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Schmallenberg virus: A new Shamonda/Sathuperi-like virus on the rise in Europe

Schmallenberg virus: A new Shamonda/Sathuperi-like virus on the rise in Europe | Virology News | Scoop.it

"In the summer-fall of 2011, a nonspecific febrile syndrome characterized by hyperthermia, drop in milk production and watery diarrhea was reported in adult dairy cows from a series of farms located in North-West Europe. Further, in November 2011, an enzootic outbreak of abortion, stillbirth and birth at term of lambs, kids and calves with neurologic signs and/or head, spine or limb malformations emerged throughout several European countries. Both syndromes were associated with the presence in the blood (adults) or in the central nervous system (newborns) of the genome of a new Shamonda-Sathuperi reassortant orthobunyavirus provisionally named Schmallenberg virus after the place where the first positive samples were collected. The clinical, pathological, virological and epidemiological facts that were made publicly available during the first 6 months after the emergence are presented here. Current knowledge of the epidemiology of the phylogenetically closest relatives of the newcomer (Shamonda, Sathuperi, Aino and Akabane viruses) is not exhaustive enough to predict whether the current outbreak of Schmallenberg virus is the prelude to endemicity or to a 2 years long outbreak before the infection burns out when serologically naïve animals are no longer available. In the future, cyclic epizootic reemergences are a possibility too, either synchronized with a global decrease of herd immunity or due to antigenic variants escaping the immunity acquired against their predecessors. The latter hypothesis seems unlikely because of the wide array of biologic constraints acting on the genome of viruses whose life cycle requires transmission by a vector, which represses genetic drift. The remarkable stability of the Shamonda virus genome over the last forty years is reassuring in this regard."

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Virology News
Topical news snippets about viruses that affect people.  And other things. Like Led Zeppelin. And zombies B-)
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Could Zombies (or a Zombie Virus) Become a Reality?

Could Zombies (or a Zombie Virus) Become a Reality? | Virology News | Scoop.it
The Center for Disease Control and Prevention, the main national public health institute in the United States, has a zombie preparedness guide. When I first heard this, I was more than a little concerned. I always thought zombies were just a fun and wildly popular horror movie genre. But could a zom
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Influenza

This Spotlight focuses on the lessons we can learn from previous flu pandemics, how prepared we are for another one, and how work on seasonal flu can boost capacity for pandemic preparedness.
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Equine Flu: Fears Cheltenham Festival cancellation would be the most costly postponement in history 

Equine Flu: Fears Cheltenham Festival cancellation would be the most costly postponement in history  | Virology News | Scoop.it
A number of meetings have been cancelled...
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Mapping the pH Sensors Critical for Host Cell Entry by a Complex Nonenveloped Virus

Mapping the pH Sensors Critical for Host Cell Entry by a Complex Nonenveloped Virus | Virology News | Scoop.it
Bluetongue virus (BTV), in the family Reoviridae, is an insect-borne, double-capsid virus causing hemorrhagic disease in livestock around the world. Here, we elucidate how outer capsid proteins VP2 and VP5 coordinate cell entry of BTV. To identify key functional residues, we used atomic-level structural data to guide mutagenesis of VP2 and VP5 and a series of biological and biochemical approaches, including site-directed mutagenesis, reverse genetics-based virus recovery, expression and characterization of individual recombinant mutant proteins, and various in vitro and in vivo assays. We demonstrate the dynamic nature of the conformational change process, revealing that a unique zinc finger (CCCH) in VP2 acts as the major low pH sensor, coordinating VP2 detachment, subsequently allowing VP5 to sense low pH via specific histidine residues at key positions. We show that single substitution of only certain histidine residues has a lethal effect, indicating that the location of histidine in VP5 is critical to inducing changes in VP5 conformation that facilitates membrane penetration. Further, we show that the VP5 anchoring domain alone recapitulates sensing of low pH. Our data reveal a novel, multiconformational process that overcomes entry barriers faced by this multicapsid nonenveloped virus.

