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When Christine Lee, PharmD, PhD, a health scientist with the US Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, wanted information about caring for her newborn baby beyond what was captured in parenting books, she turned to social media. She joined a forum for new mothers on Facebook to ask the crowd for advice.

Soon after, she wondered how social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Reddit can be mined for data that could help the FDA’s pharmacovigilance efforts. “I thought, ‘Could I apply the same qualitative research methods traditionally used for focus groups and cognitive interview data to research involving unstructured narrative data in social media?’ ” explained Dr Lee during her grand rounds presentation, “Structuring Unstructured Data: Using New Data Sources to Understand the Needs of Underserved Populations,” presented May 9, 2019, in Washington, DC.

How the FDA Uses Patient Experience Data

The agency’s regulatory mission relies on sourcing new data and methodologies to increase its understanding of patients’ perspectives. The FDA uses patient experience data to inform:

• Clinical trial design

•  Trial end point development and selection

• Regulatory issues, including benefit-risk assessments

To meet patients’ needs, the FDA strives to engage patient stakeholders throughout the life cycle of a medical product. Social media platforms provide a method for capturing meaningful, unfiltered patient insights, according to Dr Lee. It can give the FDA a more comprehensive picture of how medical products function beyond controlled, randomized clinical trials.

The FDA has 2 objectives for engaging patients:

  1. Support the FDA’s and the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research’s goals of understanding the patient’s voice, including their perspectives on conditions and treatments.
  2. Refine qualitative research methods to explore tapping unstructured data with high repeatability.

Social Media Monitoring: Gaining Insight Into Diabetes Therapies

The US Department of Health and Human Services’ Office of Minority Health funded a pilot study to analyze social media posts for useful data about minority patients with diabetes and their treatment.

During the last 2 years, the agency used data-mining software to collect, monitor, and analyze more than 100,000 conversations on Twitter. The effort targeted a variety of keywords, including diabetes, glucose, diabetic, and blood sugar. Demographic filters were added to narrow the query. To separate signal from noise, tweets that were classified as cheeky, advertisements, or spam were removed, leaving about 73,000 tweets for analysis. The remaining tweets were scrubbed and formatted, and then natural language processing and machine-based learning were used to help researchers identify trends. This process was also used to uncover trends in FDA Advisory Committee data, and then the 2 data sets were examined.

Improving Diabetes Education Among Minorities

Researchers sought to discern what government organizations, patient advocacy organizations, and pharmaceutical companies share on social media, and whether this information is specific to racial or ethnic minorities. The data revealed several content themes:

• Awareness: 39.9% of tweets analyzed

• Diabetes management: 22.4%

• Risks associated with diabetes: 13.3%

• Diabetes prevention: 7.3%

• Other: 9.1%

“We found that little to no discussions on Twitter were specific to minority groups,” Dr Lee said. “Our research suggests that there is an opportunity to improve outreach to minority groups that is specific to their unique health needs.”

Researchers also concluded that there are gaps in their understanding of minority groups’ perceptions of the risks associated with FDA-regulated prescription drugs, their unique health needs, and level of health literacy.

To gain further insight, researchers mined a sample of Facebook posts from January 2017 to June 2017 that mentioned diabetes. After compiling a list of the top 50 most-liked posts for each month, the content was analyzed to elicit meaning from the collected posts. An extensive codebook was developed to guide this process. The data highlighted the importance of providing a patient-centered approach to care and individualizing care, according to researchers. More specifically, the data demonstrated the importance of:

• Educating patients on how diet and exercise can help them manage their diabetes.

• Improving patients’ awareness about comorbid conditions and teasing out related symptoms.

• Improving awareness about how the link between diabetes and the household environment can increase the risk of developing diabetes.

• Providing patient support and encouraging community engagement to promote healthier environments.

Although Dr Lee was encouraged by the enhanced patient insight she and her team were able to gain from social media posts, she cautions that social media data must be combined with other sources of data, including FDA archives, patient-focused drug development data, public docket comments, advisory council transcripts, focus groups, and listening sessions. According to Dr Lee, the findings of this study suggest that new data sources can increase the understanding of the patient perspective, particularly of vulnerable populations, and can increase confidence in the data that the FDA traditionally collects.

“Social media is a useful data source to gather relevant patient perspectives on barriers and may provide information from populations who may not utilize FDA sources,” Dr Lee concluded.

The FDA also conducted a social media listening pilot project on Reddit to gather data regarding opioid use. The results of this study are under manuscript review and cannot yet be shared publicly.

