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Cooperation Theory & Practice
All aspects of theory & practice of cooperation
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Distributed Innovation and Creativity, Peer Production, and Commons in Networked Economy - OpenMind

Distributed Innovation and Creativity, Peer Production, and Commons in Networked Economy - OpenMind | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it

"The commons is a way of allocating access and use rights in resources that does not give anyone exclusive rights to exclude anyone else.

A city street is a commons: anyone who has a car or a bicycle can drive on the road; anyone who can walk or use a wheelchair can travel the sidewalks. No individual or company has the right to exclude anyone or charge them for access. From streets and highways, to canals and waterways, major shipping lanes and navigable rivers; basic scientific knowledge, mathematical algorithms, basic ideas; all these have been kept as commons in modern market economies because they provide enormous freedom of action to a wide range of productive behaviors—both economic and social.

Wikipedia and the free open source software have become examples of remarkable innovation in the production of information."

Howard Rheingold's insight:

The commons is not just about grazing pastures, watersheds, fisheries. The Internet is a commons. So is a sidewalk. Yochai Benklert has been the foremost spokesman for the notion that a new form of economic production -- in addition to the firm and the market -- has arisen because of digital media and networks: "commons-based peer production." This piece is a good short introduction to the ideas Benkler covers at length in his book, Wealth of Networks.

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Eight Points of Reference for Commoning | David Bollier

Eight Points of Reference for Commoning | David Bollier | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it

"One of the great achievements of the late Professor Elinor Ostrom was the identification of key design principles for successful commons.  She set forth eight of them in her landmark 1990 book, Governing the Commons.  The wording of those principles is aimed at social scientists who study the management of common-pool resources from a neutral, non-participatory, scientific perspective.  As a result, the principles are not as accessible to the general public, nor do they reflect the direct experiences and first-person voice of commoners.    

The first German Sommerschool on the Commons, which took place in Bechstedt/Thuringia in June 2012, decided to remedy this problem.  Participants took part in intense debates over what a new set of principles for commoning – based on the Ostrom principles – might look like if they reflected the personal perspective of commoners themselves.  The result is a statement, "Eight Points of Reference for Commoning,” which can be seen as a re-interpretation – remix? – of Ostrom's design principles".  

Howard Rheingold's insight:

Ostrom is fundamental. Her writing is technical. This version remixes Ostrom's design principles for successful instituitions for collective action into more vernacular language.

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Wiki:Main Page | Social Media Classroom

Wiki:Main Page | Social Media Classroom | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it

"a six week course using asynchronous forums, blogs, wikis, mindmaps, social bookmarks, synchronous audio, video, chat, and Twitter to introduce the fundamentals of an interdisciplinary study of cooperation: social dilemmas, institutions for collective action, the commons, evolution of cooperation, technologies of cooperation, and cooperative arrangements in biology from cells to ecosystems."

Howard Rheingold's insight:

This is the fifth time I've presented this (totally online) course; it has evolved each time, as I learn from my colearners. The meta-learning here is the practice of using social media and peer learning to cultivate a learning community among former strangers in a short period of time. This year, the course runs from April 30 to June 12. Limit 30 learners. Contact howard@rheingold.com if interested.

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Wiki:Main Page | Social Media Classroom

Wiki:Main Page | Social Media Classroom | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it
a six week course using asynchronous forums, blogs, wikis, mindmaps, social bookmarks, synchronous audio, video, chat, and Twitter to introduce the fundamentals of an interdisciplinary study of cooperation: social dilemmas, institutions for collective action, the commons, evolution of cooperation, technologies of cooperation, and cooperative arrangements in biology from cells to ecosystems.
Howard Rheingold's insight:

I plan to offer a version of this in May-June. Let me know via email to howard at rheingold dot com if you want to be notified.

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Inteligência coletiva's curator insight, March 1, 2:28 PM

O Rheingold disponibilizou a  pagina wiki do seu curso "Social media in the classroom", onde podemos explorar alguns recursos...

Gostei do artigo(blog post) de David Wiley sobre a comparação entre as  relações biológicas  inter espécies  e a organização  (cooperação) nas dinâmicas de relacionamento nas comunidades virtuais.

