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PLOS ONE: Tobacco Mosaic Virus in the Lungs of Mice following Intra-Tracheal Inoculation

PLOS ONE: Tobacco Mosaic Virus in the Lungs of Mice following Intra-Tracheal Inoculation | Virology News | Scoop.it

Plant viruses are generally considered incapable of infecting vertebrates. Accordingly, they are not considered harmful for humans. However, a few studies questioned the certainty of this paradigm. Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) RNA has been detected in human samples and TMV RNA translation has been described in animal cells. We sought to determine if TMV is detectable, persists, and remains viable in the lung tissues of mice following intratracheal inoculation, and we attempted to inoculate mouse macrophages with TMV. In the animal model, mice were intratracheally inoculated with 1011 viral particles and were sacrificed at different time points. The virus was detected in the mouse lungs using immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, real-time RT-PCR and sequencing, and its viability was studied with an infectivity assay on plants. In the cellular model, the culture medium of murine bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) was inoculated with different concentrations of TMV, and the virus was detected with real-time RT-PCR and immunofluorescence. In addition, anti-TMV antibodies were detected in mouse sera with ELISA. We showed that infectious TMV could enter and persist in mouse lungs via the intratracheal route. Over 14 days, the TMV RNA level decreased by 5 log10 copies/ml in the mouse lungs and by 3.5 log10 in macrophages recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage. TMV was localized to lung tissue, and its infectivity was observed on plants until 3 days after inoculation. In addition, anti-TMV antibody seroconversions were observed in the sera from mice 7 days after inoculation. In the cellular model, we observed that TMV persisted over 15 days after inoculation and it was visualized in the cytoplasm of the BMDM. This work shows that a plant virus, Tobacco mosaic virus, could persist and enter in cells in mammals, which raises questions about the potential interactions between TMV and human hosts.

 
Ed Rybicki's insight:

Interesting paper!  Which proves...which proves...which proves TMV is seriously resistant to degradation in animals and in mammalian cells; that it can enter macrophages; and that it...what?  What, exactly, are the "...questions about the possible interactions..."?  What would TMV do in mammalian cells?  Yes, it might be incoated and be translated; it is far less likely that it MIGHT be able to replicate its RNA - and then?  While it can apparently be taken up quite efficiently by macrophages - a property which, incidentally, has led to its being trialled as an RNA vaccine delivery system - this is a dead end, and one that is quite normal for particles of any kind being introduced into mammals.

 

Which is something that happens every day, as we and our cousin mammals eat: it has been shown elsewhere that animals are actually quite good spreaders of plant viruses, some of which - like TMV and the even tougher Cauliflower mosaic virus - pass right through at high survival rates, and remain infectious.  We will all probably have eaten many grams of various viruses in our lives, and derived nothing more than nutition from them.

 

I also remember, even though it was very late at night, 31 years ago, and in a bar in Banff in Canada, a conversation with one Richard Zeyen, who told me they had used ELISA to test everyone in their lab for antibodies for TMV, seeing as they worked with it.  And everyone was immune - presumably, to aerosolised TMV that had been breathed in or otherwise ingested.  Proving...that oral vaccines based on TMV could work, and that most of us are probably immune to all sorts of viruses that don't replicate in us.  Including, in the case of many people in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, sampled by one Don Hendry via the local blood bank, to a virus of Pine Emperor moths - because it multiples to such high levels in its host that anyone walking in the pine forests was bound to be exposed via the environment.

 

So this is an interesting paper - and no more.  It will, of course, lead to alarmist articles ad blog posts, and people calling out for urgent surveillance of food, in which people will find many viruses.  And so what?

 

 

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13 Million Freeze-Dried Monkeypox - Smallpox Vaccines Ordered — Precision Vaccinations

13 Million Freeze-Dried Monkeypox - Smallpox Vaccines Ordered — Precision Vaccinations | Virology News | Scoop.it
Denmark-based Bavarian Nordic A/S announced today that the U.S. Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) exercised the first options under an existing contract to supply a freeze-dried version of the JYNNEOS® smallpox vaccine.
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A whole lot of nothing as Aspen’s vaccine facility gets no orders

A whole lot of nothing as Aspen’s vaccine facility gets no orders | Virology News | Scoop.it
Africa's sluggish uptake of Covid vaccines, and vaccine agencies' decision to buy shots elsewhere is a blow for the company's production ambitions and the continent's own health sovereignty...
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Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update: FDA Expands Eligibility for Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine Booster Dose to Children 5 through 11 Years 

Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update: FDA Expands Eligibility for Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine Booster Dose to Children 5 through 11 Years  | Virology News | Scoop.it
The FDA amended the emergency use authorization (EUA) for the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine, authorizing the use of a single booster dose for administration to individuals 5 through 11 years of age at least five months after completion of a primary series with the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine...
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Calls for mask-wearing as Victoria flu cases exceed past two seasons combined 

Calls for mask-wearing as Victoria flu cases exceed past two seasons combined  | Virology News | Scoop.it
Victoria has recorded more cases of the flu so far this year than the whole of 2020 and 2021 combined, with experts calling for the voluntary wearing of masks in settings where there is a high chance of spreading influenza and Covid.
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Efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of an inactivated, adjuvanted enterovirus 71 vaccine in infants and children: a multiregion, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial

Efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of an inactivated, adjuvanted enterovirus 71 vaccine in infants and children: a multiregion, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial | Virology News | Scoop.it
EV71vac is safe, well-tolerated, and highly effective in preventing EV71 associated
diseases in children aged 2–71 months.
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Nasal symbiont Staphylococcus epidermidis restricts the cellular entry of influenza virus into the nasal epithelium 

Nasal symbiont Staphylococcus epidermidis restricts the cellular entry of influenza virus into the nasal epithelium  | Virology News | Scoop.it
Our recent study presented that human nasal commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis could potentiate antiviral immunity in the nasal mucosa through interferon-related innate responses. Here, we found that human nasal commensal S.
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Can this soil microbe boost artificial photosynthesis?