Reference

Lee C. Gaining insight into the patient’s experience by harnessing the power of social listening and FDA archival data. Presented at: FDA Grand Rounds; May 9, 2019; Washington, DC.


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Difference between revisions of "Understand Addiction" ←Old Revision (full edit) WikiHow Expert Review (Talk | contribs | quick note) 2 weeks ago m (Updated green box.) Revision as of 2 weeks ago (full edit) (undo)→ WikiHow Expert Review (Talk | contribs | quick note) 2 weeks ago m (Updated green box.) Line 11: Line 11:   #Research treatment options. Even if the person is not ready to seek treatment, finding out what their options are may encourage them. Do some research to find out if there are any doctors in your area that specialize in addiction, or if there are support group meetings, such as Alcoholics Anonymous. You may also want to investigate in-patient and outpatient treatment programs.<ref>https://www.drugabuse.gov/related-topics/treatment/what-to-do-if-your-adult-friend-or-loved-one-has-problem-drugs</ref>[[Image:Understand Addiction Step 3.jpg|center]]   #Research treatment options. Even if the person is not ready to seek treatment, finding out what their options are may encourage them. Do some research to find out if there are any doctors in your area that specialize in addiction, or if there are support group meetings, such as Alcoholics Anonymous. You may also want to investigate in-patient and outpatient treatment programs.<ref>https://www.drugabuse.gov/related-topics/treatment/what-to-do-if-your-adult-friend-or-loved-one-has-problem-drugs</ref>[[Image:Understand Addiction Step 3.jpg|center]]   #* If you think the person may prefer to go through treatment out of town, then look into treatment centers that you think might appeal to them. For example, if the person enjoys going to the beach, then try to find a treatment center that is located near the beach.     #* If you think the person may prefer to go through treatment out of town, then look into treatment centers that you think might appeal to them. For example, if the person enjoys going to the beach, then try to find a treatment center that is located near the beach.   − #*Look for a treatment center that is tailored to the specific addiction the person is suffering from. A treatment program for cocaine addicts may be of a different length and focus than one for people who abuse tranquilizers, for example.<ref>https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7841856</ref>{{expertgreenbox:161029|'''Understand that relapse may occur on the road to recovery.''' Psychotherapist and licensed clinical social worker Lauren Urban says: "One of the most common misconceptions about addiction treatment is that the goal is to avoid relapse. Really, it's about learning about the factors that led to the addiction, as well as forming new, healthy habits. Then, if someone does relapse, they can use it as an opportunity to find things that will work better for them."|}} + #*Look for a treatment center that is tailored to the specific addiction the person is suffering from. A treatment program for cocaine addicts may be of a different length and focus than one for people who abuse tranquilizers, for example.<ref>https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7841856</ref>{{expertgreenbox:161029|'''Understand that relapse may occur on the road to recovery.''' Psychotherapist and licensed clinical social worker Lauren Urban says: "One common misconception about addiction treatment is that the goal is to avoid relapse. Really, it's about learning about the factors that led to the addiction, as well as helping the person form new, healthy habits. Then, if someone does relapse, you can use that as an opportunity to find an approach that may work better for them."|}}   #Assure the person that that they will be safe during treatment. It is normal for someone who is addicted to something to worry about going through withdrawal. If you suspect that the person is afraid, try to reassure them. Let them know that they will be surrounded by medical professionals who are experienced at helping people through the detox process.<ref>https://www.drugabuse.gov/related-topics/treatment/what-to-do-if-your-adult-friend-or-loved-one-has-problem-drugs</ref>[[Image:Understand Addiction Step 4.jpg|center]]   #Assure the person that that they will be safe during treatment. It is normal for someone who is addicted to something to worry about going through withdrawal. If you suspect that the person is afraid, try to reassure them. Let them know that they will be surrounded by medical professionals who are experienced at helping people through the detox process.<ref>https://www.drugabuse.gov/related-topics/treatment/what-to-do-if-your-adult-friend-or-loved-one-has-problem-drugs</ref>[[Image:Understand Addiction Step 4.jpg|center]]   #*Try saying, “I know it seems scary, but the doctors and nurses who take care of you will do everything they can to make sure you are safe and comfortable.”   #*Try saying, “I know it seems scary, but the doctors and nurses who take care of you will do everything they can to make sure you are safe and comfortable.” Revision as of 00:39, 30 May 2019 Addiction is a complex condition that many people face. You can become addicted to a substance, like drugs or alcohol, or you can become addicted to a behavior, like gambling or shopping. By understanding addiction, you may be better able to help yourself or a someone else who is struggling. You may also gain a better understanding of addiction by learning to recognize its signs and risk factors. Then, learn more about addiction in general to ensure that you understand how it works. Method 1 Understanding and Helping an Addict 1 Recognize that addiction is a disease, not a choice. People used to consider addiction a sign of weakness, a lack of willpower, or poor morality. However, today addiction is considered a disease because of the way it affects the brain. Approaching addiction in this way can make it easier for you to help an addict. People who become addicted to substances and/or behaviors require treatment to stop engaging in the addictive behavior, but the treatment is not always medical. Treating addiction may require a combination of medical treatment and psychological treatment, or it may only require attending a support group regularly.