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Worker Co-ops 101

Worker Co-ops 101 | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it

"Get to know the basics of worker cooperatives, how they work and what they do, from management to the everyday practice of cooperation. Worker cooperatives are democratically and equally owned by the workers, and adhere to the principles of one worker, one share, one vote. Through activities, guided readings, and facilitated conversations with worker-cooperative professionals and other students, participants will become familiar with how co-ops work and the growing worker-cooperative movement.


You will receive a certificate upon completion of the course.

This course will take place between April 16 and 17. It will be five hours total over two nights. We will poll participants to find the best time to hold the sessions. It will be offered again every other month."

Howard Rheingold's insight:

Coops are not communism. They are worker-owned corporations. Hundreds of millions of people and tens of billions of dollars are involved in coops annually. This course -- which I have NOT taken -- claims to teach what you need to know to start and make one work.

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A co-operative university

A co-operative university | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it

In 2011, I helped set up a co-operative for higher education. It began as an idea that my colleague, Mike Neary, and I had been discussing the previous summer, and was partly influenced by the network ofsocial centres that exist across the UK and elsewhere. In May this year, the co-operative had its second AGM and we are currently running a Social Science Imagination course for the second year, two arts-based community projects, as well as regular public talks

Howard Rheingold's insight:

Cooperative learning is something that humans do -- perhaps our capacity for social learning is our most important trait is a species -- but the institutions of education often get in the way. http://peeragogy.org is one way of looking at cooperative education. The co-operative university is another.

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Vivianne Amaral's curator insight, January 7, 9:41 AM

Explorando novas formas para organizar a educação 

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The science of social connections

"I don't think it's a coincidence that of all the kinds of ways human beings could organize themselves into networks, that's what we do. We evince degree assortativity, and I don't think it's a coincidence that we do that. We assemble ourselves into groups, the group now has this property, this germ- resistance property, which is a property of the group, but which, as it turns out, also benefits and affects us. Now, being a member of that group, we are less likely to acquire pathogens.

And this sets the stage for a set of ideas that we and others have been exploring that shed light on multi-level selection and other kinds of contentious ideas in the biological and the social sciences. And we have a number of fellow travelers on this road—László Barabási, Dirk Helbing, Tooby and Cosmides, Frans de Waal, Nowak, Rand, Santos—people working on these related areas of interactions among animals and people, and what this means. In fact, David Rand and Josh Green and Martin Nowak just had a nice paper this past year — I was asked to highlight some papers—looking at whether you can use time to response as a kind of heuristic for understanding are people intuitive cooperators and rationally selfish, or do they exercise rational self-control over a kind of instinctive greed? The data they presented in that paper, to my eyes, was quite compelling—that we are intuitively wired to cooperate."

Howard Rheingold's insight:

Understanding the emergence of human culture requires an understanding of how social information and ideas spread through social networks -- and so does understanding the emergence and nature of human cooperation

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luiy's curator insight, January 6, 2:45 AM

We can shift our perspective on lots of things when we think about people as being nodes on a graph, as being connected to other people. And this shift in focus might, in fact, prompt us to begin to think about —not the individuals themselves‑but the ties between them. This calls to mind an analogy, which I don't know if some of you may already know, of streets in the United States and in European countries. So, streets have names in our country, and the houses on the streets are numbered numerically and linearly as you move along the street. And the blocks between the streets don't have names or numbers and are seen as the things that are between the streets, and we don't pay much attention to them. But if you go to Japan, it's the blocks that are numbered. The blocks have names and the houses on the blocks are numbered in the order in which they were built, not numerically or linearly in any kind of systematic way. If you ask the Japanese, "What's going on with the streets?" they say, "The streets are the spaces between the blocks." They don't pay attention to those.

