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Trade Secrets: Are Green Vaccines Appropriate for Africa? : Trade Secrets

Trade Secrets: Are Green Vaccines Appropriate for Africa? : Trade Secrets | Virology News | Scoop.it
I have mentioned several times here, and elsewhere, that my lab works on expressing vaccine-relevant viral proteins in plants – and that I think this is a highly appropriate technology for the purpose.  Read more...
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Virology News
Topical news snippets about viruses that affect people.  And other things. Like Led Zeppelin. And zombies B-)
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A wild Circ-ulation: High presence of Porcine circovirus 3 in different mammalian wild hosts and ticks.

Porcine circovirus 3 (PCV-3) has emerged as a potential threat for swine industry, being consistently reported in presence of several clinical signs all around ...
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26/2/1919 Influenza: the third wave

26/2/1919 Influenza: the third wave | Virology News | Scoop.it
Influenza is continuing its march across the world, snatching life even in places that were barely touched by the war.The great and the meek alike are its victims (President Alves of Brazil has recently succumbed) but it is cutting a particular swathe through the ranks of the poor, who are often ...
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Largest Study Ever Finds No Link Between MMR Vaccine and Autism

Largest Study Ever Finds No Link Between MMR Vaccine and Autism | Virology News | Scoop.it
“A lie will go round the world while truth is pulling its boots on.” — C. H.Spurgeon In 1998 Andrew Wakefield, a British gastroenterologist, published a study in The Lancet reporting on 12 (remember that number) children with developmental delay, 8 of whom were diagnosed with autism within 4 weeks...
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WHO | Pandemic influenza: an evolving challenge

WHO | Pandemic influenza: an evolving challenge | Virology News | Scoop.it
Pandemic influenza: an evolving challenge 22 May 2018 100 years after the 1918 Influenza Pandemic known as "Spanish flu" ravaged the globe, what have we learned? New Contributed Photographs Collection/Otis Historical Archives/National Museum of Health and Medicine The Pandemic Influenza of 1918: Remembering the flu that killed millions around the globe 2018 marks the 100th anniversary of one of the largest public health crises in modern history, the 1918 influenza pandemic known colloquially as “Spanish flu.” The intensity and speed with which it struck were almost unimaginable – infecting one-third of the Earth’s population, which at the time was about 500 million people. By the time it subsided in 1920, tens of millions people are thought to have died. There was nothing “Spanish” about the influenza epidemic of 1918, which began during World War I and affected countries around the globe. The cost in human life eclipsed that of World War I: more American troops, for instance, died from flu than they did in the battlefield. WHO/H.Ruiz A modern disease Although influenza has been with humankind for millenia, the virulence and global spread is in many respects a function of modern times. Urbanization, mass migration, global transport and trade, and overcrowding accelerate the spread of pandemics, which ignore national borders, social class, economic status, and even age. The 1918 Pandemic, for instance, was unusually fatal in the 20-to-40 age group. Like many other diseases, influenza pandemics impact the poor the hardest. At the same time, they disrupt the economy and basic social functions like school and other mass gatherings. WHO/H.Ruiz From global problem to global approach In the wake of the devastation of the Spanish flu, the world came together to develop unprecedented scientific collaborations to take on future pandemics. In 1947, the WHO Interim Committee of the United Nations established a Global Influenza Programme to track the changes in the virus. In 1952 the Global Influenza Surveillance Network was officially launched, with 26 collaborating laboratories around the world. Today, renamed the Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS), the network comprises 153 institutions in 114 countries. The sharing of viruses and data among different nations is a critical tool in global efforts against both seasonal flu and pandemic influenza. WHO/SEARO/J.Perugia Predictably unpredictable Pandemic Influenza outbreaks have been predictably unpredictable in the years since 1918 – but always global, and needing a global response. One million people around the world died in a 1957 outbreak which started in China but spread globally. In 1968, another outbreak took 1 to 3 million lives. In 2003, A(H5N1) or so-called Avian Influenza highlighted how the virus could pass from animals to humans, but it did not reach the pandemic stage because it did not pass from human to human. The 2009 “Swine flu” A(H1N1) pandemic, started in Mexico and spread to over 214 countries and overseas territories or communities. The world was lucky: it turned out to be even milder than some seasonal epidemics. Researchers are always on the lookout, though, because the next outbreak could be far worse. WHO/SEARO/T.Pietrasik Preparing for the next pandemic with new tools, new partnerships WHO is working closely with Ministries of Health, regional and national influenza research and surveillance centres, and other stakeholders to develop a multi-layered approach to preparing for and responding to both seasonal flu outbreaks and pandemics. Specific WHO programmes include the Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS), and the Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework, which helps developing countries access vaccines, antivirals, and diagnostics to both prepare for and manage pandemics. WHO and partners are developing a “Global Influenza Strategy” to be launched in 2018. Aligned with the general programme of work 2019-2023 (GPW13), the new strategy will support WHO Member States in developing seasonal influenza prevention and control capacities. These national efforts, in turn, will build greater global preparedness for the next pandemic. Globally, the strategy will focus on research and innovation. This will include improved influenza modelling and forecasting, along with the development of new vaccines, including a possible universal influenza vaccine.
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900,000 cholera vaccine doses arrive in Beira

