female sex workers in the United States. We searched for and included original English-language articles reporting data on the prevalence of HIV as determined by testing at least 50 females who exchanged sexual practices for money or drugs. We did not apply any restrictions on date of publication. We included 14 studies from 1987 to 2013 that reported HIV prevalence for a total of 3975 adult female sex workers. Only two of the 14 studies were conducted in the last 10 years.
The pooled estimate of HIV prevalence was 17.3% (95 % CI 13.5-21.9 %); however, the prevalence of HIV across individual studies varied considerably (ranging from 0.3 to 32%) and statistical heterogeneity was substantial (I2 = 0.89, Q = 123; p < 0.001).
Although the variance across the 14 studies was high, prevalence was generally high (10% or greater in 11 of the 14 included studies). Very few studies have documented the prevalence of HIV among female sex workers in the United States; however, the available evidence does suggest that HIV prevalence among this vulnerable population is high.
A beta version of an interactive website to help people understand their risk of getting or transmitting HIV, developed at RTI International under contract to the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, debuted this month at the National HIV Prevention Conference in Atlanta.
The HIV Risk Reduction Tool, available on the CDC website, offers detailed information on HIV, HIV testing, and behaviors that put people at risk of getting or transmitting HIV. The tool is unique in that it offers the ability to tailor the content by gender, HIV status, and gender of one's sexual partners. Users can also change their selections at any time to get information tailored to specific situations.
"The tool provides current, comprehensive information about HIV in the United States, testing, modes of transmission, factors that increase risk and strategies for reducing risk, all in an effort to help people make informed decisions about how to best decrease their chances of getting or transmitting HIV," said Jennifer Uhrig, Ph.D., the RTI project director.
Another interactive feature allows users to compare the risks of different sexual behaviors and how different prevention methods and risk factors, either alone or in combination, can change those risks. The information is presented from the perspective of either an HIV-negative or HIV-positive person based on user input.
The tool is part of CDC's ongoing HIV awareness and education efforts.
Although fully available, the tool is currently in a beta release. CDC and RTI plan to revise and improve it over time, conducting an evaluation, adding new research findings and incorporating feedback from users.
In this review, we document the historical and cultural shifts in how gay and bisexual men have used the Internet for sexuality between the 1990s and 2013. Over that time, gay and bisexual men have rapidly taken to using the Internet for sexual purposes: sexual health information seeking, finding sex partners, dating, cybersex, and pornography. Gay and bisexual men have adapted to the ever-evolving technological advances that have been made in connecting users to the Internet—from logging into the World Wide Web via dial-up modem on a desktop computer to geo-social and sexual networking via a handheld device. In kind, researchers too have adapted to the Internet to study gay and bisexual men, though not at the same rapid pace at which technology (and its users) have advanced. Studies have carefully considered the ethics, feasibility, and acceptability of using the Internet to conduct research and interventions with gay and bisexual men. Much of this work has been grounded in models of disease prevention, largely as a result of the ongoing HIV/AIDS epidemic. The urgent need to reduce HIV in this population has been a driving force to develop innovative research and Internet-based intervention methodologies. Moving forward, a more holistic understanding of gay and bisexual men's sexual behavior might be warranted to address continued HIV and STI disparities. The Internet, and specifically mobile technology, is an environment gay and bisexual men are using for sexual purposes. These innovative technologies represent powerful resources for researchers to study and provide rapidly evolving outreach to gay and bisexual men.
It felt like I had a little step back in time this morning back to my student days, iPod in my pocket, Le Tigre’s “Feminist Sweepstakes” on full blast as I sped across town …to a philosophy seminar?
I was off to Manchester Metropolitan University for a day discussing Shame, Stigma and HIV. I have to admit that after a nine year hiatus my philosophical brain struggled a little with the first session – but this is a topic I’m passionate about; why almost 20 years since the development of effective antiretroviral treatment are the psychosocial aspects of HIV treatment continually failing to keep up? Why have we failed to achieve a significant breakthrough against the stigma of HIV despite a medical achievement which ranked alongside the other great biomedical advancements of the 20th Century?
The results of the PROUD study of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) using daily tenofovir + emtricitabine (Truvada) have now been published in The Lancet scientific journal. PROUD, along with the other European randomised study of PrEP, Ipergay, demonstrated considerably higher levels of effectiveness of PrEP in preventing HIV infections than any previous study. The results from both studies were presented this February at the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI 2015).