Geoff Findley's curator insight, January 6, 10:04 PM

Social Bonds

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Practical Anarchism

"The article considers several working anarchies in the networked environment, and whether they offer a model for improving on the persistent imperfections of markets and states. I explore whether these efforts of peer mutualism in fact offer a sufficient range of capabilities to present a meaningful degree of freedom to those who rely on the capabilities it affords, and whether these practices in fact remain sufficiently nonhierarchical to offer a meaningful space of noncoercive interactions. The real utopias I observe here are perfect on neither dimension. Internally, hierarchy and power reappear, to some extent and in some projects, although they are quite different than the hierarchy of government or corporate organization. Externally, there are some spectacular successes, some failures to thrive, and many ambiguous successes. In all, present experience supports neither triumphalism nor defeatism in the utopian project. Peer models do work, and they do provide a degree of freedom in the capabilities they provide. But there is no inexorable path to greater freedom through voluntary open collaboration. "

Howard Rheingold's insight:

Yochai Benkler has been the foremost scholarly chronicler of non-market peer production. Is it any kind of alternative to markets and firms? Here is Benkler's latest on "peer mutualism" -- important that he notes it doesn't have to be perfect to be useful.

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Precision Information Environments

Changing the Future of First Response Cooperation
Howard Rheingold's insight:

The external infotention environment includes dashboards. This from Pacific Northwest Laboratory, supported by US Dept. of Homeland Security, appears to be a dashboard for people to respond to complex emergencies -- infotention meets augmented collective intelligence.

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JoseAlvarezCornett's comment, September 20, 2013 3:47 AM
It will be impressive, once it is achieved. Right now it is only good research being carried out at PNL. I wonder if Howard has heard about Kira's prediction software. Amazing ! I have read about her on MIT Technology review and watch a video of her work but it is in Hebrew with Spanish subtitles.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZGNCRvl4iFk Kira's soft machine is impressive. http://www.focus.technion.ac.il/newsStory.asp?id=274
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The Quiet Realization of Ivan Illich's Ideas in the Contemporary Commons Movement | David Bollier

The Quiet Realization of Ivan Illich's Ideas in the Contemporary Commons Movement | David Bollier | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it

"Many Americans have not heard of the commons except in connection with the word “tragedy.”  We’ve all heard the famous tragedy of the commons parable.  It holds that any shared resource invariably gets over-exploited and ruined.  Since the “tragedy meme” appeared in a famous 1968 essay by Garrett Hardin, it has been drummed into the minds of undergraduates in economics, sociology and political science classes.  It serves as a secular catechism to propagandize the virtues of private property and so-called free markets. 

Thanks to the tragedy smear, most people don’t realize that the commons is in fact a success story – that it is a durable artifact of human history, that it is a way to effectively manage shared resources, and that it lies at the heart of a growing political and cultural movement."

Howard Rheingold's insight:

Elinor Ostrom won her economics Nobel Prize for her work on "governing the commons" -- demonstrating that "tragedy" was not inevitable when groups of people are faced with managing common pool resources. She also pointed out that neither socialism-style State ownership nor unregulated privatization were necessarily the only or best routes to well-managed commons. David Bollier has done a service by making this argument, and for reminding us of the pioneering work of Ivan Illich, who was mentor to California governor Jerry Brown, Stewart Brand, and many others.

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Vivianne Amaral's curator insight, August 12, 2013 4:20 PM

A presença de Ivan Illich nas novas formas de viver e produzir. 

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World changing technology enables crops to take nitrogen from the air

World changing technology enables crops to take nitrogen from the air | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it
A major new technology has been developed by The University of Nottingham, which enables all of the world's crops to take nitrogen from the air rather than expensive and environmentally damaging fertilisers.
Howard Rheingold's insight:

What does a method for putting nitrogen-fixing bacteria into the cells of plant roots other than legumes have to do with cooperation? Available nitrogen is a scarce resource for plants. There's plenty in the atmosphere, but it needs to be "fixed" into a form plants can use. Instead of competing for the scarce resource, some plants form symbiotic networks -- plants (corn, for example) that harbor the right fungi in their roots can provide a hospitable environment for bacteria that can fix nitrogen. The plants, fungi, and bacteria work together to enable them all to t hrive and multiply. This new method apparently enables plants other than legumes to create a home for nitrogen-fixing bacteria -- an alternative narrative to the strictly-competition lens of 19th century Darwinism.