IMPORTANCE Virus entry into a susceptible cell is the first step of infection and a significant point at which infection can be prevented. To enter effectively, viruses must sense the cellular environment and, when appropriate, initiate a series of changes that eventually jettison the protective shell and deposit virus genes into the cytoplasm. Many viruses sense pH, but how this happens and the events that follow are often poorly understood. Here, we address this question for a large multilayered bluetongue virus. We show key residues in outer capsid proteins, a pH-sensing histidine of a zinc finger within the receptor-binding VP2 protein, and certain histidine residues in the membrane-penetrating VP5 protein that detect cellular pH, leading to irreversible changes and propel the virus through the cell membrane. Our data reveal a novel mechanism of cell entry for a nonenveloped virus and highlight mechanisms which may also be used by other viruses.
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Rotavirus vaccine may protect children from developing type 1 diabetes –

Rotavirus vaccine may protect children from developing type 1 diabetes – | Virology News | Scoop.it
We all know that vaccines save lives by preventing diseases.But a new study from Australia provides some solid evidence that the rotavirus vaccine not Source: Rotavirus vaccine may protect children from developing type 1 diabetes...
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Siberian scientists wrap up Ebola vaccine trials

Siberian scientists wrap up Ebola vaccine trials | Virology News | Scoop.it
NOVOSIBIRSK, February 1. /TASS/. Specialists at the Novosibirsk State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology VECTOR have completed trials of a vaccine against the Ebola virus disease, which claimed the lives of over 11,000 people in Africa recently, said Nikolai Krasnikov, Head of the Administration of Koltsovo Science City near Novosibirsk where the research center is located, at the TASS press center on Friday. "Our scientists have wrapped up clinical trials of the Ebola vaccine this year. Now it is ready for use," he announced. The World Health Organization describes the Ebola virus disease (EVD, formerly known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever) as "a severe, often fatal illness in humans. EVD outbreaks have a case fatality rate of up to 90%." Symptoms include a sudden onset of fever, intense weakness, muscle pain, a headache and a sore throat. This is followed by vomiting, diarrhea, a rash, impaired kidney and liver function, and in some cases, both internal and external bleeding. The infection is transmitted by direct contact with the blood, body fluids and the tissues of infected animals or people. The incubation period lasts from two to 21 days. The virus was first registered in Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo) in 1976, with outbreaks reported from Sudan, Gabon, the Republic of the Congo, Angola, and Cote d’Ivoire. The latest Ebola epidemics in West Africa in 2014-2016 killed more than 11,300 people, with more than 28,600 contracting the disease. The most lethal outcomes were reported in Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia. Russian doctors and scientists have played an important role in fighting Ebola. In 2017, reports said that an Ebola vaccine had been developed by the Novosibirsk-based VECTOR Research Center. Founded in 1974, VECTOR is one of the world’s largest research centers. Initially, it studied the causative agents of such deadly disease as anthrax and tularemia to create biological weapons based on them. Currently, the center develops tools for diagnosing and treating infectious diseases. Its specialists, in particular, are developing vaccines against swine flu, HIV and Ebola.
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Collaborators begin new One Health study of avian influenza viruses in Vietnam

Collaborators begin new One Health study of avian influenza viruses in Vietnam | Virology News | Scoop.it
In January, a team of human, animal, and environmental health investigators began an ambitious surveillance project to detect novel influenza viruses among poultry in Vietnam. The surveillance will involve collecting more than 5,000 field samples during a 12-month time period at live bird markets...
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Polio: Modi government postpones immunisation programme, but denies shortage of vaccine

Polio: Modi government postpones immunisation programme, but denies shortage of vaccine | Virology News | Scoop.it
The National Immunisation Day campaign was to be held on February 3, but will now be held at a later date.
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This season’s flu shot effective enough to block 7 of 10 cases: BC CDC | Globalnews.ca

This season’s flu shot effective enough to block 7 of 10 cases: BC CDC | Globalnews.ca | Virology News | Scoop.it
"Seven out of 10 unvaccinated cases could have been prevented, had those individuals instead chosen to be vaccinated," said the BC CDC.
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Japan's Influenza Outbreak Strikes Voice Acting Industry