There is little difference between the results in The Lancet and those presented at CROI but journal publication is important for the provision of PrEP in Europe as both the European Medicines Agency (EMA), which regulate the licensing of medicines, and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), which issues public health recommendations, both require journal publication for studies to be included in their evidence.
I medici sollecitano i più anziani a fare regolari test: i rischi di contrarre il virus Hiv sono gli stessi dei più giovani. Il preservativo utilizzato troppo poco a ogni età.
Gli uomini di oltre sessanta anni ricorrono meno di frequente al test dell’HIV, il virus dell’AIDS, rispetto ai più giovani. A dirlo è uno studio retrospettivo dell’Università australiana di Adelaide condotto per un periodo di 13 anni su oltre 29 mila uomini, di cui 689 over 60. I risultati dello studio, apparso sulla rivista scientifica Sexual Health, sono in linea con i dati più recenti che mostrano un aumento della diffusione di malattie sessualmente trasmissibili, dette anche malattie veneree (MST), nella popolazione non più giovane.
A mini laboratory connected to the smartphone that in just 15 minutes detects if you’ve got AIDS or other STDs, such as syphilis. It is an accessory developed by the School of Engineering and Applied Science of the Columbia University. A kit made up of a device to obtain a finger prick blood, a plastic collector to collect it and a microfluidic chip to analyse the sample. The entire device has then to be connected to the smartphone that, thanks to an application executes the blood test in just a quarter of an hour. A small scientific revolution both from the social point of view because it could be very useful especially in developing countries and from the economic one since the average cost to produce it is $ 34.
Bradford McIntyre never expected to live to be 63. A year after he was diagnosed with HIV in 1984, he was told he had only six months to live.
But he beat the odds and is one of many Canadians now aging with HIV. New research from the Canadian Observational Cohort Collaboration found the average life expectancy for HIV-positive people receiving antiretroviral therapy is now 65.
“I feel fortunate to still be alive today. Many HIV positive people did not live anywhere near the 31 years that I have lived with HIV,” McIntyre says.
McIntyre has been a longtime advocate for HIV/AIDS awareness and started his website positivelypositive.ca in 2003 to share his story and the latest research. He has a good life and enjoys cooking, gardening and spending time at the beach. But he says aging with the virus comes with its own unique set of challenges. These include health, emotional, financial and social effects.
Research shows that HIV accelerates the aging process. A study recently published in peer-reviewed science journal PLOS ONE found that HIV positive people age approximately 14 years faster. This puts them at a higher risk for age-related health issues such as cancers, high blood pressure, frailty, osteoporosis, kidney and liver disease and neurocognitive disorders.
This week we're highlighting more of the research that was presented at IAS 2015, including study results on two new drugs in development, cash-incentive programs for prevention, and approaches to increase treatment adherence. To beat HIV, you have to follow the science!
Le congrès de Vancouver du 18 au 22 juillet 2015 a dévoilé le cas d'une jeune française née séropositive et actuellement en rémission. La jeune fille a arrêté son traitement il y a douze ans, mais avait été placée sous trithérapie dès sa naissance. Pour Onusida, l'accès au traitement anti-VIH dès le dépistage est l'un des outils essentiels pour parvenir à l'objectif "zéro contamination" d'ici à 2030. Les grandes entreprises pharmaceutiques qui contrôlent 75% de la production de médicaments multiplient les actions pour élargir leur diffusion. Des actions pas toujours jugées suffisantes par les Nations unies..
Any sexual relationship, be it a one-time hook-up or longer term, requires clear communication. Consent -- ongoing, affirmative consent about the sexual activities that will occur should be established; and the level of safety with which both people are comfortable should be negotiated. Should.
What are the latest attempts to fight against a disease which claims over 8 million lives a year?
US Vice President Joe Biden issued a call to action at Davos in January. The world needs to step up its game in the fight against cancer, he said, and it needs to start now.
"Our goal," he said, "is to make a decade's worth of advances in five years ... and eventually end cancer as we know it." Today, World Cancer Day, is a chance to reflect on a disease that claims over 8 million lives annually, and take steps towards the dream of ending it.