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Lia Goren's curator insight, August 15, 2013 6:44 AM

Como comentó Howard Rheingold al compartir esta información, la cooperación es el recurso por excelencia de los sitemas vivos y no la competencia. Se trata de cómo las plantas e asocian a algunos hongos y los hongos a ellas para fijar el nitrógeno del aire que necesitan para poder desarrollarse.

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Trends in Cognitive Sciences - Human cooperation

"Why should you help a competitor? Why should you contribute to the public good if free riders reap the benefits of your generosity? Cooperation in a competitive world is a conundrum. Natural selection opposes the evolution of cooperation unless specific mechanisms are at work. Five such mechanisms have been proposed: direct reciprocity, indirect reciprocity, spatial selection, multilevel selection, and kin selection. Here we discuss empirical evidence from laboratory experiments and field studies of human interactions for each mechanism. We also consider cooperation in one-shot, anonymous interactions for which no mechanisms are apparent. We argue that this behavior reflects the overgeneralization of cooperative strategies learned in the context of direct and indirect reciprocity: we show that automatic, intuitive responses favor cooperative strategies that reciprocate."

Howard Rheingold's insight:

Reciprocation is deeply embedded. Nowak et al's work on the evolution of cooperation yields clues for present-day human behavior.

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luiy's curator insight, July 16, 2013 2:53 AM

Highlights:

Theoretical work has revealed five mechanisms for the evolution of cooperation.These are direct and indirect reciprocity, and spatial, multilevel, and kin selection.We present experimental evidence for each mechanism operating in human behavior.We show that reciprocation is an automatic response, which implies that reciprocity has a key role.

 

 

Peter C. Newton-Evans's curator insight, July 20, 2013 2:13 PM

From an assumed, unproven instinct for competition, we have gone to a demonstrable instinct for cooperation.

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Justice Is in Our Nature | Guest Blog, Scientific American Blog Network

Justice Is in Our Nature | Guest Blog, Scientific American Blog Network | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it

"Social contracts are written into our biology. As is the justice they need. The arc of our evolution has long bent towards the justice of “laws” fittest for team survival. We bred ourselves, by artificial selection, to internalize and feel strongly about social rules.

Christopher Boehm in Moral Originsconcludes, after intensive analysis of 50 representative hunter-gatherer cultures, that our ancestors likely experienced a “radical political change,” evolving from a hierarchic “apelike ‘might is right’…social order,” to become more egalitarian. About 250,000 years ago, theirsurvival became a team sport because chasing big-game toward teammates was much more productive than solo hunting. But only if profit-sharing was sustainable. Even with fit teammates hunting needs luck (e.g. 4% success today). Then, as now, the logic of social insurance solved team problems by sharing profits and risks. Productivity gains in interdependent teams radically changed our evolution. Cooperators thrived. As did teams with the best adapted sharing rules, provided they were well enforced."

Howard Rheingold's insight:

When I teach cooperation theory (http://socialmediaclassroom.com/host/cooperation4/) some people are always outraged to learn that the altruistic and nice-sounding phenomenon of human cooperative behavior is enforced by "altruistic punishment." Yet research continues to reinforce the idea that sharing and more or less egalitarian social relationships inevitably involve punishment (Nobel laureate Elinor Ostrom used the word "sanctions") for cheaters.

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Think Like a Commoner | Think Like a Commoner

Think Like a Commoner | Think Like a Commoner | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it

"In our age of predatory markets and make-believe democracy, our troubled political institutions have lost sight of real people and practical realities. But if you look to the edges, ordinary people are reinventing governance and provisioning on their own terms. The commons is arising as a serious, practical alternative to the corrupt Market/State.

The beauty of commons is that we can build them ourselves, right now. But the bigger challenge is, Can we learn to see the commons and, more importantly, to thinklike a commoner?"

Howard Rheingold's insight:

David Bollier has been thinking, writing, and acting about the commons for a long time. I haven't read it yet, but it's on my short list.

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Ivon Prefontaine's curator insight, April 14, 7:50 PM

It sound like an interesting book.