At least 8 voice actors cancelled events in January after flu diagnosis https://www.animenewsnetwork.com/interest/2019-01-25/japan-influenza-outbreak-strikes...
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Monkey Fever in Shivamogga: Kyasanur’s ticking time bomb

Monkey Fever in Shivamogga: Kyasanur’s ticking time bomb | Virology News | Scoop.it
Reckless human forays into eco-sensitive forest areas and lax public health monitoring have led to a deadly outbreak of Kyasanur Forest Disease, or Monkey Fever, in Karnataka’s Shivamogga district, disrupting normal life and the local plantation economy.
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Dead chickens discarded in Hsinchu (Taiwan) test positive for avian flu 

Dead chickens discarded in Hsinchu (Taiwan) test positive for avian flu  | Virology News | Scoop.it
Taipei, Jan. 26 (CNA) Samples taken from some 100 dead chickens recently found discarded near a stream in Hsinchu have come back testing positive for avian influenza infection, the county's Animal Disease Control Center said Saturday.
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Why vaccine-preventable child-disease still kills thousands in Nigeria

Why vaccine-preventable child-disease still kills thousands in Nigeria | Virology News | Scoop.it
Alisa Umar, a middle-aged woman, lost her baby two years ago. “Fatima was my ninth child and she would have been seven this year,” she told PREMIUM TIMES with a forced smile.Mrs Umar fled the insurgency in her home Borno State and now lives at an unofficial Internal Displaced Peoples (IDP) camps ...
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Equine Influenza Information Page

All trainers should put in place strict biosecurity measures as advised in the NTF Biosecurity Guidelines. CLICK ON THE LOGO TO READ This is also contained in the Code of Practice for Infectious Disease on the EquiBioSafe app
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Interim estimates of 2018/19 vaccine effectiveness against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, Canada, January 2019

Using a test-negative design, the Canadian Sentinel Practitioner Surveillance Network assessed interim 2018/19 vaccine effectiveness (VE) against predominant influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses. Adjusted VE was 72% (95% confidence interval: 60 to 81) against medically attended, laboratory-confirmed...
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The environmental sustainability of insects as food and feed. A review

The environmental sustainability of insects as food and feed. A review | Virology News | Scoop.it
With a growing world population, increasingly demanding consumers, and a limited amount of agricultural land, there is an urgent need to find alternatives to conventional meat products
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Analysis of a Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis Genotype B3 Virus from the 2009-2010 South African Measles Epidemic Shows That Hyperfusogenic F Proteins Contribute to Measles Virus Infection in t...

Analysis of a Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis Genotype B3 Virus from the 2009-2010 South African Measles Epidemic Shows That Hyperfusogenic F Proteins Contribute to Measles Virus Infection in t... | Virology News | Scoop.it
During a measles virus (MeV) epidemic in 2009 in South Africa, measles inclusion body encephalitis (MIBE) was identified in several HIV-infected patients. Years later, children are presenting with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE). To investigate the features of established MeV neuronal infections, viral sequences were analyzed from brain tissue samples of a single SSPE case and compared with MIBE sequences previously obtained from patients infected during the same epidemic. Both the SSPE and the MIBE viruses had amino acid substitutions in the ectodomain of the F protein that confer enhanced fusion properties. Functional analysis of the fusion complexes confirmed that both MIBE and SSPE F protein mutations promoted fusion with less dependence on interaction by the viral receptor-binding protein with known MeV receptors. While the SSPE F required the presence of a homotypic attachment protein, MeV H, in order to fuse, MIBE F did not. Both F proteins had decreased thermal stability compared to that of the corresponding wild-type F protein. Finally, recombinant viruses expressing MIBE or SSPE fusion complexes spread in the absence of known MeV receptors, with MIBE F-bearing viruses causing large syncytia in these cells. Our results suggest that alterations to the MeV fusion complex that promote fusion and cell-to-cell spread in the absence of known MeV receptors is a key property for infection of the brain.

