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Natural Products Chemistry Breaking News
A recompilation of news and links about natural products, organic chemistry and science more generally ...
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Chinese scientists genetically modify human embryos

Chinese scientists genetically modify human embryos | Natural Products Chemistry Breaking News | Scoop.it

Rumours of germline modification prove true — and look set to reignite an ethical debate.


Serious obstacles

The team injected 86 embryos and then waited 48 hours, enough time for the CRISPR/Cas9 system and the molecules that replace the missing DNA to act — and for the embryos to grow to about eight cells each. Of the 71 embryos that survived, 54 were genetically tested. This revealed that just 28 were successfully spliced, and that only a fraction of those contained the replacement genetic material. “If you want to do it in normal embryos, you need to be close to 100%,” Huang says. “That’s why we stopped. We still think it’s too immature.”

His team also found a surprising number of ‘off-target’ mutations assumed to be introduced by the CRISPR/Cas9 complex acting on other parts of the genome. This effect is one of the main safety concerns surrounding germline gene editing because these unintended mutations could be harmful. The rates of such mutations were much higher than those observed in gene-editing studies of mouse embryos or human adult cells. And Huang notes that his team likely only detected a subset of the unintended mutations because their study looked only at a portion of the genome, known as the exome. “If we did the whole genome sequence, we would get many more,” he says.


NatProdChem's insight:

We are there ... PM

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MH's curator insight, April 23, 3:59 AM

Et voici... l'humain génétiquement modifié. Bienvenue à Gattaca.

 

Les questions éthiques sont majeures. On peut à ce titre s'interroger sur les raisons pour lesquelles les Chinois n'ont pas nos blocages : différence culturelle, régime autoritaire exigeant des résultats... ? Ou est-ce simplement qu'ils le font parce qu'ils en sont capables et pas nous ?

 

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Molecular Networking and Pattern-Based Genome Mining Improves Discovery of Biosynthetic Gene Clusters and their Products from Salinispora Species

Molecular Networking and Pattern-Based Genome Mining Improves Discovery of Biosynthetic Gene Clusters and their Products from Salinispora Species | Natural Products Chemistry Breaking News | Scoop.it

Katherine R. Duncan14Max Crüsemann14Anna Lechner14Anindita Sarkar1Jie Li1Nadine Ziemert1Mingxun Wang2Nuno Bandeira2Bradley S. Moore13Pieter C. Dorrestein3,Paul R. Jensen

Genome sequencing has revealed that bacteria contain many more biosynthetic gene clusters than predicted based on the number of secondary metabolites discovered to date. While this biosynthetic reservoir has fostered interest in new tools for natural product discovery, there remains a gap between gene cluster detection and compound discovery. Here we apply molecular networking and the new concept of pattern-based genome mining to 35 Salinispora strains, including 30 for which draft genome sequences were either available or obtained for this study. The results provide a method to simultaneously compare large numbers of complex microbial extracts, which facilitated the identification of media components, known compounds and their derivatives, and new compounds that could be prioritized for structure elucidation. These efforts revealed considerable metabolite diversity and led to several molecular family-gene cluster pairings, of which the quinomycin-type depsipeptide retimycin A was characterized and linked to gene cluster NRPS40 using pattern-based bioinformatic approaches

doi:10.1016/j.chembiol.2015.03.010




NatProdChem's insight:

Amazing job 

MB

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Biogenetically-Inspired Total Synthesis of Epidithiodiketopiperazines and Related Alkaloids

Biogenetically-Inspired Total Synthesis of Epidithiodiketopiperazines and Related Alkaloids | Natural Products Chemistry Breaking News | Scoop.it

Natural products chemistry has historically been the prime arena for the discovery of new chemical transformations and the fountain of insights into key biological processes. It remains a fervent incubator of progress in the fields of chemistry and biology and an exchange mediating the flow of ideas between these allied fields of science. It is with this ethos that our group has taken an interest in and pursued the synthesis of a complex family of natural products termed the dimeric epipolythiodiketopiperazine (ETP) alkaloids. We present here an Account of the highly complex target molecules to which we pegged our ambitions, our systematic and relentless efforts toward those goals, the chemistry we developed in their pursuit, and the insight we have gained for their translational potential as potent anticancer molecules.


