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Breastfeeding, Not Formula, for South Africa's HIV-Positive Mothers - Inter Press Service

Breastfeeding, Not Formula, for South Africa's HIV-Positive Mothers - Inter Press Service | Virology News | Scoop.it
Breastfeeding, Not Formula, for South Africa's HIV-Positive MothersInter Press ServiceBy Lee Middleton CAPE TOWN, South Africa, Apr 1, 2012 (IPS) - South Africa's nine provinces will begin phasing out provision of free formula to HIV-positive...
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Virology News
Topical news snippets about viruses that affect people.  And other things. Like Led Zeppelin. And zombies B-)
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Go go gadget glycoprotein!: HSV-1 draws on its sizeable glycoprotein tool kit to customize its diverse entry routes

Go go gadget glycoprotein!: HSV-1 draws on its sizeable glycoprotein tool kit to customize its diverse entry routes | Virology News | Scoop.it

Citation: Hilterbrand AT, Heldwein EE (2019) Go go gadget glycoprotein!: HSV-1 draws on its sizeable glycoprotein tool kit to customize its diverse entry routes. PLoS Pathog 15(5): e1007660. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007660 Editor: Katherine R. Spindler, University of Michigan Medical School, UNITED STATES Published: May 9, 2019 Copyright: © 2019 Hilterbrand, Heldwein. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Funding: The work on HSV-1 entry in the Heldwein laboratory is supported by NIH grant 1R21AI140711-01 (EEH) and a Faculty Scholar grant from Howard Hughes Medical Institute (EEH). ATH is supported by the NIH training grant 5T32AI007329-24. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Introduction: Viruses deploy diverse entry strategies All viruses must enter cells to replicate [1]. Entry is thus the first hurdle a virus must overcome for a successful infection. Given the astonishing diversity of viruses that infect mammals alone—hundreds of thousands of different viruses according to some estimates [2]—it is unsurprising that their entry routes into cells are just as diverse. A major structural distinction that dictates the entry mode is the presence or absence of a lipid bilayer surrounding the viral nucleocapsid, which defines a virus as enveloped or nonenveloped, respectively. 

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First Human Infection With Influenza A(H5N1) Virus Since Feb. 2017 Reported

First Human Infection With Influenza A(H5N1) Virus Since Feb. 2017 Reported | Virology News | Scoop.it
Everything you need to know about the flu illness, including symptoms, treatment and prevention.
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Influenza Epidemic of 1919 - Faculty of Medicine Online Museum and Archive

RELATED LINKS If the sufferings of wartime were not enough, in 1919 Australia followed in the wake of a world-wide influenza epidemic. In NSW alone, approximately 6000 people died because of influenza. Again, the Faculty of Medicine played an important role in fighting the deadly virus. During the epidemic, medical students were used to assist local doctors in treating the sick and dying in both hospitals and homes. Local hospitals were full to capacity and emergency hospitals were set up around the city in places like the Showground. Students were called upon to assist qualified doctors attend to those who presented with the flu. The risk of contracting the infection whilst carrying out this work was high and students were heavily masked whilst attending patients. The following excerpt from an oral history held in the University Archives gives a vivid accound of what those times were like for our students: It was a dreadful time. Very short of doctors. Emergency hospitals everywhere - the Deaf and Dumb Institute, the Showground. I hadn't been in a hospital yet. I couldn't take a temperature but they showed you what to do. We went out on rounds to the people. I suppose we looked like doctors. The doctors were so busy. A lot still hadn't come back from the War so so they had to use us. I worked from a Depot in Flinders Street, Darlinghurst, a church there, then from Woolloomooloo, down the Stanley and Palmer Street brothels - I was only 19. You'd go into these houses and there'd be noone up and about and they had no food. Volunteers used to come with food but they couldn't keep up with it. I got the flu myself but not badly. I went home and to the local doctor. We were never vaccinated that I remember. (from interview with Dr Cawley Madden, 8 March, 1979. Held in University Archives) NSW Public Health Department report that in 1919, almost 40 per cent of Sydney's total population had influenza. In some areas of Sydney, the deaths from influenza accounted for 50 per cent of all deaths.[1] Emergency measures were carried out on campus, such as the wearing of face masks in classrooms and the University was closed for a period of six weeks from May 5th. To make up for this loss of study time, the June and September vacations were shortened and the end of year examinations held later than usual. Students and staff were forbidden to attend university if they had a temperature of more than 99 degrees F and were advised that after an attack of fever to wait until three successive days of regular temperature before return to work. All members of the University were recommended to submit to vaccination against influenza every three months. This was managed and controlled by the Department of Pathology within the Medical School.[1] Next article in timeline: Anderson Stuart dies in 1920 Categories: Faculty of Medicine from 1900 to 1920 | 1900 to 1920 | Historical Overview
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Plague and zoonotic influenza warning: CDC names EIGHT diseases which could spark pandemic

