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Broadly resistant HIV-1 against CD4-binding site neutralizing antibodies

Broadly resistant HIV-1 against CD4-binding site neutralizing antibodies | Virology News | Scoop.it
Author summary Recently identified broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) show great potential for clinical interventions against HIV-1 infection. Among the bnAbs isolated to date, those targeting the CD4bs are the most abundant and thoroughly studied as they disrupt the crucial step of viral...
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Virology News
Topical news snippets about viruses that affect people.  And other things. Like Led Zeppelin. And zombies B-)
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Decreases in Both the Seroprevalence of Serum Antibodies and Seroprotection against Japanese Encephalitis Virus among Vaccinated Children

The incidence of Japanese encephalitis (JE) has significantly decreased in China due to JE vaccines. In this study, we investigated the post-JE vaccination seroprevalence and protection provide
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Rift Valley Fever Virus and Yellow Fever Virus in Urine: A Potential Source of Infection

Here, we report results from a comparative analysis of the detection window for YFV and RVFV in patients’ sera and urine samples. Moreover, infectious YFV and RVFV were isolated from clinical samples, verified by sequencing, and whole-genome sequences were compared.
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Localization Analysis of Heterophilic Antigen Epitopes of H1N1 Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin

Localization Analysis of Heterophilic Antigen Epitopes of H1N1 Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin | Virology News | Scoop.it
Previous studies have indicated that two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs; A1-10 and H1-84) of the hemagglutinin (HA) antigen on the H1N1 influenza virus cross-react with human brain tissue. It ha
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Doctors Now Want More Adults to Get the HPV Vaccine

Doctors Now Want More Adults to Get the HPV Vaccine | Virology News | Scoop.it
Good news if you’re an adult who hasn’t gotten the HPV vaccine yet: A government advisory panel recently voted to recommend the vaccine for men up to age 26 (previously it was recommended for women up to 26, and men up to 21) with a “weak endorsement” for people up to age 45.
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Loss of Fitness of Mexican H7N3 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus in Mallards after Circulating in Chickens | Journal of Virology

ABSTRACT Outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus subtype H7N3 have been occurring in commercial chickens in Mexico since its first introduction in 2012. In order to determine changes in virus pathogenicity and adaptation in avian species, three H7N3 HPAI viruses from 2012, 2015, and 2016 were evaluated in chickens and mallards. All three viruses caused high mortality in chickens when given at medium to high doses and replicated similarly. No mortality or clinical signs and similar infectivity were observed in mallards inoculated with the 2012 and 2016 viruses. However, the 2012 H7N3 HPAI virus replicated well in mallards and transmitted to contacts, whereas the 2016 virus replicated poorly and did not transmit to contacts, which indicates that the 2016 virus is less adapted to mallards. In vitro, the 2016 virus grew slower and to lower titers than did the 2012 virus in duck fibroblast cells. Full-genome sequencing showed 115 amino acid differences between the 2012 and the 2016 viruses, with some of these changes previously associated with changes in replication in avian species, including hemagglutinin (HA) A125T, nucleoprotein (NP) M105V, and NP S377N. In conclusion, as the Mexican H7N3 HPAI virus has passaged through large populations of chickens in a span of several years and has retained its high pathogenicity for chickens, it has decreased in fitness in mallards, which could limit the potential spread of this HPAI virus by waterfowl. IMPORTANCE Not much is known about changes in host adaptation of avian influenza (AI) viruses in birds after long-term circulation in chickens or other terrestrial poultry. Although the origin of AI viruses affecting poultry is wild aquatic birds, the role of these birds in further dispersal of poultry-adapted AI viruses is not clear. Previously, we showed that HPAI viruses isolated early from poultry outbreaks could still infect and transmit well in mallards. In this study, we demonstrate that the Mexican H7N3 HPAI virus after four years of circulation in chickens replicates poorly and does not transmit in mallards but remains highly pathogenic in chickens. This information on changes in host adaptation is important for understanding the epidemiology of AI viruses and the role that wild waterfowl may play in disseminating viruses adapted to terrestrial poultry.
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More effective [adjuvanted] influenza vaccine begins US clinical trials

More effective [adjuvanted] influenza vaccine begins US clinical trials | Virology News | Scoop.it
A more effective seasonal flu vaccine is about to be tested in clinical trials across the US.
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Spit Spreads Death: What can a bedpan tell us about a pandemic?