Acc. Chem. Res., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/ar500454v
Publication Date (Web): April 6, 2015


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mQTL.NMR: An Integrated Suite for Genetic Mapping of Quantitative Variations of 1H NMR-Based Metabolic Profiles

mQTL.NMR: An Integrated Suite for Genetic Mapping of Quantitative Variations of 1H NMR-Based Metabolic Profiles | Natural Products Chemistry Breaking News | Scoop.it

High-throughput 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is an increasingly popular robust approach for qualitative and quantitative metabolic profiling, which can be used in conjunction with genomic techniques to discover novel genetic associations through metabotype quantitative trait locus (mQTL) mapping. There is therefore a crucial necessity to develop specialized tools for an accurate detection and unbiased interpretability of the genetically determined metabolic signals. Here we introduce and implement a combined chemoinformatic approach for objective and systematic analysis of untargeted 1H NMR-based metabolic profiles in quantitative genetic contexts. The R/Bioconductor mQTL.NMR package was designed to (i) perform a series of preprocessing steps restoring spectral dependency in collinear NMR data sets to reduce the multiple testing burden, (ii) carry out robust and accurate mQTL mapping in human cohorts as well as in rodent models, (iii) statistically enhance structural assignment of genetically determined metabolites, and (iv) illustrate results with a series of visualization tools. Built-in flexibility and implementation in the powerful R/Bioconductor framework allow key preprocessing steps such as peak alignment, normalization, or dimensionality reduction to be tailored to specific problems. The mQTL.NMR package is freely available with its source code through the Comprehensive R/Bioconductor repository and its own website (http://www.ican-institute.org/tools/). It represents a significant advance to facilitate untargeted metabolomic data processing and quantitative analysis and their genetic mapping.


Anal. Chem., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acs.analchem.5b00145



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'Skunk-like' cannabis associated with 24% of new psychosis cases

'Skunk-like' cannabis associated with 24% of new psychosis cases | Natural Products Chemistry Breaking News | Scoop.it
NatProdChem's insight:

Lancet paper here : http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanpsy/article/PIIS2215-0366%2814%2900117-5/abstract

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Bacteria: Assessing resistance to new antibiotics

Bacteria: Assessing resistance to new antibiotics | Natural Products Chemistry Breaking News | Scoop.it


Losee Ling and colleagues detect no bacterial resistance to the new antibiotic molecule teixobactin (L. L. Ling et al. Nature 517, 455459; 2015), but this could be because the conditions of their test may limit its sensitivity (see J. Ramsayer et al. Evol. Appl. 6, 608616; 2013). 'Evolutionary rescue' is a more powerful assay for evaluating the probability of resistance to novel antibiotics in large bacterial samples, and therefore for informing decisions about their usage.

Evolutionary rescue assays can distinguish between resistant mutants that are present initially and those that emerge later (H. A. Orr and R. L. Unckless PLoS Genet. 10, e1004551; 2014). This type of assay can also be used to evaluate factors that contribute to the emergence of bacterial resistance, such as 'horizontal' gene transfer from other bacteria or the presence of bacterial 'mutator' strains with vastly increased mutation rates.


Nature
519,
158
(12 March 2015)
doi:10.1038/519158e


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Catching a Molecule in an Excited State

Catching a Molecule in an Excited State | Natural Products Chemistry Breaking News | Scoop.it
A twist on an established imaging method has detected a molecule’s short-lived, excited state, raising the possibility of movies of chemical reactions.


Masakazu Yamazaki, Keiya Oishi, Hiroyuki Nakazawa, Chaoyuan Zhu, and Masahiko Takahashi

Molecular Orbital Imaging of the Acetone S2 Excited State Using Time-Resolved (e, 2e) Electron Momentum Spectroscopy


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Intelligent robots must uphold human rights

Intelligent robots must uphold human rights | Natural Products Chemistry Breaking News | Scoop.it
The common fear is that intelligent machines will turn against humans. But who will save the robots from each other, and from us, asks Hutan Ashrafian.
NatProdChem's insight:

No doubt Isaac Asimov would have loved this article.


"Do not underestimate the likelihood of artificial thinking machines. Humankind is arriving at the horizon of the birth of a new intelligent race. Whether or not this intelligence is 'artificial' does not detract from the issue that the new digital populace will deserve moral dignity and rights, and a new law to protect them."