Purpose– This study aims to explore peoples cognitive perceptions of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) to inform decisions on message development with regard to message bundling, with limited research on the concept of bundling-related prevention messages and no studies that consider the bundling of HIV and other STD prevention messages.Design/methodology/approach– Individual and small-group interviews were conducted with 158 African American men and women to explore perceptions of STDs and communication preferences. Open-ended questions and a pile-sort exercise were used to elicit individuals’ judgments on similarities of 12 STDs, including HIV. Interview data were coded and analyzed for themes and patterns; pile sort data were analyzed using multidimensional scaling (MDS) and cluster analysis to visualize the set of relations identified from the piles.Findings– STDs and HIV are associated with stigma, risk behaviors and personal responsibility. The card sorting activity revealed two primary dimensions by which people organized STDs: seriousness and curability. Potential clusters of STDs that correspond to participants described sorting strategies were identified and they may have implications for message bundling. Disaggregation of the data by sex and age revealed slight variations in the relationships of HIV and human papillomavirus (HPV) to other STDs.Originality/value– By identifying a set of cognitive attributes people use in organizing the overall semantic domain of STDs, ideas can be generated for how best to combine STD and HIV messages to meet public health communication goals.
Sono stabili i casi di nuove infezioni da HIV, come pure quello dei casi di AIDS. Il virus colpisce più gli uomini delle donne e i giovani tra i 25 e i 29 anni. Le modalità di trasmissione sono rappresentate nell’ 84% dei casi da rapporti sessuali senza preservativo sia tra eterosessuali che tra maschi che fanno sesso con maschi. La maggior parte dei pazienti (9 su 10) è seguita presso i centri clinici di malattie infettive ed è sottoposta a terapia antiretrovirale
Nel 2014 in Italia 3.695 persone hanno scoperto di essere HIV positive, un’incidenza pari a 6,1 nuovi casi di sieropositività ogni 100 mila residenti. E’ quanto emerge dalla fotografia scattata dal Centro Operativo AIDS (COA) dell’Istituto Superiore di Sanità che pubblica annualmente un fascicolo del Notiziario dell’ISS dedicato all’aggiornamento dei due flussi di sorveglianza: quello delle nuove diagnosi di HIV e quello dei casi di AIDS.
L’incidenza, ossia le persone che hanno scoperto di essere HIV positive nel 2014, non mostra particolari variazioni rispetto ai tre anni precedenti e colloca il nostro Paese al 12° posto nell’Unione Europea. Le regioni che hanno mostrato un’incidenza più alta sono state il Lazio, la Lombardia e l’Emilia-Romagna. Il virus colpisce prevalentemente gli uomini. Questi rappresentano ben il 79,6% dei casi nel 2014, mentre continua a diminuire l’incidenza delle nuove diagnosi nelle donne. L’età media per i primi è di 39 anni, per le donne di 36 anni. Quanto alla fascia di età maggiormente colpita, è risultata essere quella delle persone di 25-29 anni (15,6 nuovi casi ogni 100.000 residenti).
“Stigmatizing behaviors does not prevent unhealthy activities from occurring.”
Imagine that a thousand people—randomly selected from the U.S. population—had unprotected sex yesterday. How many of them will eventually die from contracting HIV from that single sexual encounter?
Now, imagine a different thousand people. These people will drive from Detroit to Chicago tomorrow—about 300 miles. How many will die on the trip as a result of a car crash?
Which of those two numbers is bigger?
If you’re anything like the participants in a new study led by Terri D. Conley of the University of Michigan, the HIV estimate should be bigger—a lot bigger. In fact, the average guess for the HIV case was a little over 71 people per thousand, while the average guess for the car-crash scenario was about 4 people per thousand.
Spanish pharmacy shops are small, usually family-run businesses with local catchment areas (legislation in Spain forbids pharmacies being owned by retail chains). It was thought that as trusted local professionals, pharmacists were in a good position to suggest and provide HIV testing.
A programme of pharmacy-based rapid testing (using the Determine1-2 fingerprick test) was therefore set up in three Spanish regions: the Basque country, Castila y León and parts of Catalonia, mainly in suburban towns surrounding Barcelona and Tarragona.
The three regions are very different: the Basque country is densely populated and traditional urban working class, the Catalonian towns are low-income suburbs with a high immigrant density, while Castila y León is rural and sparsely populated. The latter has no specific HIV testing services or clinics, with testing done in primary care.