Plague and zoonotic influenza warning: CDC names EIGHT diseases which could spark pandemic | Virology News | Scoop.it
In the week in which a Norwegian woman died after contracting rabies in the Phillipines, the diseases are on a list of eight highlighted by the US-based Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in a report examining zoonotic illnesses – meaning those which have the potential to jump from ...
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[Porcine transcription factor AP-2δ promotes porcine circovirus type 2 replication through enhancing the activity of the rep gene promoter].

[Porcine transcription factor AP-2δ promotes porcine circovirus type 2 replication through enhancing the activity of the rep gene promoter]. | Virology News | Scoop.it
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao. 2018 Dec 25;34(12):1985-1995. doi: 10.13345/j.cjb.180069.
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Saving more livestock, stabilizing more lives

Saving more livestock, stabilizing more lives | Virology News | Scoop.it
How a made-in-Africa vaccine could combat multiple deadly livestock diseases at the same time...
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The true dollar cost of the anti-vaccine movement

The true dollar cost of the anti-vaccine movement | Virology News | Scoop.it
Necessary bills for unnecessary outbreaks are being paid by all of us.
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Frustration builds for Hong Kong airport workers denied measles vaccine over tightened health authority guidelines

Frustration builds for Hong Kong airport workers denied measles vaccine over tightened health authority guidelines | Virology News | Scoop.it
Two more airport staff members infected, including 24-year-old woman who was reported to have been immunised, taking total for year in city to 36.
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Anti-vaxxers appear to be losing ground in the online vaccine debate

Anti-vaxxers appear to be losing ground in the online vaccine debate | Virology News | Scoop.it
As measles outbreaks spread across the U.S., our new look at how information about vaccine safety and reliability spreads online suggests that the tide may be turning against the anti-vaccination movement.
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Guatemalan boy died of flu and a bacterial infection while in US custody, autopsy shows

Guatemalan boy died of flu and a bacterial infection while in US custody, autopsy shows | Virology News | Scoop.it
The death of an 8-year-old Guatemalan boy who died while in United States custody was caused by complications from the flu and a bacterial infection, the Central American country's foreign ministry said.
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Drug company warning over flu vaccine disruption after Brexit 

Drug company warning over flu vaccine disruption after Brexit  | Virology News | Scoop.it
Any disruption to the flu vaccine supply pipeline sparked by “new and complex” customs arrangements in the wake of a Brexit, could have a negative impact on its time critical process, with implications for public health, a pharmaceutical company has warned.
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Tenuivirus utilizes its glycoprotein as a helper component to overcome insect midgut barriers for its circulative and propagative transmission

Tenuivirus utilizes its glycoprotein as a helper component to overcome insect midgut barriers for its circulative and propagative transmission | Virology News | Scoop.it
Author summary Over 75% of the known plant viruses are insect transmitted. Understanding how plant viruses interact with their insect vectors during virus transmission is a key step towards the successful management of plant viruses worldwide.
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Tropical disease to ride mosquitoes really far north