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Mechanisms before Reactions: A Mechanistic Approach to the Organic Chemistry Curriculum Based on Patterns of Electron Flow

Mechanisms before Reactions: A Mechanistic Approach to the Organic Chemistry Curriculum Based on Patterns of Electron Flow | Natural Products Chemistry Breaking News | Scoop.it

A significant redesign of the introductory organic chemistry curriculum at the authors’ institution is described. There are two aspects that differ greatly from a typical functional group approach. First, organic reaction mechanisms and the electron-pushing formalism are taught before students have learned a single reaction. The conservation of electrons, atoms, and formal charges, how the use of curved arrows helps describe the mechanism, and how to predict reaction mechanisms are emphasized. Second, the reactions taught in the first two semesters of organic chemistry are arranged by their governing mechanism, rather than by functional group. The reactions are taught in order of increasing difficulty, beginning with acid–base reactions, followed by simple additions to π electrophiles, and ending the first semester with addition to π nucleophiles, including aromatic chemistry. The reactions in the second organic semester begin with elimination reactions, then substitutions, and finally more complex π nucleophile mechanisms (e.g., aldol reaction) and π electrophile reactions (e.g., acetals). Ultimately, the goal is for students to learn and interpret reactions based on their patterns of reactivity, allowing them to analyze, predict, and explain new reactions. In principle, a mechanistic method is more general, easier to understand, and provides a better way to achieve a deep understanding of chemical reactivity. Chemical reactions follow patterns, and these patterns can allow a chemist to predict how a chemical will behave, even if they have never seen a particular reaction before. Visualizing reactivity as a collection of patterns in electron movement is a more powerful and systematic way to approach learning in organic chemistry. It still requires some memorization, but because the course organization is directly linked to reaction patterns, deeper learning in the discipline is possible.


Department of Chemistry, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5, Canada
J. Chem. Educ., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/ed500284d
Publication Date (Web): February 27, 2015
NatProdChem's insight:

A different approach ...

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A systems approach to traditional oriental medicine : Nature Biotechnology

A systems approach to traditional oriental medicine : Nature Biotechnology | Natural Products Chemistry Breaking News | Scoop.it
Analyzing structural similarities between compounds derived from traditional oriental medicine and human metabolites is a systems-based approach that can help identify mechanisms of action and suggest approaches to reduce toxicity.


Nature Biotechnology
33,
264–268
(2015)
doi:10.1038/nbt.3167
NatProdChem's insight:

Looking at the big picture !

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Isolation, biological activity, biosynthesis and synthetic studies towards the rubromycin family of natural products

Isolation, biological activity, biosynthesis and synthetic studies towards the rubromycin family of natural products | Natural Products Chemistry Breaking News | Scoop.it

The rubromycins are an ever growing family of natural products isolated from various Actinomycetes over the last 60 years. Exhibiting a highly attractive array of antimicrobial and enzyme activity, this unique family of compounds have attracted significant attention from many synthetic chemists. Investigations into the synthesis of the densely functionalised hexacyclic ring system have revealed many hidden synthetic challenges. This review covers the isolation, the reported biological activity and the detailed synthetic studies towards these complex natural products.


Show Affiliations
Nat. Prod. Rep., 2015, Advance Article


DOI: 10.1039/C4NP00153B



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Proposed Systematic Nomenclature for Orbitides

Proposed Systematic Nomenclature for Orbitides | Natural Products Chemistry Breaking News | Scoop.it
Orbitides are short (5–11 amino acid residue), ribosomally synthesized homodetic plant cyclic peptides characterized by N-to-C amide bonds rather than disulfide bonds. Orbitides can be discovered using mass spectrometry of plant extracts or by identifying DNA sequences coding for the precursor protein. The number of orbitides that have been characterized to date, by a number of different research groups, is modest. The nomenclatural system currently used for the Type VI cyclic peptides has been developed in an ad hoc fashion and is somewhat arbitrary. We propose a systematic naming system specifically for the Type VI cyclic peptides that reflects the taxonomic name of the species producing the orbitides and a numbering system that enables systematic representation of amino acid residues and modifications. The proposed naming system emulates the IUPAC Nomenclature for Natural Products and UniProt, both of which use abbreviations of taxonomic names for the compounds in question. Nomenclature for post-translational modifications also follows the IUPAC precedent, as well as the cyclic peptide literature. Furthermore, the proposed system aims to maintain agreement with the precedents set by the pre-existing literature. An example of the proposed nomenclature is provided using the methionine-containing homodetic peptides of Linum usitatissimum (flaxseed).