Spit Spreads Death: What can a bedpan tell us about a pandemic? | Virology News | Scoop.it
Jane E. Boyd, Ph.D., is an independent curator and writer based in Philadelphia. She is the guest historical curator for Spit Spreads Death, the Mütter Museum’s forthcoming exhibition on the 1918 influenza pandemic.
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Functional paralysis of human natural killer cells by alphaherpesviruses

Functional paralysis of human natural killer cells by alphaherpesviruses | Virology News | Scoop.it
Author summary Natural killer (NK) cells–as their name implies–are the immune system’s ready to respond ‘killers’, being able to help control viral infection by cytolytic killing of infected cells and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines to activate and direct the immune response.
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Microbiota-mediated disease resistance in plants

Microbiota-mediated disease resistance in plants | Virology News | Scoop.it

It is now critical to further develop bottom-up experimental approaches to improve our understanding of dominance and modularity of desirable traits within SynComs. Cataloguing such knowledge on microbial traits and their behavior in a community context will allow the establishment of a microbial toolbox for microbiota-mediated pathogen protection and the rational design of SynComs with modular functions related to MMI and DMC. In parallel or in combination with this cataloguing, microbial network inference will play a key role in identifying candidate biocontrol taxa and in the design of SynComs with stable and predictable outcome in the field. In addition to the mentioned benefits for direct application in the field, this approach is likely to provide insights into the following unresolved fundamental questions: (1) Can we detect phylogenetic signals for MMI and DMC traits that could be used to predict beneficial outcomes for the plant host? (2) Do immunity-modulating microbes act through similar or different immune pathways? And (3) as a consequence of the previous question, do the identified MMI and DMC traits act independently, synergistically, or antagonistically?

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Chinese clinic forced to reassure people HIV vaccine trials won't give them the virus, China News

Chinese clinic forced to reassure people HIV vaccine trials won't give them the virus, China News | Virology News | Scoop.it
China News - Read more at AsiaOne...
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The Prevalence of Novel Porcine Circovirus Type 3 (PCV3) Isolates in Pig Farms in China.

The emerging porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) has been reported in Chinese swine herds since 2017. We performed a nationwide investigation on the prevalence of ...
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New York City closes 10th Jewish school for violating vaccine order 

New York City closes 10th Jewish school for violating vaccine order  | Virology News | Scoop.it
Williamsburg institution was still admitting students and faculty who were not immunized against the measles, city official says...
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Experts advise people to get flu shot as flu cases rapidly rise in Australia

Our flu season has arrived early, and it has health authorities concerned. The case numbers are looking a lot like 2017's deadly winter, which was our worst ...
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Interferon as a Mucosal Adjuvant for an Influenza Vaccine in Pigs

Interferon, a natural protein that is produced by a variety of cells during viral infection, activates the transcription of multiple functional genes in cells, regulates synergy among various signaling pathways, and mediates many biological functions such as antiviral activity, immune regulation, and cell growth. However, clinical research on interferon in livestock is lacking. In this study, recombinant porcine interferon (PoIFNα) was used as an adjuvant, in combination with inactivated influenza virus, to vaccinate 6-week-old pigs via nasal infusion. The transcription of target genes was then monitored and the functions of PoIFNα were determined with respect to the activation of mucosal immunity. We found that a combination of low-dose PoIFNα and inactivated influenza virus could significantly up-regulate the expression of immunoregulatory cytokines such as IL-2, IL-18, IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-10 by real-time PCR, suggesting the induction of a strong mucosal innate immune response after administration. In addition, low-dose PoIFNα can significant enhancing the transcription of genes encoding homing factors including CCR9 and CCR10 (P < 0.001), thereby resulting in the induction of higher levels of HA-specific antibodies (P < 0.05), which can be determined by ELISA and IFA. Post-immunization challenges with H1N1 virus demonstrated that PoIFNα, combined with inactivated influenza virus, could alleviate clinical signs in pigs during the early stages of viral infection. These studies reveal low-dose PoIFNα as a potential mucosal adjuvant for influenza virus in pigs.

