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Polydnaviruses as Symbionts and Gene Delivery Systems

Polydnaviruses as Symbionts and Gene Delivery Systems | Virology News | Scoop.it

"Textbooks define viruses as infectious agents with nucleic acid genomes (RNA or DNA), which replicate inside living host cells to produce particles (virions) that can transfer the genome to other cells [1], [2]. The Polydnaviridae was recognized as a family of viruses in 1995, and is currently divided into two genera named the Bracovirus and Ichnovirus [3]. Polydnavirus (PDV) virions consist of enveloped nucleocapsids and package multiple circular, double-stranded (ds) DNAs with aggregate sizes that range from 190 to more than 500 kbp [4]. PDVs are also strictly associated with insects called parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera), which are free living nectar feeders as adults but which develop during their immature stages by feeding inside the body of another insect (the host) [3], [4]. Recent studies, however, indicate that PDVs differ from all other known viruses in ways that challenge traditional views of what viruses are and how they function."

 

Great review on a group of viruses that has fascinated me since I first heard of them - mainly because there seemed to be no end to the discovery of new bits of genome, and no-one could ever seem to clone a whole one.  

 

I especially like this quote:

"The novelty is that BVs today are obligate beneficial symbionts, which persist entirely from a proviral genome yet produce virions that efficiently deliver genes to other organisms wasps depend upon for survival. Are PDVs still viruses? If we can accept that viruses are not always obligate intracellular parasites, we would suggest the answer is yes."

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Virology News
Topical news snippets about viruses that affect people.  And other things. Like Led Zeppelin. And zombies B-)
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PDB-101: Goodsell Gallery: Coronavirus Life Cycle

PDB-101: Goodsell Gallery: Coronavirus Life Cycle | Virology News | Scoop.it

This illustration shows a cross section through a cell infected with a coronavirus such as SARS-CoV-2. It shows a time point when the virus is actively replicating, and new viruses are being created. The cell’s molecules are shown in blues and greens, and the viral molecules are shown in pinks and purples. The illustration integrates the current state of knowledge, but many aspects of the virus and its life cycle are still actively being studied, so portions of the painting are speculative. Additional resources for exploring coronavirus are available at PDB-101 and the main RCSB PDB site.


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Industrial Meat 101: Could Large Livestock Operations Cause the Next Pandemic?

Industrial Meat 101: Could Large Livestock Operations Cause the Next Pandemic? | Virology News | Scoop.it
Novel viruses have been emerging in CAFOs for years. Advocates say coronavirus should act as a wake-up call.
linda tonui's curator insight, June 28, 5:42 AM
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Black Iberian Pig For Sale

The Iberian pig is an animal of the porcine breed, the name also applies to varieties belonging to what is known as the “Iberian trunk”, which includes black and red, furry or hairless breeds. The Iberian pigs, predominant in the Iberian Peninsula shared between Spain and Portugal, are highly appreciated animals in the gastronomic sector as they produce the famous Iberian ham and different types of sausages. Black Iberian Pig For sale in USA at Kentucky Cattle Range.

The Iberian pig 

The Iberian pig is a unique species with characteristics that differentiate it from other animals of the same species, such as the ability to infiltrate fat in the muscle. Physically speaking, these animals have a well-proportioned head and a pointed muzzle. Unlike other types of pigs, the Iberian has a powerful neck, a drooping dewlap, medium-sized ears in the form of a visor and a large belly. Its extremities, the ones we are most interested in when talking about ham, are thin.

The Iberian pigs, as their name suggests, belong to a breed native to the Iberian Peninsula, located between Spain and Portugal, where there are two groups of breeds listed below:

  • Celtic pig (practically extinct)
  • Iberian Pig
  • Size:

    Medium to large animals, around 600 – 900 pounds at maturity.

    Temperament:

    Excellent disposition. Friendly and curious.

    • Iberian black layer, which includes the varieties Lampiño and Entrepelado.
    • Iberian red layer, which includes the varieties Retinta or Colorada, Rubia de Cádiz, Manchanda de Jabugo and Torbiscal.

The most widely used variety in the world of ham is Retinta or Colorada which, in addition to being very prolific, allows for greater use after slaughtering the animal. So, the most important thing to know is that the Iberian pig is a native breed of animal. Its physiological capacity to store fat between muscles makes it have a high gastronomic value. The Iberian pigs are the only pigs in the world from which it is possible to obtain Iberian ham, a product with a very particular aroma, flavor and texture, also healthy and nutritious.