Lia Goren's curator insight, April 15, 6:20 AM

El comentario me dispone a compartirlo por la importancia del tema y para mi propio archivo personal. Es un tema que no quiero dejar de profundizar. 

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Two Enduring Lessons from Elinor Ostrom by Brett M. Frischmann :: SSRN

Two Enduring Lessons from Elinor Ostrom by Brett M. Frischmann :: SSRN | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it
This article is a tribute to Elinor Ostrom. It explores two enduring lessons she taught: a substantive lesson that involves embracing complexity and context, an
Howard Rheingold's insight:

The late Nobel laureate Elinor Ostrom is an essential figure in understanding human cooperation, especially the way we create workarounds ("institutions for collective action") for social dilemmas (such as "the tragedy of the commons"). But she was a meticulous scientist, which means her writing is often laden with data and methodology and can be slow going. This paper approaches some of Ostrom's key findings in a more readable manner. 

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Understanding The Effects Of Hierarchy In Society

Professor Robert Sapolsky's baboon studies offer insight into the negative effects of hierarchy in society: "f they(baboons) are able to, in one generation transform what are supposed to be textbook social systems sort of engraved in stone, we don’t have any excuse when we say that there are certain inevitabilities about human social systems.”


Via june holley
Howard Rheingold's insight:

Sapolsky is a world-reknowned primatologist who notes an important empirical observation of an instance in which a fiercely hierarchical baboon society was able to re-arrange itself into a more egalitarian, less conflict-ruled social structure.

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Peter Skillen's curator insight, April 5, 6:15 AM

Professor Robert Sapolsky always makes me think deeply about what we assume to be 'the way it is'. But, it doesn't have to be that way.

Lia Goren's curator insight, April 22, 10:31 PM

Interesantísima experiencia del Profesor Robert Sapolsky acerca de los efectos negativos de la jerarquía en la sociedad. ¿Qué pasó en una comunidad de mandriles cuando los machos alfa maltratadores estaban y cuando dejaron de estar? Sorprendente!

El link de la Fundación P2P tiene otras referencias acerca del tema.

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Economists finally test prisoner's dilemma on prisoners

Economists finally test prisoner's dilemma on prisoners | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it
For six decades, the classic cooperation test known as the prisoner’s dilemma has been a mainstay of graduate courses on game theory and behavioral economics, not to mention in Hollywood detective series.
Howard Rheingold's insight:

Prisoner's Dilemma is the e coli, the fruitfly, of behavioral economics probes of human cooperation, but apparently this is the first published study conducted on actual prisoners -- who turn out, at least in this study, to be more likely to cooperate than defect.

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Gossip and Ostracism Promote Cooperation in Groups

Gossip and Ostracism Promote Cooperation in Groups | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it

"The widespread existence of cooperation is difficult to explain because individuals face strong incentives to exploit the cooperative tendencies of others. In the research reported here, we examined how the spread of reputational information through gossip promotes cooperation in mixed-motive settings. Results showed that individuals readily communicated reputational information about others, and recipients used this information to selectively interact with cooperative individuals and ostracize those who had behaved selfishly, which enabled group members to contribute to the public good with reduced threat of exploitation. Additionally, ostracized individuals responded to exclusion by subsequently cooperating at levels comparable to those who were not ostracized. These results suggest that the spread of reputational information through gossip can mitigate egoistic behavior by facilitating partner selection, thereby helping to solve the problem of cooperation even in noniterated interactions."

Howard Rheingold's insight:

Cooperation in groups often depends on "altruistic punishment" on non-cooperators (a mild example is the way shame can enforce norms -- in societies where spitting on the sidewalk is considered shameful, there is less spitting on the sidewalk). Or think about your emotions when you see someone cutting in line. Although punishment (maybe "sanctions" is a less loaded term) and gossip (perhaps "communication about reputation" is less loaded) are seen by many as negative traits, the research described in this abstract (full text ) presents evidence for the role of gossip and ostracism in promoting cooperation.

