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Mucosal SIV Vaccines with Bacterial Adjuvants Prevent SIV Infection in Macaques

Mucosal SIV Vaccines with Bacterial Adjuvants   Prevent SIV Infection in Macaques | Virology News | Scoop.it
A new paradigm of mucosal vaccination against HIV infection has been investigated in the macaque model. A vaccine consisting of inactivated SIVmac239 particles together with a living bacterial adjuvant (either the Calmette & Guerin bacillus, lactobacillus plantarum or Lactobacillus rhamnosus) was administered to macaques via the vaginal or oral/intragastic route. In contrast to all established human and veterinary vaccines, these three vaccine regimens did not elicit SIV-specific antibodies nor cytotoxic T-lymphocytes but induced a previously unrecognized population of non-cytolytic MHCIb/E-restricted CD8+T regulatory cells that suppressed the activation of SIV positive CD4+ T-lymphocytes. SIV reverse transcription was thereby blocked in inactivated CD4+ T-cells; the initial burst of virus replication was prevented and the vaccinated macaques were protected from a challenge infection. Three to 14 months after intragastric immunization, 24 macaques were challenged intrarectally with a high dose of SIVmac239 or with the heterologous strain SIV B670 (both strains grown on macaques PBMC). Twenty-three of these animals were found to be protected for up to 48 months while all 24 control macaques became infected. This protective effect against SIV challenge together with the concomitant identification of a robust ex-vivo correlate of protection suggests a new approach for developing an HIV vaccine in humans. The induction of this new class of CD8+ T regulatory cells could also possibly be used therapeutically for suppressing HIV replication in infected patients and this novel tolerogenic vaccine paradigm may have potential applications for treating a wide range of immune disorders and is likely to may have profound implications across immunology generally.

 

Graphic of cells involved in HIV immunity from Russell Kightley Media

Ed Rybicki's insight:

I have heard Jean-Marie Andrieu present this work - and I can understand why there is some skepticism surrounding it, because it is almost too good to be true.

Seriously: SUPPRESSING SIV-specific CD4 T-cell activation results in immunity to challenge infection??

However, and however - if this work is found to have been done well (and there is no evidence it was not), then this really could be a simple, reliable way of immunising people against HIV

Of course, monkeys aren't people, and SIV is not HIV, so there MAY be a problem somewhere along the line in translating these results into humans - but what if there is not?

Then we may have a vaccine, and kudos to Jean-Marie Andrieu and co-workers to persevering along a difficult road to get their idea tested.

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How South Africa’s Covid-19 vaccination programme compares to other countries

How South Africa’s Covid-19 vaccination programme compares to other countries | Virology News | Scoop.it
Out of 168 countries that have begun administering the Covid-19 vaccine, South Africa places 79 on the list as of April 5 - after vaccinating just 0.5% of the population...
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India approves Russia's Sputnik V COVID-19 vaccine | Reuters

India approves Russia's Sputnik V COVID-19 vaccine | Reuters | Virology News | Scoop.it
India has approved the use of Russian Sputnik V COVID-19 vaccine, the Russian Direct Investment Fund (RDIF) said on Monday, confirming earlier reports of its imminent endorsement.
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Relic: Iron Lung

Relic: Iron Lung | Virology News | Scoop.it
During the COVID-19 pandemic, technology has had to advance at rates never seen before.One of the first big leaps in technology followed the flu pandemic...
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Bird flu outbreak confirmed in SA, Joburg farm quarantined

Bird flu outbreak confirmed in SA, Joburg farm quarantined | Virology News | Scoop.it
The poultry industry was on high alert on Tuesday after an outbreak of avian influenza was confirmed in a commercial layer flock on the East Rand of Johannesburg.
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Cocoa powder eases liver disease in mice

Cocoa powder eases liver disease in mice | Virology News | Scoop.it
Cocoa powder added to the diet of obese mice markedly reduced the severity of liver disease. Researchers suggest the findings have implications for people.
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Africa CDC says cannot predict when second Covid-19 shots will arrive