[1] There are both psychological and physical components to addiction. 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Do some research to find out if there are any doctors in your area that specialize in addiction, or if there are support group meetings, such as Alcoholics Anonymous. You may also want to investigate in-patient and outpatient treatment programs.[4] If you think the person may prefer to go through treatment out of town, then look into treatment centers that you think might appeal to them. For example, if the person enjoys going to the beach, then try to find a treatment center that is located near the beach. Look for a treatment center that is tailored to the specific addiction the person is suffering from. A treatment program for cocaine addicts may be of a different length and focus than one for people who abuse tranquilizers, for example.[5] Lauren Urban, LCSW Psychotherapist Lauren Urban is a psychotherapist in Brooklyn, New York, with over 13 years of therapy experience working with children, families, couples and individuals. She received her Masters in Social Work from Hunter College in 2006, and works with clients to empower them to change their circumstances and their lives. Lauren Urban, LCSW Psychotherapist Understand that relapse may occur on the road to recovery. Psychotherapist and licensed clinical social worker Lauren Urban says: "One common misconception about addiction treatment is that the goal is to avoid relapse. Really, it's about learning about the factors that led to the addiction, as well as helping the person form new, healthy habits. Then, if someone does relapse, you can use that as an opportunity to find an approach that may work better for them." 4 Assure the person that that they will be safe during treatment. It is normal for someone who is addicted to something to worry about going through withdrawal. If you suspect that the person is afraid, try to reassure them. Let them know that they will be surrounded by medical professionals who are experienced at helping people through the detox process.[6] Try saying, “I know it seems scary, but the doctors and nurses who take care of you will do everything they can to make sure you are safe and comfortable.” Method 2 Recognizing Risks for and Signs of Addiction 1 Ask yourself how often the person engages in the behavior. Engaging in a behavior frequently is one of the main signs of addiction. Ask the person to be honest about how often they are engaging in the behavior or using the substance. The more often they are engaging in the behavior, the more likely it is that they are suffering from addiction. Some questions to consider include:[7] Do you engage in the behavior or use the substance daily? How many times per day? Is it hard to go more than a day without engaging in the behavior or using the substance? When was the last time you went longer than 1 day without the behavior/substance? What happens if you do go longer than a day? 2 Watch for withdrawal symptoms. Suffering from withdrawal is another common indication of addiction. If someone stops or reduces their use of a substance or behavior, then they will probably experience withdrawal symptoms.[8] Addiction symptoms vary widely depending on the type of substance or behavior the person is addicted to, but may include:[9] A general sense of discomfort Shaking Nausea Worrying Sweating Confusion Hallucinations Seizures 3 Reflect on any lies the person has told to cover up the behavior. Lying to protect the behavior is another common sign of addiction. 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Even if the person is not ready to seek treatment, finding out what their options are may encourage them. Do some research to find out if there are any doctors in your area that specialize in addiction, or if there are support group meetings, such as Alcoholics Anonymous. You may also want to investigate in-patient and outpatient treatment programs.<ref>https://www.drugabuse.gov/related-topics/treatment/what-to-do-if-your-adult-friend-or-loved-one-has-problem-drugs</ref>[[Image:Understand Addiction Step 3.jpg|center]]   #* If you think the person may prefer to go through treatment out of town, then look into treatment centers that you think might appeal to them. For example, if the person enjoys going to the beach, then try to find a treatment center that is located near the beach.     #* If you think the person may prefer to go through treatment out of town, then look into treatment centers that you think might appeal to them. For example, if the person enjoys going to the beach, then try to find a treatment center that is located near the beach.   − #*Look for a treatment center that is tailored to the specific addiction the person is suffering from. A treatment program for cocaine addicts may be of a different length and focus than one for people who abuse tranquilizers, for example.