VISUAL INTERFACE We are creating a visual interface to the world's scientific knowledge that can be used by anyone in order to dramatically improve the discoverability of research results.
REVOLUTIONIZE DISCOVERY We are going to provide a large-scale system of open, interactive and interlinked knowledge maps spanning all fields of research.
SHARE. USE. COLLABORATE. We will develop a space for collective knowledge organisation and exploration, connecting researchers, students, librarians, journalists, practitioners and citizens.
HOW IT WORKS An Open Knowledge Maps visualization presents you with a topical overview for your search term.
We use text similarity to create the knowledge maps. The algorithm groups those papers together that have many words in common.
The visualization is intended to give you a head start on your literature search. You can also use Open Knowledge Maps to stay up-to-date - just limit your search to the most recent papers in the options.
Uno de cada siete portadores del VIH de la Unión Europea (UE) ignora su estado, según un estudio publicado el martes por la UE, mientras que la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) alertó sobre el récord de transmisiones en Europa a causa de la propagación del virus en Rusia
Objective To determine the risk of venous thromboembolism associated with use of testosterone treatment in men, focusing particularly on the timing of the risk.
Design Population based case-control study
Setting 370 general practices in UK primary care with linked hospital discharge diagnoses and in-hospital procedures and information on all cause mortality.
Participants 19 215 patients with confirmed venous thromboembolism (comprising deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) and 909 530 age matched controls from source population including more than 2.22 million men between January 2001 and May 2013.
Exposure of interest Three mutually exclusive testosterone exposure groups were identified: current treatment, recent (but not current) treatment, and no treatment in the previous two years. Current treatment was subdivided into duration of more or less than six months.
Main outcome measure Rate ratios of venous thromboembolism in association with current testosterone treatment compared with no treatment were estimated using conditional logistic regression and adjusted for comorbidities and all matching factors.
Results The adjusted rate ratio of venous thromboembolism was 1.25 (95% confidence interval 0.94 to 1.66) for current versus no testosterone treatment. In the first six months of testosterone treatment, the rate ratio of venous thromboembolism was 1.63 (1.12 to 2.37), corresponding to 10.0 (1.9 to 21.6) additional venous thromboembolisms above the base rate of 15.8 per 10 000 person years. The rate ratio after more than six months’ treatment was 1.00 (0.68 to 1.47), and after treatment cessation it was 0.68 (0.43 to 1.07). Increased rate ratios within the first six months of treatment were observed in all strata: the rate ratio was 1.52 (0.94 to 2.46) for patients with pathological hypogonadism and 1.88 (1.02 to 3.45) for those without it, and 1.41 (0.82 to 2.41) for those with a known risk factor for venous thromboembolism and 1.91 (1.13 to 3.23) for those without one.
Conclusions Starting testosterone treatment was associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism, which peaked within six months and declined thereafter.
The first approved dengue vaccine has now been licensed in six countries. We propose that this live attenuated vaccine acts like a silent natural infection in priming or boosting host immunity. A transmission dynamic model incorporating this hypothesis fits recent clinical trial data well and predicts that vaccine effectiveness depends strongly on the age group vaccinated and local transmission intensity. Vaccination in low-transmission settings may increase the incidence of more severe “secondary-like” infection and, thus, the numbers hospitalized for dengue. In moderate transmission settings, we predict positive impacts overall but increased risks of hospitalization with dengue disease for individuals who are vaccinated when seronegative. However, in high-transmission settings, vaccination benefits both the whole population and seronegative recipients. Our analysis can help inform policy-makers evaluating this and other candidate dengue vaccines.
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