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For the good of the colony - MIT News Office

For the good of the colony - MIT News Office | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it

"MIT researchers have found that cells in a bacterial colony grow in a way that benefits the community as a whole. That is, while an individual cell may divide in the presence of plentiful resources to benefit itself, when a cell is a member of a larger colony, it may choose instead to grow in a more cooperative fashion, increasing an entire colony’s chance of survival. "

Howard Rheingold's insight:

The tension and complementarity between self-interest and collective action operates at every level from the bacterial to the ecosystem. It's where organisms originated

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Stanford computer scientists create crowdsourcing website to draw ... crowds

Stanford computer scientists create crowdsourcing website to draw ... crowds | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it


"Stanford computer scientists have created a website to help organizers plan events that are more likely to succeed or allow them to pull the plug on impending flops before they occur.

The website, called Catalyst, is based on a behavioral science concept known as the threshold model of collective action, which posits that people may be reluctant to commit to participating in activity until they see others taking part, at which point interest surges and the activity becomes successful. But if participation doesn’t reach this threshold point, the event is likely to fail.

Catalyst builds this principle into software. The website allows people to enter a few details, such as date, time, description of the event and the number of participants needed to make it a success. If signups don't hit this threshold point by the deadline, Catalyst emails organizers and would-be participants a warning."

Howard Rheingold's insight:

In my 2002 book (12 years ago!) Smart Mobs, I called it "technologies of cooperation" -- working with Institute for the Future, I co-authored a report on Technologies of Cooperation -- and now we're beginning to see computer scientists converge with what social scientists know about collective action to design software that can help people crowdsource.

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Social Ties, Reciprocity, Cooperation Studied

"

Recent studies suggest that allowing individuals to choose their partners can help to maintaincooperation in human social networks; this behaviour can supplement behavioural reciprocity,whereby humans are influenced to cooperate by peer pressure. However, it is unknownhow the rate of forming and breaking social ties affects our capacity to cooperate. Here weuse a series of online experiments involving 1,529 unique participants embedded in 90experimental networks, to show that there is a ‘Goldilocks’ effect of network dynamism on cooperation. When the rate of change in social ties is too low, subjects choose to have many ties, even if they attach to defectors. When the rate is too high, cooperators cannot detach
from defectors as much as defectors re-attach and, hence, subjects resort to behavioural reciprocity and switch their behaviour to defection. Optimal levels of cooperation are achieved at intermediate levels of change in social ties"

Howard Rheingold's insight:

The interdisciplinary understanding of human cooperation is at about the same level as our understanding of disease before the discovery of microorganisms -- but real progress is being made. Human socialty, from the neural to behavioral levels, has a great deal to do with our ability to negotiate cooperation with others. The way we form and break social ties is key.

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Ivon Prefontaine's curator insight, November 15, 2013 10:04 AM

I think there will always be things we cannot explain, but make sense. Too much stimulus is not good and too little is not good either.

Peter C. Newton-Evans's curator insight, November 22, 2013 2:51 PM

One more piece in the puzzle that Cooperation Theory is putting together to bring science closer to a real human need of our time: learning to restructure society as a win-win proposition.

Inteligência coletiva's curator insight, February 6, 12:59 PM

Um estudo relevante acerca do estabelecimento de laços sociais, reciprocidade e cooperação.

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DEEP PRAGMATISM | Edge.org

DEEP PRAGMATISM | Edge.org | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it

"Imagine the following scenario: You have two different tribes, your collectivist tribe over here—where everything's in common, and your individualist tribe over there. Imagine these tribes not only have different ways of cooperating, but they rally around different gods, different leaders, different holy texts that tell them how they should live—that you're not allowed to sing on Wednesdays in this group, and in this group over here, women are allowed to be herders, but in this group over there, they're not; different ways of life; different ways of organizing society. Imagine these societies existing separately, separated by a forest that burns down. The rains come, and then suddenly you have a nice lovely pasture, and both tribes move in.

Now the question is: How are they going to do this? We have different tribes that are cooperative in different ways. Are they going to be individualistic? Are they going to be collectivists? Are they going to pray to this god? Are they going to pray to that god? Are they going to be allowed to have assault weapons or not allowed to have assault weapons? That's the fundamental problem of the modern world—that basic morality solves the tragedy of the commons, but it doesn't solve what I call the "tragedy of common sense morality."