Iberian Ham and products

In the production of Iberian ham, not only the breed (which is fundamental) is important, but also the process of breeding the animal. Although in theory all pigs are used to make ham, only the so-called white pig and the Iberian pig are used to make a ham. The latter is the key piece in the production of Iberian ham. The different types of ham and Iberian products are given by the percentage of purity of the animal’s breed and the food it has fed on.

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Canadian expert says he is confident COVID-19 vaccine is months, not years away

Canadian expert says he is confident COVID-19 vaccine is months, not years away | Virology News | Scoop.it
Dr.Gary Kobinger says there are more than 100 possible vaccines in development for COVID-19 around the world...
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In Second Blow To Hydroxychloroquine, FDA Warns Against Combining With Remdesivir

In Second Blow To Hydroxychloroquine, FDA Warns Against Combining With Remdesivir | Virology News | Scoop.it
We're sure Dr. Fauci approves...
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CureVac gets German backing for coronavirus vaccine, but says it's independent

CureVac gets German backing for coronavirus vaccine, but says it's independent | Virology News | Scoop.it
BioPharma...
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Way before stars form, space clouds hold building blocks of life

Way before stars form, space clouds hold building blocks of life | Virology News | Scoop.it
"This tells us that the basic organic chemistry needed for life is present in the raw gas prior to the formation of stars and planets."...
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Self-swab COVID tests may be just as accurate

Self-swab COVID tests may be just as accurate | Virology News | Scoop.it
COVID-19 tests that have patients swab their own noses are as accurate as the more invasive tests that health care workers administer, a small study finds.
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Modeling the Effectiveness of Respiratory Protective Devices in Reducing Influenza Outbreak

Outbreaks of influenza represent an important health concern worldwide. In many cases, vaccines are only partially successful in reducing the infection rate, and respiratory protective devices (RPDs) are used as a complementary countermeasure.
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AstraZeneca takes next steps towards broad and equitable access to Oxford University’s COVID-19 vaccine

AstraZeneca has taken the next steps in its commitment to broad and equitable global access to the University of Oxford’s COVID-19 vaccine, following landmark agreements with the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI), Gavi the Vaccine Alliance, and the Serum Institute of India (SII). The Company today reached a $750m agreement with CEPI and Gavi to support the manufacturing, procurement and distribution of 300 million doses of the vaccine, with delivery starting by the end of the year. In addition, AstraZeneca reached a licensing agreement with SII to supply one billion doses for low and middle-income countries, with a commitment to provide 400 million before the end of 2020. Together, the agreements mark the latest commitments to enable global access to the vaccine, including to low and middle-income countries, beyond AstraZeneca’s recent partnerships with the UK and US. 

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J&J coronavirus vaccine timeline sped up, enter clinic in July

J&J coronavirus vaccine timeline sped up, enter clinic in July | Virology News | Scoop.it
Johnson & Johnson is planning to enroll more than 1,000 volunteers in the US and Belgium starting in July to test its vaccine.
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Action averted 530 million COVID-19 infections

Action averted 530 million COVID-19 infections | Virology News | Scoop.it
Have policies aimed at avoiding COVID-19 infections worked?"I don't think any human endeavor has ever saved so many lives in such a short period of time."...
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Emergent BioSolutions to manufacture AstraZeneca’s COVID-19 vaccine candidate in U.S.

Emergent BioSolutions to manufacture AstraZeneca’s COVID-19 vaccine candidate in U.S. | Virology News | Scoop.it
Emergent BioSolutions Inc. announced Thursday it signed an agreement to provide its contract development and manufacturing (CDMO) services to support AstraZeneca’s COVID-19 vaccine candidate in the United States.
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Italy and Israel bet on GM microalgae to develop edible COVID vaccine

Italy and Israel bet on GM microalgae to develop edible COVID vaccine | Virology News | Scoop.it
The rush to develop a vaccine for COVID-19 has extended to Italy and Israel, where scientists are using the tools of genetic engineering to develop algae-based edible vaccines against the disease caused by the novel coronavirus.
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Within-Host Viral Diversity: A Window into Viral Evolution | Annual Review of Virology