2 April 2019 – Nearly 900,000 doses of the cholera vaccine, procured by UNICEF and the World Health Organization (WHO), arrived in Beira, Mozambique, on Tuesday afternoon and the vaccination campaign will begin imminently.
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12 Mar 1919 - death of a South African sprinter

12 Mar 1919 - death of a South African sprinter | Virology News | Scoop.it
Word is to hand of the death of E. J. Duffy, the famous Johannesburg sprinter. He was on a visit to Capetown for a holiday when he contracte
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A sad little piece of centenary news for the South African 1918 - 1919 influenza pandemic
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Educational Material about Influenza Viruses

Educational Material about Influenza Viruses | Virology News | Scoop.it
To supplement a special edition of the journal Viruses, entitled “What’s New with Flu?”, influenza virus researchers have worked together to generate simple educational material to communicate their science to school students.
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Covert pathogenesis: Transient exposures to microbes as triggers of disease

Covert pathogenesis: Transient exposures to microbes as triggers of disease | Virology News | Scoop.it

Our understanding of microbial pathogenesis is founded largely on the assumption that the microbe responsible for causing a disease is the one that is abundantly present at the time and site of disease symptoms. This situation can be compared to the scenario in which a criminal is caught red-handed at the scene of the crime. In this article, we discuss an alternative scenario—“covert pathogenesis”—in which a microbe acts more like a covert operative, sneaking in undetected or unrecognized to trigger disease onset, escaping before the damage is noticed. Here, we will further define “covert pathogenesis,” describe an example of this phenomenon discovered in the urinary tract, highlight other scenarios or diseases that could be impacted by this paradigm, and discuss implications for diagnosis and treatment. 

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Listen: How did people start consuming coffee?

Listen: How did people start consuming coffee? | Virology News | Scoop.it
How did coffee become a part of the human diet? An ethnobotanist explains.
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Retrospective Detection and Genetic Characterization of Porcine circovirus 3 (PCV3) Strains Identified between 2006 and 2007 in Brazil

Retrospective Detection and Genetic Characterization of Porcine circovirus 3 (PCV3) Strains Identified between 2006 and 2007 in Brazil | Virology News | Scoop.it
Porcine circovirus 3 (PCV3) is an emerging virus that was first identified in the United States in 2016. Since its first detection, PCV3 has already been found in America, Asia, and Europe. Although PCV3 has already been described in Brazil, knowledge of its detection and sequence variation before...
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Novel Insights into Plant-Geminivirus Interactions | Frontiers Research Topic

Plant host responses to virus infections are extremely variable, spanning from no symptoms all the way to the death of the plant. Moreover, plants can sometimes respond in a way that precludes the virus from replicating, moving, or being acquired by the insect vector.
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Jamaica remains on flu alert, says health ministry

Jamaica remains on flu alert, says health ministry | Virology News | Scoop.it
The Ministry of Health yesterday reminded the public that the country was still on the in...
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Genomic characterization, phylogenetic position and in situ localization of a novel putative mononegavirus in Lepeophtheirus salmonis

The complete genome sequence of a novel mononegavirus, Lepeophtheirus salmonis negative-stranded RNA virus 1 (LsNSRV-1), obtained from a salmonid ectoparasite, Lepeophtheirus salmonis was determined. The viral genome contains five open reading frames encoding three unknown proteins (ORF I, II and III), a putative glycoprotein (G), and a large (L) protein. Phylogenetic analysis placed LsNSRV-1 in the recently established mononegaviral family Artoviridae. LsNSRV-1 showed a prevalence of around 97% and was detected in all L. salmonis developmental stages. Viral genomic and antigenomic RNA was localized to nerve tissue, connective tissue, epithelial cells of the gut, subepidermal tissue, exocrine and cement glands, as well as the testis, vas deferens and spermatophore sac of male L. salmonis and the ovaries and oocytes of females. Viral RNA was detected in both the cytoplasm and the nucleoli of infected cells, and putative nuclear export and localization signals were found within the ORF I, III and L proteins, suggesting nuclear replication of LsNSRV-1. RNA interference (RNAi) was induced twice during development by the introduction of a double-stranded RNA fragment of ORF I, resulting in a transient knockdown of viral RNA. A large variation in the knockdown level was seen in adult males and off springs of knockdown animals, whereas the RNA level was more stable in adult females. Together with the localization of viral RNA within the male spermatophore and female oocytes and the amplification of viral RNA in developing embryos, this suggests that LsNSRV-1 is transmitted both maternally and paternally. Small amounts of viral RNA were detected at the site where chalimi were attached to the skin of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). However, as the RNAi-mediated treatment did not result in LsNSRV-1-negative offspring and the virus failed to replicate in the tested fish cell cultures, it is difficult to investigate the influence of secreted LsNSRV-1 on the salmon immune response.