J. Nat. Prod., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/np500802p
Publication Date (Web): March 18, 2015
NatProdChem's insight:

These type of nomenclature are of much interest for bioinformatics applications.

By the way, if any one has a brilliant idea to describe structural uncertainty in the form of smiles code, I would pay him/her a beer (and he/her would get a nice paper :)


P-M.

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MUSCLE: automated multi-objective evolutionary optimization of targeted LC-MS/MS analysis

MUSCLE: automated multi-objective evolutionary optimization of targeted LC-MS/MS analysis | Natural Products Chemistry Breaking News | Scoop.it

Summary: Developing liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses of (bio)chemicals is both time consuming and challenging, largely because of the large number of LC and MS instrument parameters that need to be optimized. This bottleneck significantly impedes our ability to establish new (bio)analytical methods in fields such as pharmacology, metabolomics and pesticide research. We report the development of a multi-platform, user-friendly software tool MUSCLE (multi-platform unbiased optimization of spectrometry via closed-loop experimentation) for the robust and fully automated multi-objective optimization of targeted LC-MS/MS analysis. MUSCLE shortened the analysis times and increased the analytical sensitivities of targeted metabolite analysis, which was demonstrated on two different manufacturer’s LC-MS/MS instruments.

Availability and implementation: Available at http://www.muscleproject.org.


  1. James Bradbury1,
  2. Grégory Genta-Jouve2,
  3. J. William Allwood2,
  4. Warwick B. Dunn2,
  5. Royston Goodacre3,4,
  6. Joshua D. Knowles5,
  7. Shan He1,* and
  8. Mark R. Viant2,*

- Author Affiliations

  1. 1School of Computer Science and 2School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK, 3Manchester Institute of Biotechnology, 4School of Chemistry and 5School of Computer Science, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9JD, UK

Bioinformatics (2015) 31 (6): 975-977. doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btu740

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Defensive symbioses of animals with prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms

Defensive symbioses of animals with prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms | Natural Products Chemistry Breaking News | Scoop.it

Many organisms team up with microbes for defense against predators, parasites, parasitoids, or pathogens. Here we review the described protective symbioses between animals (including marine invertebrates, nematodes, insects, and vertebrates) and bacteria, fungi, and dinoflagellates. We focus on associations where the microbial natural products mediating the protective activity have been elucidated or at least strong evidence for the role of symbiotic microbes in defense is available. In addition to providing an overview of the known defensive animal–microbe symbioses, we aim to derive general patterns on the chemistry, ecology, and evolution of such associations.


Nat. Prod. Rep., 2015, Advance Article


DOI: 10.1039/C5NP00010F

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luis Quiros-Guerrero's curator insight, April 25, 12:19 PM

interaction-symbioses... one really interesting source of new compounds

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Dereplication: racing to speed up the natural products discovery process - Natural Product Reports

Dereplication: racing to speed up the natural products discovery process - Natural Product Reports | Natural Products Chemistry Breaking News | Scoop.it

Susana P. Gaudêncio*ab and   Florbela Pereiraa

Covering: 1993–2014 (July)To alleviate the dereplication holdup, which is a major bottleneck in natural products discovery, scientists have been conducting their research efforts to add tools to their “bag of tricks” aiming to achieve faster, more accurate and efficient ways to accelerate the pace of the drug disco


Nat. Prod. Rep., 2015, Advance Article


DOI: 10.1039/C4NP00134F

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Large-Scale Metabolomics Reveals a Complex Response of Aspergillus nidulans to Epigenetic Perturbation

Large-Scale Metabolomics Reveals a Complex Response of Aspergillus nidulans to Epigenetic Perturbation | Natural Products Chemistry Breaking News | Scoop.it