<ref>https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7841856</ref>{{expertgreenbox:161029|'''Understand that relapse may occur on the road to recovery.''' Psychotherapist and licensed clinical social worker Lauren Urban says: "One common misconception about addiction treatment is that the goal is to avoid relapse. Really, it's about learning about the factors that led to the addiction, as well as helping the person form new, healthy habits. Then, if someone does relapse, you can use that as an opportunity to find an approach that may work better for them."|}} + #*Look for a treatment center that is tailored to the specific addiction the person is suffering from. A treatment program for cocaine addicts may be of a different length and focus than one for people who abuse tranquilizers, for example.<ref>https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7841856</ref>{{expertgreenbox:161029|'''Understand that relapse may occur on the road to recovery.''' Psychotherapist and licensed clinical social worker Lauren Urban says: "One common misconception about addiction treatment is that the goal is to avoid relapse. Really, it's about learning about the '''factors that led to the addiction''', as well as helping the person form '''new, healthy habits'''. Then, if someone does relapse, you can use that as an opportunity to find an approach that may work better for them."|}}   #Assure the person that that they will be safe during treatment. It is normal for someone who is addicted to something to worry about going through withdrawal. If you suspect that the person is afraid, try to reassure them. Let them know that they will be surrounded by medical professionals who are experienced at helping people through the detox process.<ref>https://www.drugabuse.gov/related-topics/treatment/what-to-do-if-your-adult-friend-or-loved-one-has-problem-drugs</ref>[[Image:Understand Addiction Step 4.jpg|center]]   #Assure the person that that they will be safe during treatment. It is normal for someone who is addicted to something to worry about going through withdrawal. If you suspect that the person is afraid, try to reassure them. Let them know that they will be surrounded by medical professionals who are experienced at helping people through the detox process.<ref>https://www.drugabuse.gov/related-topics/treatment/what-to-do-if-your-adult-friend-or-loved-one-has-problem-drugs</ref>[[Image:Understand Addiction Step 4.jpg|center]]   #*Try saying, “I know it seems scary, but the doctors and nurses who take care of you will do everything they can to make sure you are safe and comfortable.”   #*Try saying, “I know it seems scary, but the doctors and nurses who take care of you will do everything they can to make sure you are safe and comfortable.” Latest revision as of 00:40, 30 May 2019 Addiction is a complex condition that many people face. You can become addicted to a substance, like drugs or alcohol, or you can become addicted to a behavior, like gambling or shopping. By understanding addiction, you may be better able to help yourself or a someone else who is struggling. You may also gain a better understanding of addiction by learning to recognize its signs and risk factors. Then, learn more about addiction in general to ensure that you understand how it works. Method 1 Edit Understanding and Helping an Addict 1 Recognize that addiction is a disease, not a choice. People used to consider addiction a sign of weakness, a lack of willpower, or poor morality. However, today addiction is considered a disease because of the way it affects the brain. Approaching addiction in this way can make it easier for you to help an addict. People who become addicted to substances and/or behaviors require treatment to stop engaging in the addictive behavior, but the treatment is not always medical. Treating addiction may require a combination of medical treatment and psychological treatment, or it may only require attending a support group regularly.[1] There are both psychological and physical components to addiction. Withdrawal symptoms, social pressures, stress, impulse control and other complex factors can contribute to a person’s addiction.[2] 2 Let the person know you are willing to help. Whether or not the person is ready to deal with their addiction, make sure they know you are there for them. Seeking treatment may be overwhelming for someone who is struggling with addiction, so they may appreciate help with things like finding a doctor, treatment center, or support group.[3] You may also offer to support them in other ways, such as giving rides to and from doctor's appointments or support group meetings. Try saying, “I am here for you if you ever need help.” or “I have noticed that you are struggling, and I want to help you get healthy again. How can I help?” 3 Research treatment options. Even if the person is not ready to seek treatment, finding out what their options are may encourage them. Do some research to find out if there are any doctors in your area that specialize in addiction, or if there are support group meetings, such as Alcoholics Anonymous. You may also want to investigate in-patient and outpatient treatment programs.[4] If you think the person may prefer to go through treatment out of town, then look into treatment centers that you think might appeal to them. For example, if the person enjoys going to the beach, then try to find a treatment center that is located near the beach. Look for a treatment center that is tailored to the specific addiction the person is suffering from. A treatment program for cocaine addicts may be of a different length and focus than one for people who abuse tranquilizers, for example.