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Boosting Global Yellow Fever Vaccine Supply for Epidemic Preparedness: 3 Actions for China and the USA

In 2016, two unprecedented events occurred regarding yellow fever flavivirus infection and vaccine. First, in China 11 persons were diagnosed with yellow fever virus after being infected while working in Angola and returning to China in March–April (WHO 2016a; Wang et al.2016; Chen et al.2016). No transmission within China occurred (Chen and Lu 2016). These were the first persons anywhere in Asia known to have laboratory-documented yellow fever infection. Second, a global shortage of yellow fever vaccine resulted in the first-ever use of a fractional (1/5) normal dose of yellow fever vaccine anywhere in the world when it was given to 7.5 million people in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) in August (Monath et al.2016; WHO 2016b).
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We advocate three steps for both the USA and China. First, to have their yellow fever vaccines prequalified by the WHO in order for their vaccines to be available for use both inside and outside their borders around the world under the authority of the multi-partnered ICG (WHO 2018a, b, c). Having six rather than four yellow fever vaccines prequalified by WHO would help alleviate the recent YF vaccine shortage in Africa (2016) and current shortage in Latin America (2018–2019) as well as the likely crisis caused by international YF vaccine shortage if yellow fever epidemics occur in Asia during or after 2019. The second step we propose, after WHO prequalification of the YF vaccine in China and USA, would be to sharply boost production of the current small number of doses of YF vaccine in China (~ 300,000 doses/year currently) and in the USA (~ 1.1 million doses/year prior to 2017) (Monath et al.2016; CDC 2017; Lucey and Donaldson 2017). The third step we advocate for by both the USA and China would be to study the effect of fractional dosing (1/5 of full dose) of these two vaccines. Taking these three steps as soon as possible by both China and the USA would augment international YF vaccine doses above the 1.38 billion doses estimated in 2016 to eliminate YF epidemics (“EYE”) worldwide by 2026, i.e., in Africa and Latin America (but not including any vaccine doses if YF epidemics occurred for the first time anywhere in Asia). We postulate that this EYE program is much more likely to succeed by 2026 if both China and the USA initiate the above three steps in 2019–2020 to boost YF vaccine production and continue until 2026, or as long as is needed by the global community.
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Bacteriophages Isolated in China for the Control of Pectobacterium carotovorum Causing Potato Soft Rot in Kenya

Bacteriophages Isolated in China for the Control of Pectobacterium carotovorum Causing Potato Soft Rot in Kenya | Virology News | Scoop.it
Soft rot is an economically significant disease in potato and one of the major threats to sustainable potato production. This study aimed at isolating lytic bacteriophages and evaluating method
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Taking Action on Asthma: Increasing Influenza Vaccination Rates in Pediatric Asthma Through Quality Improvement

Taking Action on Asthma: Increasing Influenza Vaccination Rates in Pediatric Asthma Through Quality Improvement | Virology News | Scoop.it
Through a QI Collaborative, a school-based health center (SBHC) program was tasked
with identifying ways to decrease asthma mortality and promote national asthma guidelines
with evidence-based interventions.
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Synthetic proteins mimic the real thing

Synthetic proteins mimic the real thing | Virology News | Scoop.it
Synthetic proteins with improved properties could fight infection, help treat diseases, and more.
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'Turbocharged' Australian flu vaccine made by artificial intelligence to begin clinical trials

'Turbocharged' Australian flu vaccine made by artificial intelligence to begin clinical trials | Virology News | Scoop.it
An Australian influenza vaccine believed to be the first in the world completely designed by artificial intelligence is about to start clinical trials.
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The Spread and Scope of Anti-Vaccine Sentiment and Misinformation in News and Social Media

