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Immune suppressor makes one flu vaccine work for many viruses [but is explained badly]

Immune suppressor makes one flu vaccine work for many viruses [but is explained badly] | Virology News | Scoop.it

The flu kills over 250,000 people every year. Flu viruses change constantly, so they can evade our immune systems, the immune systems of other host species, and the vaccines we throw at them. Each seasonal vaccine can, at best, protect only against the current circulating strain of virus—but not emerging variants. (Just so we’re clear on this, YOU SHOULD STILL GET VACCINATED. Reread the first sentence.) And we currently have no way of knowing which strain might become a pandemic, or when or where such a strain might arise.

Making a universal vaccine, or at least one that could counter more than one subtype of the virus, is a priority. Efforts thus far have failed, because most of the proteins that are conserved between the different influenza subtypes are inside the virus rather than on its surface, which typically makes them tough for antibodies to access. But researchers have recently found a way to render one vaccine protective against a number of different subtypes.

 

Influenza variation graphic from Russell Kightley Media

Ed Rybicki's insight:

This is all very well, and a brilliant exemplification of my adage that "Hypotheses are the refuge of the small-minded", aka "Discovery trumps hypotheses every time" - BUT I have a serious problem with the reasoning for why it works that is given in the article.

 

Diana Gitig says:

"Rapamycin suppressed class switching, so mice that got it along with their vaccine had more IgM class antibodies, many of which tended to be less specific to HKx31. Irony number three: these less specific antibodies might not bind as strongly to the HKx31, but it is precisely this reduced affinity that may allow them to bind to the equivalent protein on other flu strains."


Um.  That flies in the face of all the immunology I have imbibed since 1976, and what I have taught since 1984 or so.  That is, that B cell receptor / IgM/D binding affinity starts out low, then increases by hypermutation so that the eventual class-switched antigody has high binding affinity.  Along with this, specificity starts out high - the antibodies bind only a narrow range of related epitopes - and becomes wider, as increased affinity allows binding to a wider range of related sequences / structures.


Thus, the statement that "... it is precisely this reduced affinity that may allow them to bind to the equivalent protein on other flu strains" is nonsense, as far as I am concerned: it is the fact that the antibodies have INCREASED affinity, AND are multivalent IgM, that allow them not only to bind to related sequences, but increase their neutralising ability relative to the equivalent IgG/A that would result from class-switching.


Am I wrong?

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13 Million Freeze-Dried Monkeypox - Smallpox Vaccines Ordered — Precision Vaccinations

13 Million Freeze-Dried Monkeypox - Smallpox Vaccines Ordered — Precision Vaccinations | Virology News | Scoop.it
Denmark-based Bavarian Nordic A/S announced today that the U.S. Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) exercised the first options under an existing contract to supply a freeze-dried version of the JYNNEOS® smallpox vaccine.
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A whole lot of nothing as Aspen’s vaccine facility gets no orders

A whole lot of nothing as Aspen’s vaccine facility gets no orders | Virology News | Scoop.it
Africa's sluggish uptake of Covid vaccines, and vaccine agencies' decision to buy shots elsewhere is a blow for the company's production ambitions and the continent's own health sovereignty...
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Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update: FDA Expands Eligibility for Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine Booster Dose to Children 5 through 11 Years 

Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update: FDA Expands Eligibility for Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine Booster Dose to Children 5 through 11 Years  | Virology News | Scoop.it
The FDA amended the emergency use authorization (EUA) for the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine, authorizing the use of a single booster dose for administration to individuals 5 through 11 years of age at least five months after completion of a primary series with the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine...
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Calls for mask-wearing as Victoria flu cases exceed past two seasons combined 

Calls for mask-wearing as Victoria flu cases exceed past two seasons combined  | Virology News | Scoop.it
Victoria has recorded more cases of the flu so far this year than the whole of 2020 and 2021 combined, with experts calling for the voluntary wearing of masks in settings where there is a high chance of spreading influenza and Covid.
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Efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of an inactivated, adjuvanted enterovirus 71 vaccine in infants and children: a multiregion, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial

Efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of an inactivated, adjuvanted enterovirus 71 vaccine in infants and children: a multiregion, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial | Virology News | Scoop.it
EV71vac is safe, well-tolerated, and highly effective in preventing EV71 associated
diseases in children aged 2–71 months.
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Nasal symbiont Staphylococcus epidermidis restricts the cellular entry of influenza virus into the nasal epithelium 

Nasal symbiont Staphylococcus epidermidis restricts the cellular entry of influenza virus into the nasal epithelium  | Virology News | Scoop.it
Our recent study presented that human nasal commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis could potentiate antiviral immunity in the nasal mucosa through interferon-related innate responses. Here, we found that human nasal commensal S.
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Can this soil microbe boost artificial photosynthesis?