Africa CDC says cannot predict when second Covid-19 shots will arrive | Virology News | Scoop.it
Many Africans who have received their first Covid-19 vaccine do not know when they will get a second shot because deliveries are delayed, the continent's top public health official said on Thursday.
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Vast majority of young people want the COVID vax

Vast majority of young people want the COVID vax | Virology News | Scoop.it
New poll results find that the vast majority of teenagers and young adults want to get the COVID-19 vaccine or have already.
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Hyperimmune response model could clarify severe COVID-19

Hyperimmune response model could clarify severe COVID-19 | Virology News | Scoop.it
Replication of a hyperimmune response in nonhuman primates could one day lead to treatments for people with severe cases of COVID-19.
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Inside the world's biggest vaccine factory, India's Serum Institute

Inside the world's biggest vaccine factory, India's Serum Institute | Virology News | Scoop.it
PUNE, India: The tiny clinking vials supervised by silent PPE-wearing technicians belie the excitement inside the world's largest vaccine ...
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Pakistan close to approving Russia's Sputnik vaccine as Covid cases rise 

Pakistan close to approving Russia's Sputnik vaccine as Covid cases rise  | Virology News | Scoop.it
Read more about Pakistan close to approving Russia's Sputnik vaccine as Covid cases rise on Business Standard. The country has already ordered 1.2 million doses from Chinese state-backed vaccine developer Sinopharm.
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SARS-CoV-2 501Y.V2 escapes neutralization by South African COVID-19 donor plasma 

SARS-CoV-2 501Y.V2, a novel lineage of the coronavirus causing COVID-19, contains multiple mutations within two immunodominant domains of the spike protein. Here we show that this lineage exhibits complete escape from three classes of therapeutically relevant monoclonal antibodies. Furthermore 501Y.V2 shows substantial or complete escape from neutralizing antibodies in COVID-19 convalescent plasma. These data highlight the prospect of reinfection with antigenically distinct variants and may foreshadow reduced efficacy of current spike-based vaccines.

Ed Rybicki's insight:
IN. VITRO. Important note!! The 501Y.V2 variant is NOT associated with greater rates of reinfection, meaning it does NOT seem any worse than the wild-type in escaping immunity.
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Covid in Ireland: Government deal with GPs over Astrazeneca vaccine is close 

Covid in Ireland: Government deal with GPs over Astrazeneca vaccine is close  | Virology News | Scoop.it
Cabinet will meet today to discuss an agreement between the government and GPs to ensure the smooth roll-out of the Astrazeneca vaccine.A senior government source confirmed that a Department of Health...
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Pandemic loneliness hits people under 30 harder

Pandemic loneliness hits people under 30 harder | Virology News | Scoop.it
The loneliness that comes with the COVID-19 pandemic is particularly hard on people under 30 and those with previous mental health issues, research finds.
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Flu may play part in plaque-rupturing heart attacks

Flu may play part in plaque-rupturing heart attacks | Virology News | Scoop.it
Getting a flu vaccine can reduce the risk of a common type of heart attack in people 60 and older, according to new research that suggests the virus plays a role in rupturing plaque.
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IL‐1β exacerbates disease and is a potential therapeutic target to reduce pulmonary inflammation during severe influenza A virus infection 

IL‐1β exacerbates disease and is a potential therapeutic target to reduce pulmonary inflammation during severe influenza A virus infection  | Virology News | Scoop.it
Abstract Hyperinflammatory responses including the production of NLRP3‐dependent IL‐1β is a characteristic feature of severe and fatal influenza A virus (IAV) infections. The NLRP3 inflammasome has...
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Why South Africans should get the flu vaccine now to help the fight against Covid-19

Why South Africans should get the flu vaccine now to help the fight against Covid-19 | Virology News | Scoop.it
The regular flu vaccine won't stop the novel coronavirus – but it can prevent confusion from similar symptoms.
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Can One Receive the Covid-19 Vaccine While Fasting? – Guidance from the Caliph