Howard Rheingold's insight:

This cooperation business is complex. Certainly humans are strongly influenced by the shaping forces of evolution. And certainly humans have distinguished ourselves by inventing cultural workarounds such as morality. But there's the rub. Different cultures develop different workarounds. There may or may not be an absolute morality, but it is clear that people don't act as if there is a single, universal behavioral code. A set of cultural norms may encourage and enforce cooperation within a group, but the world consists of many groups, different cultures, and the deep problem is precisely the one that Joshua Greene is pursuing.

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Seokanzler's comment, October 15, 2013 5:26 AM
http://www.seo-kanzler.com
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'Evolution will punish you if you're selfish and mean'

'Evolution will punish you if you're selfish and mean' | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it
Two Michigan State University evolutionary biologists offer new evidence that evolution doesn't favor the selfish, disproving a theory popularized in 2012. "We found evolution will punish you if yo...
Howard Rheingold's insight:

In my "Literacy of Cooperation" course ( 

http://socialmediaclassroom.com/host/cooperation4 ) I find that some people object strenuously to game-theoretic aspects, refusing to reduce human behavior to that of poker players. My attitude is that human cooperation is a complex adaptive system that can be understood only by looking through multiple lenses, none of which can alone provide an accurate picture. When game theory and evolutionary biology meet, disputes become even more heated because of the implication that we are dealing with an interpretation of what we mean by "human nature" -- are we self-aggrandizing individualists, talented cooperators or (my interpretation) both?

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Cindy Tam's curator insight, September 23, 2013 5:31 PM

Long-term Success: Are you willing to forgo your selfishness and meanness?

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Phys.Org Mobile: Punishment promotes human cooperation when people trust each other

"In high-trust societies, punishment is likely to be viewed as attempts to enforce cooperative norms, which encourages others to behave according to such norms. In high-trust societies people may be more likely to notice norm violations such as free-riding on public transportation or having loudphone conversations in public places. And they may be more likely to enforce cooperative norms, also because they trust others to support such norm enforcement. Over time, such activities promote trust and cooperation in such a manner that norm enforcement is less often called for.

Howard Rheingold's insight:

In my Literacy of Cooperation course, people often express dismay over evidence that punishment plays a role in cooperation. Perhaps the word Ostrom uses, "sanctions," sounds prettier. But this is yet more evidence that informal punishment of those who transgress norms flows from and lends strength to cooperative societies.

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Emre Erdogan's curator insight, August 2, 2013 1:43 AM

Beleşçileri cezalandırmak her zaman şart...

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Social: Why Our Brains Are Wired to Connect | KurzweilAI

Social: Why Our Brains Are Wired to Connect | KurzweilAI | Cooperation Theory & Practice | Scoop.it

Social, renowned psychologist Matthew Lieberman explores groundbreaking research in social neuroscience revealing that our need to connect with other people is even more fundamental, more basic, than our need for food or shelter.  Because of this, our brain uses its spare time to learn about the social world – other people and our relation to them. It is believed that we must commit 10,000 hours to master a skill.  According to Lieberman, each of us has spent 10,000 hours learning to make sense of people and groups by the time we are ten.

Social argues that our need to reach out to and connect with others is a primary driver behind our behavior.  

Howard Rheingold's insight:

For sure there is a lot of pop neurobollocks out there these days. This fellow and his la looks legit and I'm looking forward to this book. I agree with the claim that when schools minimize "social distractions" they are also discouraging engagement and learning. 

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Ruth Obadia's curator insight, July 30, 2013 11:05 PM

ruth obadia

Antonia Rudenstine's curator insight, August 3, 2013 4:58 AM

A very new interesting book on how our brains are as wired to connect as they are wired to seek food and shelter...further proof that the social constructivists were onto something, and further evidence that the blended learning world is going to have to ensure that connection is a deep part of what students get to do when they are learning online: for most students, solitary computer work is not going to feel transformational. 

Martha Love's curator insight, October 10, 2013 1:26 AM

I find this book to be extremely important in our understanding of the true nature of our human species.