Seventy-four pharmacies took part altogether. For a negative result, the test took 30 minutes: if it was reactive, people were sent to a local clinic or hospital for confirmatory testing (the Determine test used is over 99% specific, but this does imply some false-positives). To take a test cost €5 in Castila y León and the Basque country and €10 in Catalonia.
Introduction: It is increasingly clear that the HIV response will not be sustainable if the number of infections is not significantly reduced.
Discussion: For two decades, research has been ongoing to identify new behavioural and biomedical strategies to prevent HIV infection. In the past few years, the efficacy of several new strategies has been demonstrated, including oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP; i.e. daily use of tenofovir/emtricitabine). Because several social, political and logistic barriers remain, however, optimal PrEP implementation will require a better dissemination of new evidence in a number of areas and additional implementation research from various disciplinary perspectives (i.e. social science, policy and ethics; health systems; and economics, including cost-effectiveness studies). Discussion of new evidence on those topics, as well as case studies of potential PrEP implementation in diverse environments, can improve the understanding of the role that PrEP may play in addressing the global HIV/AIDS epidemic.
In light of these needs, the Network for Multidisciplinary Studies in ARV-based HIV Prevention (NEMUS) and the World Health Organization (WHO) were honoured to co-organize a special issue of JIAS aimed at contributing to a scholarly discussion of current conditions surrounding PrEP implementation, potential impact and efficiency, social science concerns and the study of PrEP implementation in specific country cases. The papers included in this monograph identify and cover many of the main aspects of the complex yet promising discussions around PrEP implementation today.
Conclusions: This is a collection of timely contributions from global leaders in HIV research and policy that addresses geographic diversity, uses a trans-disciplinary approach and covers a variety of the complex issues raised by PrEP. As this publication will become accessible to all, we hope that it will remain a valuable resource for policy makers, programme managers, researchers and activists around the world at a moment of a paradigm shift of the global response to HIV.
There's still plenty of room for progress 95 years after women got the right to vote
Wednesday is Women’s Equality Day, which celebrates the 95th anniversary of when American women finally won the right to vote in 1920.
That victory came after decades of activism by suffrage activists like Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Lucretia Mott. The 19th amendment, which granted women the right to vote, was passed by Congress in 1919, and was ratified by the states in 1920—but not without some drama. By March of 1920, 35 states had approved the 19th amendment, one state shy of the two-thirds needed to pass. Many of the southern states were opposed to women’s suffrage, and the vote came down to Tennessee. Tennessee’s state legislature was divided 48-48 on whether women should be allowed the vote, but that tie was broken by 24-year old lawmaker Harry Burn. He had apparently received a letter from his motherurging him to “be a good boy” and vote for women’s rights.
START symposium panelist Salim Abdool Karim, M.D., Ph.D., the director of the Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa, raised another emerging conundrum in the clinical community: "How does one identify those patients with immune dysfunction?"
One's instinct might be to say: "That's what CD4+ cell counts are for." But there is clearly an imperfect correlation between a person's CD4+ count and their immune health, as evidenced by the number of HIV-positive individuals whodevelop opportunistic infections despite high CD4+ counts. Other mechanisms appear to be at work that a clinician is unable to see using a CD4+ test alone.
That’s how it feels sometimes when you find just the right Twitter tool. And there’s a tool for practically every desire or whim.
Tools for productivity, for efficiency, for research, and so much more. With such a generous API, Twitter tools have become legion—and we social sharers are better off for it.
At Buffer, we tend to come across a fair share of social media tools. We’ve collected a great bunch to share with you! Here are all the tools we’ve found helpful and many more that we’re excited to try. If there’s a free Twitter tool out there, you’re likely to find a mention here in our list.
#It was in 2010 when Dr. Edsel Salvana published his Acta Medica journal article on the Philippine HIV/AIDS Epidemic: A Call to Arms. He concluded that “prevention and awareness campaigns remain b far potentially the most effective means of controlling HIV/AIDS in the Philippines.”.
In a project partially funded by grants from the National Institutes of Health, scientists at Stanford University School of Medicine developed new methods for quickly and easily testing for HIV, CD4+ T lymphocytes, and common bacteria (Shafiee H et al. Sci Rep. doi:10.1038/srep08719 [published...
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