Can this soil microbe boost artificial photosynthesis? | Virology News | Scoop.it
"This bacterial enzyme is the most efficient carbon fixer that we know of, and we came up with a neat explanation of what it can do."...
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Official numbers may miss 20% of COVID deaths

Official numbers may miss 20% of COVID deaths | Virology News | Scoop.it
The United States has just marked one million deaths from COVID-19. But a new study suggests that the true count is closer to 1.2 million deaths.
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World's First Malaria Vaccine Expands Rollout

World's First Malaria Vaccine Expands Rollout | Virology News | Scoop.it
The results from a WHO pilot points to more countries in sub-Saharan Africa receiving the world's first malaria vaccine.
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Emerging Novel Reassortant Influenza A(H5N6) Viruses in Poultry and Humans, China, 2021

Emerging Novel Reassortant Influenza A(H5N6) Viruses in Poultry and Humans, China, 2021 | Virology News | Scoop.it
Emerging Novel Reassortant Influenza A(H5N6) Viruses in Poultry and Humans, China, 2021...
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Bird flu H5N1 spreads to foxes in US, 4 die –

Bird flu H5N1 spreads to foxes in US, 4 die – | Virology News | Scoop.it
New York:   Four red baby foxes in the US reportedly died in what is known as the first case of...
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Structure-based design of 5'-substituted 1,2,3-triazolylated oseltamivir derivatives as potent influenza neuraminidase inhibitors

Resistant viruses containing mutant neuraminidases (NAs) with diminished drug affinity continue to emerge, and new anti-influenza agents are urgently required.Several potent inhibitors targeting the hydrophobic 150-cavity of viral NAs have been developed by modifying the antiviral drugs, oseltamivi...
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From Outbreak to Near Disappearance: How Did Non-pharmaceutical Interventions Against COVID-19 Affect the Transmission of Influenza Virus?

Influenza shares the same putative transmission pathway with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and causes tremendous morbidity and mortality annually globally.Since the transmission of COVID-19 in China, a series of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) against to the disease have been impleme...
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Germany’s top court OKs vaccine mandate for health workers

BERLIN (AP) — Germany’s top court has approved rules requiring that health workers be vaccinated against COVID-19.
danielfonkeng@gmail.com's curator insight, May 19, 1:00 PM
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A live attenuated vaccine confers superior mucosal and systemic immunity to SARS-CoV-2 variants | bioRxiv

bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research and educational institution...
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Narcissism affects whether people follow COVID mitigation efforts

Narcissism affects whether people follow COVID mitigation efforts | Virology News | Scoop.it
New research investigates how narcissism makes people more or less likely to follow COVID mitigation strategies like masking up or getting vaxxed.
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Some short-term benefit of additional booster dose of mRNA vaccine in health workers: WHO

Some short-term benefit of additional booster dose of mRNA vaccine in health workers: WHO | Virology News | Scoop.it
Interval of 4-6 months since completion of the primary series of the vaccine could be considered for a first booster, says the WHO...
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Mutations in DNA polymerase δ subunit 1 mediate CMD2-type resistance to Cassava Mosaic Geminiviruses

Mutations in DNA polymerase δ subunit 1 mediate CMD2-type resistance to Cassava Mosaic Geminiviruses | Virology News | Scoop.it
bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research and educational institution...
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Flu vaccine cuts risk of heart attack in following year by 34 per cent

Flu vaccine cuts risk of heart attack in following year by 34 per cent | Virology News | Scoop.it
A meta-analysis of studies involving 9000 people suggests those who receive a flu vaccine also gain some protection against heart attacks...
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Bacteria that 'record' data can check gut health

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Modified bacteria that can log data about their surroundings may be a good way to non-invasively get information about gut health, research in mice shows.
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Britain gives first European approval to Valneva COVID shot

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Britain approved Valneva's COVID-19 vaccine on Thursday, becoming the first European country to clear the use of the French firm's shot in a move that boosted its shares by more than 20%.
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North Korea and Eritrea are the only two countries without vaccines

North Korea and Eritrea are the only two countries without vaccines | Virology News | Scoop.it
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South Africa in new surge of COVID from versions of omicron 

South Africa in new surge of COVID from versions of omicron  | Virology News | Scoop.it
JOHANNESBURG (AP) — South Africa is experiencing a surge of new COVID-19 cases driven by two omicron sub-variants, according to health experts. For about three weeks the country has seen increasing numbers of new cases and somewhat higher hospitalizations, but not increases in severe cases and...
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Safety and Immunogenicity of BNT162b2 Coadministered With SIIV in Adults 18 Through 64 Years of Age

Safety and Immunogenicity of BNT162b2 Coadministered With SIIV in Adults 18 Through 64 Years of Age - Full Text View.
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A rapid water bath PCR combined with lateral flow assay for the simultaneous detection of SARS-CoV-2 and influenza B virus

The outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in significant global health and economic threats to the human society.
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