Tropical disease to ride mosquitoes really far north | Virology News | Scoop.it
Places where tropical diseases are now unknown—Canada and parts of Northern Europe, for instance—are due to become prime real estate for mosquitoes.
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The Evidence for Efficacy of HPV Vaccines: Investigations in Categorical Data Analysis

Presented by: Alison Gibbs & Emery Goossens, University of Toronto Abstract: Our current students are among the first to have been vaccinated against HPV. Ha...
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The 1919 epidemic affects remote Bundella (Australia)

The 1919 epidemic affects remote Bundella (Australia) | Virology News | Scoop.it
Drawing on her family history, Elizabeth Thomas writes about the 1919 influenza epidemic in Bundella, proving that this was a global, yet intimate pandemic.
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Summary of Influenza Risk Assessment Tool (IRAT) Results | Pandemic Influenza (Flu) 

Summary of Influenza Risk Assessment Tool (IRAT) Results | Pandemic Influenza (Flu)  | Virology News | Scoop.it
Table showing assessments of influenza viruses using the Influenza Risk Assessment Tool (IRAT)...
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South Australia Unprecedented Flu Season Kills 17, Aged...

South Australia Unprecedented Flu Season Kills 17, Aged... | Virology News | Scoop.it
Nearly 20 South Australians have died from the flu this year, resulting in 18 confirmed lockdowns of aged-care facilities in a bid to curb outbreaks.
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A wild Circ-ulation: High presence of Porcine circovirus 3 in different mammalian wild hosts and ticks.

Porcine circovirus 3 (PCV-3) has emerged as a potential threat for swine industry, being consistently reported in presence of several clinical signs all around ...
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26/2/1919 Influenza: the third wave

26/2/1919 Influenza: the third wave | Virology News | Scoop.it
Influenza is continuing its march across the world, snatching life even in places that were barely touched by the war.The great and the meek alike are its victims (President Alves of Brazil has recently succumbed) but it is cutting a particular swathe through the ranks of the poor, who are often ...
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Largest Study Ever Finds No Link Between MMR Vaccine and Autism

Largest Study Ever Finds No Link Between MMR Vaccine and Autism | Virology News | Scoop.it
“A lie will go round the world while truth is pulling its boots on.” — C. H.Spurgeon In 1998 Andrew Wakefield, a British gastroenterologist, published a study in The Lancet reporting on 12 (remember that number) children with developmental delay, 8 of whom were diagnosed with autism within 4 weeks...
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WHO | Pandemic influenza: an evolving challenge