Can One Receive the Covid-19 Vaccine While Fasting? – Guidance from the Caliph | Virology News | Scoop.it
For Muslims all over the world, Ramadan is the most blessed month of the year.As Muslims prepare to fast from dawn till dusk every day for a month, whilst striving to improve and strengthen their relationship with God Almighty, this year, the blessed month of Ramadan comes once again, in the midst...
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Influenza virus and SARS-CoV-2: pathogenesis and host responses in the respiratory tract 

Influenza viruses cause annual epidemics and occasional pandemics of respiratory tract infections that produce a wide spectrum of clinical disease severity in humans. The novel betacoronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in December 2019 and has since...
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Discovery could lead to Duchenne muscular dystrophy therapies

Discovery could lead to Duchenne muscular dystrophy therapies | Virology News | Scoop.it
Research into how chronic inflammation promotes muscle fibrosis could lead to new therapies for people with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, a fatal disease.
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Namibia suspends poultry imports from South Africa over bird flu 

Namibia suspends poultry imports from South Africa over bird flu CHRISTIAN FERNSBY ▼ | April 16, 2021 Namibia on Thursday suspended all poultry and bird imports from neighboring South Africa following an avian flu outbreak there. AFRICA   Chief Veterinary Officer Albertina Shilongo Chief Veterinary Officer Albertina Shilongo with the Namibian Ministry of Agriculture, Water and Land Reform, said the suspension is in place as a pre-cautionary measure in the next 21 days. Topics: NAMIBIA SOUTH AFRICA She said so far there have not been any imported cases recorded in Namibia and they are monitoring the situation in South Africa. All consignments containing poultry products from South Africa, she said, will be blocked at the point of entry or sent back. All current valid import permits for poultry products have also been suspended with immediate effect until the situation improves. ■ WHAT TO READ NEXT
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Hancock rebuked for suggesting coronavirus vaccine won’t combat new strain 

Hancock rebuked for suggesting coronavirus vaccine won’t combat new strain  | Virology News | Scoop.it
The government’s chief scientific adviser criticised the health secretary yesterday for suggesting that vaccines would be 50 per cent less effective against the South African variant of coronavirus.
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Deep Recombination: RNA and ssDNA Virus Genes in DNA Virus and Host Genomes 

Deep Recombination: RNA and ssDNA Virus Genes in DNA Virus and Host Genomes  | Virology News | Scoop.it
Viruses are notorious for rapidly exchanging genetic information between close relatives and with the host cells they infect. This exchange has profound effects on the nature and rapidity of virus ...
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Revisiting the Spanish flu: the 1918 influenza pandemic in Rio de Janeiro

Revisiting the Spanish flu: the 1918 influenza pandemic in Rio de Janeiro1     Adriana da Costa Goulart Master's in Social History from Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF); Rua Mariz e Barros, 98/401; 24220-121 Niterói – RJ Brazil; adrianacgoulart@yahoo.com.br     ABSTRACT The article analyzes the political and social impacts of the 1918 Spanish flu epidemic in the city of Rio de Janeiro, then Brazil's federal capital. Through an analysis of press reports from Rio de Janeiro and of other documentation, I explore how the epidemic served as a tool for political engineering. Data sources include annals, reports, and bulletins from a federal ministry, the Mayor's Office, and the Chamber of Deputies, along with studies from the Brazilian Academy of Medicine and dissertations from Rio de Janeiro's Faculdade de Medicina. My concern is how the epidemic impacted the representation of certain political and social actors and how it reaffirmed a group of sanitarians as an intelligentsia with a vocation for political leadership–a group that came to play a key role in the process of modernizing Brazilian society. Keywords: Spanish flu; epidemic; public health; political and social history; governability; political and social representation; Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.    

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Fears of ‘vaccine apartheid’ as countries mull immunisation passports

It may be a divisive move but proof of inoculation is likely to become the norm for anyone wanting to travel and enjoy life...
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Philippines now free of H5N6 bird flu, but monitoring another strain

Philippines now free of H5N6 bird flu, but monitoring another strain | Virology News | Scoop.it
MANILA: The Philippines is now free of the highly pathogenic H5N6 bird flu virus, the Department of Agriculture said on Tuesday (Jan 19), citing a ...
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