Can this soil microbe boost artificial photosynthesis? | Virology News | Scoop.it
"This bacterial enzyme is the most efficient carbon fixer that we know of, and we came up with a neat explanation of what it can do."...
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Official numbers may miss 20% of COVID deaths

Official numbers may miss 20% of COVID deaths | Virology News | Scoop.it
The United States has just marked one million deaths from COVID-19. But a new study suggests that the true count is closer to 1.2 million deaths.
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World's First Malaria Vaccine Expands Rollout

World's First Malaria Vaccine Expands Rollout | Virology News | Scoop.it
The results from a WHO pilot points to more countries in sub-Saharan Africa receiving the world's first malaria vaccine.
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Emerging Novel Reassortant Influenza A(H5N6) Viruses in Poultry and Humans, China, 2021

Emerging Novel Reassortant Influenza A(H5N6) Viruses in Poultry and Humans, China, 2021 | Virology News | Scoop.it
Emerging Novel Reassortant Influenza A(H5N6) Viruses in Poultry and Humans, China, 2021...
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Bird flu H5N1 spreads to foxes in US, 4 die –

Bird flu H5N1 spreads to foxes in US, 4 die – | Virology News | Scoop.it
New York:   Four red baby foxes in the US reportedly died in what is known as the first case of...
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Structure-based design of 5'-substituted 1,2,3-triazolylated oseltamivir derivatives as potent influenza neuraminidase inhibitors

Resistant viruses containing mutant neuraminidases (NAs) with diminished drug affinity continue to emerge, and new anti-influenza agents are urgently required.Several potent inhibitors targeting the hydrophobic 150-cavity of viral NAs have been developed by modifying the antiviral drugs, oseltamivi...
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From Outbreak to Near Disappearance: How Did Non-pharmaceutical Interventions Against COVID-19 Affect the Transmission of Influenza Virus?

Influenza shares the same putative transmission pathway with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and causes tremendous morbidity and mortality annually globally.Since the transmission of COVID-19 in China, a series of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) against to the disease have been impleme...
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Germany’s top court OKs vaccine mandate for health workers

BERLIN (AP) — Germany’s top court has approved rules requiring that health workers be vaccinated against COVID-19.
danielfonkeng@gmail.com's curator insight, May 19, 1:00 PM
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A live attenuated vaccine confers superior mucosal and systemic immunity to SARS-CoV-2 variants | bioRxiv

bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research and educational institution...
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Narcissism affects whether people follow COVID mitigation efforts

Narcissism affects whether people follow COVID mitigation efforts | Virology News | Scoop.it
New research investigates how narcissism makes people more or less likely to follow COVID mitigation strategies like masking up or getting vaxxed.
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Some short-term benefit of additional booster dose of mRNA vaccine in health workers: WHO

Some short-term benefit of additional booster dose of mRNA vaccine in health workers: WHO | Virology News | Scoop.it
Interval of 4-6 months since completion of the primary series of the vaccine could be considered for a first booster, says the WHO...
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Mutations in DNA polymerase δ subunit 1 mediate CMD2-type resistance to Cassava Mosaic Geminiviruses

Mutations in DNA polymerase δ subunit 1 mediate CMD2-type resistance to Cassava Mosaic Geminiviruses | Virology News | Scoop.it
bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research and educational institution...
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Flu vaccine cuts risk of heart attack in following year by 34 per cent

Flu vaccine cuts risk of heart attack in following year by 34 per cent | Virology News | Scoop.it
A meta-analysis of studies involving 9000 people suggests those who receive a flu vaccine also gain some protection against heart attacks...
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Bacteria that 'record' data can check gut health

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Modified bacteria that can log data about their surroundings may be a good way to non-invasively get information about gut health, research in mice shows.
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Britain gives first European approval to Valneva COVID shot

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Britain approved Valneva's COVID-19 vaccine on Thursday, becoming the first European country to clear the use of the French firm's shot in a move that boosted its shares by more than 20%.
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North Korea and Eritrea are the only two countries without vaccines

North Korea and Eritrea are the only two countries without vaccines | Virology News | Scoop.it
North Korea, like Eritrea, has refused to join vaccine-sharing initiatives....
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South Africa in new surge of COVID from versions of omicron 

South Africa in new surge of COVID from versions of omicron  | Virology News | Scoop.it
JOHANNESBURG (AP) — South Africa is experiencing a surge of new COVID-19 cases driven by two omicron sub-variants, according to health experts. For about three weeks the country has seen increasing numbers of new cases and somewhat higher hospitalizations, but not increases in severe cases and...
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Safety and Immunogenicity of BNT162b2 Coadministered With SIIV in Adults 18 Through 64 Years of Age

Safety and Immunogenicity of BNT162b2 Coadministered With SIIV in Adults 18 Through 64 Years of Age - Full Text View.
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A rapid water bath PCR combined with lateral flow assay for the simultaneous detection of SARS-CoV-2 and influenza B virus

The outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in significant global health and economic threats to the human society.
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