WHO | Pandemic influenza: an evolving challenge | Virology News | Scoop.it
Pandemic influenza: an evolving challenge 22 May 2018 100 years after the 1918 Influenza Pandemic known as "Spanish flu" ravaged the globe, what have we learned? New Contributed Photographs Collection/Otis Historical Archives/National Museum of Health and Medicine The Pandemic Influenza of 1918: Remembering the flu that killed millions around the globe 2018 marks the 100th anniversary of one of the largest public health crises in modern history, the 1918 influenza pandemic known colloquially as “Spanish flu.” The intensity and speed with which it struck were almost unimaginable – infecting one-third of the Earth’s population, which at the time was about 500 million people. By the time it subsided in 1920, tens of millions people are thought to have died. There was nothing “Spanish” about the influenza epidemic of 1918, which began during World War I and affected countries around the globe. The cost in human life eclipsed that of World War I: more American troops, for instance, died from flu than they did in the battlefield. WHO/H.Ruiz A modern disease Although influenza has been with humankind for millenia, the virulence and global spread is in many respects a function of modern times. Urbanization, mass migration, global transport and trade, and overcrowding accelerate the spread of pandemics, which ignore national borders, social class, economic status, and even age. The 1918 Pandemic, for instance, was unusually fatal in the 20-to-40 age group. Like many other diseases, influenza pandemics impact the poor the hardest. At the same time, they disrupt the economy and basic social functions like school and other mass gatherings. WHO/H.Ruiz From global problem to global approach In the wake of the devastation of the Spanish flu, the world came together to develop unprecedented scientific collaborations to take on future pandemics. In 1947, the WHO Interim Committee of the United Nations established a Global Influenza Programme to track the changes in the virus. In 1952 the Global Influenza Surveillance Network was officially launched, with 26 collaborating laboratories around the world. Today, renamed the Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS), the network comprises 153 institutions in 114 countries. The sharing of viruses and data among different nations is a critical tool in global efforts against both seasonal flu and pandemic influenza. WHO/SEARO/J.Perugia Predictably unpredictable Pandemic Influenza outbreaks have been predictably unpredictable in the years since 1918 – but always global, and needing a global response. One million people around the world died in a 1957 outbreak which started in China but spread globally. In 1968, another outbreak took 1 to 3 million lives. In 2003, A(H5N1) or so-called Avian Influenza highlighted how the virus could pass from animals to humans, but it did not reach the pandemic stage because it did not pass from human to human. The 2009 “Swine flu” A(H1N1) pandemic, started in Mexico and spread to over 214 countries and overseas territories or communities. The world was lucky: it turned out to be even milder than some seasonal epidemics. Researchers are always on the lookout, though, because the next outbreak could be far worse. WHO/SEARO/T.Pietrasik Preparing for the next pandemic with new tools, new partnerships WHO is working closely with Ministries of Health, regional and national influenza research and surveillance centres, and other stakeholders to develop a multi-layered approach to preparing for and responding to both seasonal flu outbreaks and pandemics. Specific WHO programmes include the Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS), and the Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework, which helps developing countries access vaccines, antivirals, and diagnostics to both prepare for and manage pandemics. WHO and partners are developing a “Global Influenza Strategy” to be launched in 2018. Aligned with the general programme of work 2019-2023 (GPW13), the new strategy will support WHO Member States in developing seasonal influenza prevention and control capacities. These national efforts, in turn, will build greater global preparedness for the next pandemic. Globally, the strategy will focus on research and innovation. This will include improved influenza modelling and forecasting, along with the development of new vaccines, including a possible universal influenza vaccine.
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900,000 cholera vaccine doses arrive in Beira

2 April 2019 – Nearly 900,000 doses of the cholera vaccine, procured by UNICEF and the World Health Organization (WHO), arrived in Beira, Mozambique, on Tuesday afternoon and the vaccination campaign will begin imminently.
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12 Mar 1919 - death of a South African sprinter

12 Mar 1919 - death of a South African sprinter | Virology News | Scoop.it
Word is to hand of the death of E. J. Duffy, the famous Johannesburg sprinter. He was on a visit to Capetown for a holiday when he contracte
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A sad little piece of centenary news for the South African 1918 - 1919 influenza pandemic
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Educational Material about Influenza Viruses

Educational Material about Influenza Viruses | Virology News | Scoop.it
To supplement a special edition of the journal Viruses, entitled “What’s New with Flu?”, influenza virus researchers have worked together to generate simple educational material to communicate their science to school students.
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Covert pathogenesis: Transient exposures to microbes as triggers of disease

Covert pathogenesis: Transient exposures to microbes as triggers of disease | Virology News | Scoop.it

Our understanding of microbial pathogenesis is founded largely on the assumption that the microbe responsible for causing a disease is the one that is abundantly present at the time and site of disease symptoms. This situation can be compared to the scenario in which a criminal is caught red-handed at the scene of the crime. In this article, we discuss an alternative scenario—“covert pathogenesis”—in which a microbe acts more like a covert operative, sneaking in undetected or unrecognized to trigger disease onset, escaping before the damage is noticed. Here, we will further define “covert pathogenesis,” describe an example of this phenomenon discovered in the urinary tract, highlight other scenarios or diseases that could be impacted by this paradigm, and discuss implications for diagnosis and treatment. 

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