IMPORTANCE Measles virus can invade the central nervous system (CNS) and cause severe neurological complications, such as MIBE and SSPE. However, mechanisms by which MeV enters the CNS and triggers the disease remain unclear. We analyzed viruses from brain tissue of individuals with MIBE or SSPE, infected during the same epidemic, after the onset of neurological disease. Our findings indicate that the emergence of hyperfusogenic MeV F proteins is associated with infection of the brain. We also demonstrate that hyperfusogenic F proteins permit MeV to enter cells and spread without the need to engage nectin-4 or CD150, known receptors for MeV that are not present on neural cells.
Ed Rybicki's insight:
Nice piece of work to partly come out of our UCT Med School Virology folks?!
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Children with chronic lung diseases at higher risk of flu hospitalisation

Efforts to prevent children with chronic lung disease being hospitalised with influenza need to be stepped up following high rates of flu hospitalisation in these children. This is one of the recommendations of a UNSW study that found children with underlying lung conditions such as asthma, cystic fibrosis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia and other congenital chronic conditions are at least five times more at risk of being hospitalised with influenza than other children. The study, which looked at a cohort of 11,058 children with chronic lung diseases residing in NSW, found that not only are children with chronic lung disease substantially more at risk of hospitalisation from flu, but the average cost of these hospitalisations is almost four times more expensive. The cost per episode of influenza-associated hospitalisation was $19,704 for children with chronic lung diseases compared to $4557 for children without. In addition, 13% of children with chronic lung condition hospitalised with influenza required referral to another hospital for ongoing care compared to 7% without. Study lead author Dr Nusrat Homaira from UNSW’s School of Women’s and Children’s Health says despite the fact that vaccination against influenza is free for children with chronic lung conditions, unpublished data suggests uptake is low and more needs to be done to encourage parents of children with the condition to take advantage of the service. “Influenza is a vaccine preventable disease and Australian children with chronic lung disease are entitled to free flu vaccination,” Dr Homaira says. “However the uptake – particularly in children with asthma – is reported to be very low. Our research suggests that current efforts to prevent flu in children with chronic lung conditions are either suboptimal or ineffective.” Dr Homaira and her co-authors say an immediate first step is to conduct further research into the effectiveness of vaccine in these children and to look for ways to improve vaccine uptake. “Vaccination against influenza is highly recommended for children with chronic lung conditions and the vaccine should be repeated every year for these children”,” Dr Homaira says. The research paper was published in the Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses journal.
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Japan battles influenza epidemic, infection rate highest on record

Japan battles influenza epidemic, infection rate highest on record | Virology News | Scoop.it
Japan’s Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare said on Friday that the nation is contending with a flu epidemic with a record-high number of patients being...
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US lawmakers consider a ban on vaccine opt-outs as Northwest measles outbreak worsens 

US lawmakers consider a ban on vaccine opt-outs as Northwest measles outbreak worsens  | Virology News | Scoop.it
Lawmakers in Washington state want to remove a provision that allows parents to opt out of vaccines for personal or philosophical beliefs.

It comes as health officials confirm at least 43 cases of measles in an outbreak in Washington and Oregon.
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Anti-vaxxers are back. Behavioural science could beat them

Anti-vaxxers are back. Behavioural science could beat them | Virology News | Scoop.it
"Vaccine hesitancy" is one of 2019's biggest health concerns. Could these principles convert anti-vaxxers?
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[Indian] Centre Denies Polio Vaccine Shortage

The government has denied reports that there is a shortage of the polio vaccine, ahead of the immunisation programme slated for February 3rd...
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Tips on managing the shingles vaccine shortage

Demand for GlaxoSmithKline’s shingles vaccine, Shingrix (zoster vaccine recombinant,
adjuvanted), has outpaced supply, with many providers having difficulty obtaining
the vaccine in 2018. The vaccine was FDA approved in October 2017 with an efficacy rate of up to 90% in clinical trials, and soon...
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H7N6 Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza outbreak in commercial turkey farms in Chile caused by a native South American Lineage

bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research and educational institution...
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Takeda dengue vaccine meets main goal of trial; detailed results to come

Takeda dengue vaccine meets main goal of trial; detailed results to come | Virology News | Scoop.it
Takeda Pharmaceutical Co said on Tuesday that its experimental dengue vaccine appears to be safe and effective at preventing all four types of the ...
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