An important note on language: The Health Misinformation Working Group researchers acknowledge that there are implications of using terms like ‘anti-vaccine’ or ‘anti-vax’ to the broader academic and general discourse. In general, we utilize the terms ‘vaccine hesitancy’ or ‘vaccine hesitant’ to describe the spectrum of concerns in perspectives that individuals may have towards vaccinations. The World Health Organization classifies vaccine hesitancy as: “a behavior, influenced by a number of factors including issues of confidence (do not trust a vaccine or a provider), complacency (do not perceive a need for a vaccine or do not value the vaccine), and convenience (access)” (WHO, 2014, as cited by Edwards et al., 2016). Using polarizing terminology such as ‘pro-vaccine’ or ‘anti-vaccine’ in this context is likely not reflective of the true landscape of perspectives, and can contribute negatively to perceptions of what may or may not be prevalent norms. If we use the term ‘anti-vaccine’, it is purely to reference content that can be identified as disinformation or misinformation explicitly against vaccination. Each year, more than 300,000 women die of cervical cancer, and more than half a million women are diagnosed. Nine in 10 women who die from cervical cancer are in poor countries, with the survival rate ranging between 33 and 77%; the overall numbers and disparity are unacceptable, especially given they can be minimized through one important intervention: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. Yet hesitancy around the HPV vaccine is widespread. 

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Broadly resistant HIV-1 against CD4-binding site neutralizing antibodies

Broadly resistant HIV-1 against CD4-binding site neutralizing antibodies | Virology News | Scoop.it
Author summary Recently identified broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) show great potential for clinical interventions against HIV-1 infection. Among the bnAbs isolated to date, those targeting the CD4bs are the most abundant and thoroughly studied as they disrupt the crucial step of viral...
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Discovery could lead to better maternal vaccines

Discovery could lead to better maternal vaccines | Virology News | Scoop.it
A new discovery could lead to safer and more effective maternal vaccines, which protect pregnant women and their newborns from dangerous infections.
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Quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccination in girls and the [LACK OF] risk of autoimmune disorders

RESULTS: The study cohort consisted of 290 939 girls aged 12-17 years who were eligible for vaccination between 2007 and 2013. There was no significant risk for developing an autoimmune disorder following HPV4 vaccination (n = 681; rate ratio 1.12, 95% CI 0.85-1.47), and the association was unchanged by a history of immune-mediated disorders and time since vaccination. Exploratory analyses of individual autoimmune disorders found no significant risks, including for Bell palsy (n = 65; rate ratio 1.73, 95% CI 0.77-3.89), optic neuritis (n = 67; rate ratio 1.57, 95% CI 0.74-3.33) and Graves disease (n = 47; rate ratio 1.55, 95% CI 0.92-2.63). 


 INTERPRETATION: We did not observe an increased risk of autoimmune disorders following HPV4 vaccination among teenaged girls. These findings should reassure parents and health care providers.

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An evaluation of the 2016 influenza vaccination in pregnancy campaign in NSW, Australia

An evaluation of the 2016 influenza vaccination in pregnancy campaign in NSW, Australia | Virology News | Scoop.it

Introduction Pregnant women are at increased risk of suffering serious complications from influenza.1 Influenza can also have adverse effects on the fetus, and increases the risk of premature birth, stillbirth and pregnancy loss.1,2 A variety of overseas3,4 and Australian studies5-8 have shown that vaccinating pregnant women is safe and effective in reducing these complications. Pregnant women have been classified as the group of highest priority for seasonal influenza vaccination programs by the World Health Organization since 2012.9 Influenza vaccination in pregnancy has been recommended by the Australian Technical Advisory Group on Immunisation since March 2000, and has been funded under the National Immunisation Program since January 2010.10 Vaccination is available through general practitioners (GPs) and some antenatal clinics. Despite being strongly recommended, vaccine uptake is suboptimal. Factors identified as contributing to poor uptake include lack of awareness by pregnant women, lack of provider recommendation, and maternal concerns about safety and efficacy for mother and child.

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Scientists develop potential Alzheimer's vaccine, successfully treat mice 

Scientists develop potential Alzheimer's vaccine, successfully treat mice  | Virology News | Scoop.it
A team of researchers at the University of New Mexico is developing a new vaccine that they hope will be able to prevent Alzheimer's disease in humans after seeing promising results in tests with...
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