The microbial world offers a rich source of bioactive compounds for those able to sift through it. Technologies capable of quantitatively detecting natural products while simultaneously identifying known compounds would expedite the search for new pharmaceutical leads. Prior efforts have targeted histone deacetylases in fungi to globally activate the production of new secondary metabolites, yet no study has directly assessed its effects with minimal bias at the metabolomic level. Using untargeted metabolomics, we monitored changes in >1000 small molecules secreted from the model fungus, Aspergillus nidulans, following genetic or chemical reductions in histone deacetylase activity (HDACi). Through quantitative, differential analyses, we found that nearly equal numbers of compounds were up- and down-regulated by >100 fold. We detected products from both known and unknown biosynthetic pathways and discovered that A. nidulans is capable of producing fellutamides, proteasome inhibitors whose expression was induced by ∼100 fold or greater upon HDACi. This work adds momentum to an “omics”-driven resurgence in natural products research, where direct detection replaces bioactivity as the primary screen for new pharmacophores.


Department of Chemistry, Department of Molecular Biosciences, §Feinberg School of Medicine,Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, United States
Department of Genetics, Department of Bacteriology, #Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, United States
ACS Chem. Biol., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acschembio.5b00025
Publication Date (Web): March 27, 2015


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Molecular cartography of the human skin surface in 3D

Molecular cartography of the human skin surface in 3D | Natural Products Chemistry Breaking News | Scoop.it

The human skin is an organ with a surface area of 1.5–2 m2 that provides our interface with the environment. The molecular composition of this organ is derived from host cells, microbiota, and external molecules. The chemical makeup of the skin surface is largely undefined. Here we advance the technologies needed to explore the topographical distribution of skin molecules, using 3D mapping of mass spectrometry data and microbial 16S rRNA amplicon sequences. Our 3D maps reveal that the molecular composition of skin has diverse distributions and that the composition is defined not only by skin cells and microbes but also by our daily routines, including the application of hygiene products. The technological development of these maps lays a foundation for studying the spatial relationships of human skin with hygiene, the microbiota, and environment, with potential for developing predictive models of skin phenotypes tailored to individual health.


Amina Bouslimani, Carla Porto, Christopher M. Rath, Mingxun Wang, Yurong Guo, Antonio Gonzalez, Donna Berg-Lyon, Gail Ackermann, Gitte Julie Moeller Christensen, Teruaki Nakatsuji, Lingjuan Zhang, Andrew W. Borkowski, Michael J. Meehan, Kathleen Dorrestein, Richard L. Galla, Nuno Bandeira, Rob Knight, Theodore Alexandrova,j,k,l,2, and Pieter C. Dorrestein

PNAS

doi: 10.1073/pnas.1424409112

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Bioactive maca (Lepidium meyenii) alkamides are a result of traditional Andean postharvest drying practices

Bioactive maca (Lepidium meyenii) alkamides are a result of traditional Andean postharvest drying practices | Natural Products Chemistry Breaking News | Scoop.it
Highlights

The bioactive natural product profiles of fresh and dried maca are distinct.

Bioactive amides reported for maca are exclusively present in dried hypocotyls.

Glucosinolate and lipid hydrolysis during drying results in amine and free fatty acid buildup.

Benzylamine and free fatty acid accumulation correlates well with amide synthesis.

VOC monitoring during drying allows an indirect measurement of amide accumulation.



Available online 25 March 2015


NatProdChem's insight:

Nice article linking phytochemical analysis and traditional Andean agricultural practices.

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Marijuana gears up for production high in US labs

Marijuana gears up for production high in US labs | Natural Products Chemistry Breaking News | Scoop.it
Researchers will score more-powerful varieties of the drug courtesy of the National Institute on Drug Abuse.
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Rethinking the brain

Critics of the European Human Brain Project were justified, says an independent report on the project.
NatProdChem's insight:

Here also, might worth discussing a billion euro project ... better late then never !

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Don’t edit the human germ line

Don’t edit the human germ line | Natural Products Chemistry Breaking News | Scoop.it
Heritable human genetic modifications pose serious risks, and the therapeutic benefits are tenuous, warn Edward Lanphier, Fyodor Urnov and colleagues.
NatProdChem's insight:

Might worth discussing, indeed ...