Within-Host Viral Diversity: A Window into Viral Evolution | Annual Review of Virology | Virology News | Scoop.it
The evolutionary dynamics of a virus can differ within hosts and across populations. Studies of within-host evolution provide an important link between experimental studies of virus evolution and l...
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Regeneron starts trial of Covid-19 antibody cocktail

Regeneron starts trial of Covid-19 antibody cocktail | Virology News | Scoop.it
Regeneron Pharmaceuticals has commenced the first clinical trial of its dual antibody cocktail, REGN-COV2, which is meant to prevent and treat Covid-19.
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Sinovac says its Covid-19 vaccine generated immune responses

Sinovac says its Covid-19 vaccine generated immune responses | Virology News | Scoop.it
Sinovac Biotech announced preliminary study results showing its experimental Covid-19 vaccine generated immune responses in patients and was safe.
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Asymptomatic transmission of coronavirus appears to be worse than SARS or influenza — 5 reasons you should care

Asymptomatic transmission of coronavirus appears to be worse than SARS or influenza — 5 reasons you should care | Virology News | Scoop.it
Asymptomatic transmission ‘is the Achilles’ heel of COVID-19 pandemic control,’ one study says.
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CDC director urges Americans to get flu vaccine during coronavirus pandemic

CDC director urges Americans to get flu vaccine during coronavirus pandemic | Virology News | Scoop.it
Experts continue warning about the devastating effects of a second wave of coronavirus cases, but a top U.S. health official says it will be even worse if Americans don’t get a flu shot.
tarek11223344's curator insight, June 24, 4:14 AM

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Reopening schools requires major caution

Reopening schools requires major caution | Virology News | Scoop.it
Experts call for large-scale viral testing in children, contract tracing, and other actions to avoid compounding the COVID-19 crisis as schools reopen.
Alicyn Benton's curator insight, June 25, 12:21 AM
This topic definitely needs to be checked into with additional precautions! I say that due to schools not being able to dictate parents sending their children to school. We can always say please don’t send your children if they are sick and they still do. This will then put not only other students but faculty members at risk.
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Spectrum of neurological manifestations associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection

Spectrum of neurological manifestations associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection | Virology News | Scoop.it
All neurological manifestations UK-wide surveillance of neurological and neuropsychiatric complications of COVID19 the first 153 patients. Preprint Neurologic manifestations in hospitalized patients with COVID-19: The ALBACOVID registry.
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Measles-mumps-rubella-varicella Combination Vaccine and the Risk of Febrile Seizures

Among 12- to 23-month-olds who received their first dose of measles-containing vaccine, fever and seizure were elevated 7 to 10 days after vaccination. Vaccination with MMRV results in 1 additional febrile seizure for every 2300 doses given instead of separate MMR + varicella vaccines.
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COVID‐19: a global threat to the nervous system

COVID‐19: a global threat to the nervous system | Virology News | Scoop.it
In less than 6 months, the severe acute respiratory syndrome‐coronavirus type 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2) has spread worldwide infecting nearly 6 million people and killing over 350,000. Initially thought to be...
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Chinese vaccine maker inks deal in Brazil for final testing

Chinese vaccine maker inks deal in Brazil for final testing | Virology News | Scoop.it
Beijing has mobilized its health authorities, drug regulators and research institutes to work around the clock with local companies to come up with the world’s first effective vaccine for Covid-19.
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Canadian expert says he is confident COVID-19 vaccine is months, not years away

Canadian expert says he is confident COVID-19 vaccine is months, not years away | Virology News | Scoop.it
OTTAWA — One of Canada's preeminent infectious disease experts says he is confident a vaccine for COVID-19 will be ready in months, not years.Dr. Gary Kobinger, director of the Research Centre on . . .
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GMO tomato as edible COVID vaccine? Mexican scientists work to make it a reality

GMO tomato as edible COVID vaccine? Mexican scientists work to make it a reality | Virology News | Scoop.it
While large companies and public sector consortiums in the United States, Canada, China and Europe are running at full speed to develop a vaccine grown in genetically modified (GM) tobacco plants, a research group at a Mexican university is working toward the same objective, but with a different and innovative strategy. They are using bioinformatics …
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Israel reportedly in talks to purchase Moderna's COVID-19 vaccine

According to YNET, Israel is in advanced talks with Moderna (NASDAQ:MRNA) to purchase its COVID-19 vaccine.Moderna late last week said it's ready in July to begin a Phase 3 trial of mRNA-1273 on 30K h...
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