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Saving more livestock, stabilizing more lives

Saving more livestock, stabilizing more lives | Virology News | Scoop.it
How a made-in-Africa vaccine could combat multiple deadly livestock diseases at the same time...
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The true dollar cost of the anti-vaccine movement

The true dollar cost of the anti-vaccine movement | Virology News | Scoop.it
Necessary bills for unnecessary outbreaks are being paid by all of us.
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Frustration builds for Hong Kong airport workers denied measles vaccine over tightened health authority guidelines

Frustration builds for Hong Kong airport workers denied measles vaccine over tightened health authority guidelines | Virology News | Scoop.it
Two more airport staff members infected, including 24-year-old woman who was reported to have been immunised, taking total for year in city to 36.
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Anti-vaxxers appear to be losing ground in the online vaccine debate

Anti-vaxxers appear to be losing ground in the online vaccine debate | Virology News | Scoop.it
As measles outbreaks spread across the U.S., our new look at how information about vaccine safety and reliability spreads online suggests that the tide may be turning against the anti-vaccination movement.
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Guatemalan boy died of flu and a bacterial infection while in US custody, autopsy shows

Guatemalan boy died of flu and a bacterial infection while in US custody, autopsy shows | Virology News | Scoop.it
The death of an 8-year-old Guatemalan boy who died while in United States custody was caused by complications from the flu and a bacterial infection, the Central American country's foreign ministry said.
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Drug company warning over flu vaccine disruption after Brexit 

Drug company warning over flu vaccine disruption after Brexit  | Virology News | Scoop.it
Any disruption to the flu vaccine supply pipeline sparked by “new and complex” customs arrangements in the wake of a Brexit, could have a negative impact on its time critical process, with implications for public health, a pharmaceutical company has warned.
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Tenuivirus utilizes its glycoprotein as a helper component to overcome insect midgut barriers for its circulative and propagative transmission

Tenuivirus utilizes its glycoprotein as a helper component to overcome insect midgut barriers for its circulative and propagative transmission | Virology News | Scoop.it
Author summary Over 75% of the known plant viruses are insect transmitted. Understanding how plant viruses interact with their insect vectors during virus transmission is a key step towards the successful management of plant viruses worldwide.
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Tropical disease to ride mosquitoes really far north

Tropical disease to ride mosquitoes really far north | Virology News | Scoop.it
Places where tropical diseases are now unknown—Canada and parts of Northern Europe, for instance—are due to become prime real estate for mosquitoes.
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UPDATE: Three confirmed deaths from H1 N1 influenza virus | News | Jamaica Gleaner

UPDATE: Three confirmed deaths from H1 N1 influenza virus | News | Jamaica Gleaner | Virology News | Scoop.it
Nicole Dawkins-Wright, acting director of emergency, disaster management and special services in the Health Ministry, has confirmed that three Jamaicans have died as a result of the H1N1 influenza virus.
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Flu strain leads to surge in late-season hospitalizations | KIRO-TV

Flu strain leads to surge in late-season hospitalizations | KIRO-TV | Virology News | Scoop.it
SPOKANE, Wash. (AP) - Health officials say a late-season wave of influenza has caused a spike in hospitalizations across the Inland Northwest.
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Does cannabis during pregnancy raise child's psychosis risk?

Does cannabis during pregnancy raise child's psychosis risk? | Virology News | Scoop.it
Women should think twice before using cannabis while pregnant. Here's why.
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A novel anti‐HIV‐1 bispecific bNAb‐lectin fusion protein engineered in a plant‐based transient expression system

A novel anti‐HIV‐1 bispecific bNAb‐lectin fusion protein engineered in a plant‐based transient expression system | Virology News | Scoop.it
The discovery of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) has been a major step towards better prophylactic and therapeutic agents against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV‐1). However, effective therapy will likely require a combination of anti‐HIV agents to avoid viral evasion. One possible solution to this problem is the creation of bispecific molecules that can concurrently target two vulnerable sites providing synergistic inhibitory effects. Here, we describe the production in plants and anti‐HIV activity of a novel bispecific fusion protein consisting of the antigen‐binding fragment (Fab) of the CD4 binding site‐specific bNAb VRC01 and the antiviral lectin Avaren, which targets the glycan shield of the HIV‐1 envelope (VRC01Fab‐Avaren). This combination was justified by a preliminary experiment demonstrating the synergistic HIV‐1 neutralization activity of VRC01 and Fc‐fused Avaren dimer (Avaren‐Fc). Using the GENEWARE® tobacco mosaic virus vector, VRC01Fab‐Avaren was expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana and purified using a three‐step chromatography procedure. Surface plasmon resonance and ELISA demonstrated that both the Avaren and VRC01Fab moieties retain their individual binding specificities. VRC01Fab‐Avaren demonstrated enhanced neutralizing activity against representative HIV‐1 strains from A, B and C clades, compared to equimolar combinations of VRC01Fab and Avaren. Notably, VRC01Fab‐Avaren showed significantly stronger neutralizing effects than the bivalent parent molecules VRC01 IgG and Avaren‐Fc, with IC50 values ranging from 48 to 310 pm. These results support the continued development of bispecific anti‐HIV proteins based on Avaren and bNAbs, to which plant‐based transient overexpression systems will provide an efficient protein engineering and production platform.
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