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Development and Implementation of a Series of Laboratory Field Trips for Advanced High School Students To Connect Chemistry to Sustainability

Development and Implementation of a Series of Laboratory Field Trips for Advanced High School Students To Connect Chemistry to Sustainability | Natural Products Chemistry Breaking News | Scoop.it
We describe the content and organization of a series of day-long field trips to a university for high school students that connect chemistry content to issues of sustainability. The seven laboratory activities are in the areas of environmental degradation, energy production, and green chemistry. The laboratory procedures have been modified from published procedures so that the length and scope would be appropriate for our format and audience (AP and college preparatory chemistry and environmental science students). While students spend the majority of their time at the university in the laboratory, connections between the chemistry content and sustainability are highlighted in the previsit reading assignments, prelab discussion, and postlab small group discussion. Results of formative assessment are presented, as are considerations for other institutions that may be interested in developing and maintaining a similar program.


†Department of Chemistry, ‡Center for Science and Mathematics Education, and §Sustainability Studies Program, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794, United States
J. Chem. Educ., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/ed500630f
Publication Date (Web): March 4, 2015
NatProdChem's insight:

Concretizing knowledge.

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Isolation of a Metabolite from the pks Island Provides Insights into Colibactin Biosynthesis and Activity

Isolation of a Metabolite from the pks Island Provides Insights into Colibactin Biosynthesis and Activity | Natural Products Chemistry Breaking News | Scoop.it

Colibactin is a structurally uncharacterized, genotoxic natural product produced by commensal and pathogenic strains of E. coli that harbor the pks island. A new metabolite has been isolated from a pks+ E. coli mutant missing an essential biosynthetic enzyme. The unusual azaspiro[2.4] bicyclic ring system of this molecule provides new insights into colibactin biosynthesis and suggests a mechanism through which colibactin and other pks-derived metabolites may exert genotoxicity.


Org. Lett., 2015, 17 (6), pp 1545–1548
DOI: 10.1021/acs.orglett.5b00432
Publication Date (Web): March 10, 2015


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Aranciamycins I and J, Antimycobacterial Anthracyclines from an Australian Marine-Derived Streptomyces sp.

Aranciamycins I and J, Antimycobacterial Anthracyclines from an Australian Marine-Derived Streptomyces sp. | Natural Products Chemistry Breaking News | Scoop.it

Chemical analysis of an Australian marine-derived Streptomyces sp. (CMB-M0150) yielded two new anthracycline antibiotics, aranciamycins I (1) and J (2), as well as the previously reported aranciamycin A (3) and aranciamycin (4). The aranciamycins 14, identified by detailed spectroscopic analysis, were noncytotoxic when tested against selected Gram-negative bacteria and fungi (IC50 >30 μM) and exhibited moderate and selective cytotoxicity against Gram-positive bacteria (IC50 >1.1 μM) and a panel of human cancer cell lines (IC50 > 7.5 μM). Significantly, 14 were cytotoxic (IC50 0.7–1.7 μM) against the Mycobacterium tuberculosis surrogate M. bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin.


†Institute for Molecular Bioscience, ⊥Diamantina Institute, and ∥Australian Infectious Diseases Research Centre, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia
J. Nat. Prod., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acs.jnatprod.5b00095
Publication Date (Web): March 19, 2015


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Striatoids A–F, Cyathane Diterpenoids with Neurotrophic Activity from Cultures of the Fungus Cyathus striatus

Striatoids A–F, Cyathane Diterpenoids with Neurotrophic Activity from Cultures of the Fungus Cyathus striatus | Natural Products Chemistry Breaking News | Scoop.it

Six new highly oxygenated polycyclic cyathane-xylosides, named striatoids A–F (16), were isolated from the cultures of the basidiomycete Cyathus striatus. Their structures were established by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis including 2D NMR (HMBC, HSQC, ROESY, 1H–1H–COSY) and HRESIMS experiments. Compounds 2 and 3 possess an unusual 15,4′-ether ring system. The isolated compounds dose-dependently enhanced nerve growth factor (NGF)-mediated neurite outgrowth in rat pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cells.


Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Natural Products & Chemical Biology, College of Science, Northwest A&F University, 22 Xiong Road, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China
J. Nat. Prod., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/np501030r
Publication Date (Web): March 6, 2015
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