[5] Lauren Urban, LCSW Psychotherapist Lauren Urban is a psychotherapist in Brooklyn, New York, with over 13 years of therapy experience working with children, families, couples and individuals. She received her Masters in Social Work from Hunter College in 2006, and works with clients to empower them to change their circumstances and their lives. Lauren Urban, LCSW Psychotherapist Understand that relapse may occur on the road to recovery. Psychotherapist and licensed clinical social worker Lauren Urban says: "One common misconception about addiction treatment is that the goal is to avoid relapse. Really, it's about learning about the factors that led to the addiction, as well as helping the person form new, healthy habits. Then, if someone does relapse, you can use that as an opportunity to find an approach that may work better for them." 4 Assure the person that that they will be safe during treatment. It is normal for someone who is addicted to something to worry about going through withdrawal. If you suspect that the person is afraid, try to reassure them. Let them know that they will be surrounded by medical professionals who are experienced at helping people through the detox process.[6] Try saying, “I know it seems scary, but the doctors and nurses who take care of you will do everything they can to make sure you are safe and comfortable.” Method 2 Edit Recognizing Risks for and Signs of Addiction 1 Ask yourself how often the person engages in the behavior. Engaging in a behavior frequently is one of the main signs of addiction. Ask the person to be honest about how often they are engaging in the behavior or using the substance. The more often they are engaging in the behavior, the more likely it is that they are suffering from addiction. Some questions to consider include:[7] Do you engage in the behavior or use the substance daily? How many times per day? Is it hard to go more than a day without engaging in the behavior or using the substance? When was the last time you went longer than 1 day without the behavior/substance? What happens if you do go longer than a day? 2 Watch for withdrawal symptoms. Suffering from withdrawal is another common indication of addiction. If someone stops or reduces their use of a substance or behavior, then they will probably experience withdrawal symptoms.[8] Addiction symptoms vary widely depending on the type of substance or behavior the person is addicted to, but may include:[9] A general sense of discomfort Shaking Nausea Worrying Sweating Confusion Hallucinations Seizures 3 Reflect on any lies the person has told to cover up the behavior. Lying to protect the behavior is another common sign of addiction. If the person has lied to friends, family, coworkers, or other people about their behavior, then this may indicate that they are struggling with addiction.[10] For example, if you ask your roommate how many glasses of wine they have had and they say 2, even though they secretly finished a bottle on their own before starting on a new one, then this is lying to protect the behavior. Or, if someone hides items that they have purchased so their spouse won't know how much they are shopping, then this is another form of lying. 4 Determine if anyone in the person's family has struggled with addiction. Addiction runs in families, which means someone is more likely to become addicted to something if they have a family member who has struggled with addiction.[11] For example, if someone has a parent or sibling who is addicted to alcohol, drugs, or a behavior, such as gambling or shopping, then they are more likely to struggle with addiction. 5 Look at environmental factors. Growing up in an environment where someone is exposed to addictive behaviors also predisposes them to addiction. If a person is surrounded by people who use drugs, abuse alcohol, or engage in other behaviors that they are addicted to, then this may affect your relationship with those things.[12] For example, if someone grows up in a household where 1 or more family members is addicted to marijuana, then they are more likely to develop an addiction to marijuana. 6 Think about the first time the person used the substance or engaged in the behavior. The younger someone is the first time they use a substance or engage in a behavior, the more likely they are to become addicted to it. Reflect on how old the person was the first time they engaged in this behavior or used this substance.[13] For example, if they were 12 years old the first time they drank alcohol, they will be more likely to develop an addiction to alcohol than someone who was 20 the first time they drank alcohol. Method 3 Edit Becoming More Informed On Addiction 1 Know that there are physiological factors involved in addiction. Your brain releases dopamine when triggered by certain activities, such as drinking an alcoholic beverage, smoking a cigarette, or injecting heroin. Your brain associates the reward with the behavior and this is how addiction happens. The faster the dopamine is released after the addictive behavior, the more your brain will link the two, and drugs produce this response up to 10 times faster than natural means of releasing dopamine, such as exercising. This is why people become addicted to drugs.[14] 2 Know that alcohol and illicit drug use are the most common forms of addiction. Alcohol and drug addiction are the most common substances that you can get addicted to. More than 2/3 of people who have addiction issues abuse alcohol. The top 3 addictive drugs include marijuana, opioid pain relievers, and cocaine.[15] Heroin is also a highly addictive drug that many people develop addiction to. After trying to stop using heroin, a person may become addicted to methadone, which is frequently prescribed to help people stop using heroin.[16] 3 Consider how use of pain medication may lead to drug addiction. Opioid pain relievers are especially addictive and many people get hooked on them after having a painful medical issue that requires the medication. However, after their medical issue has been handled, they may continue using the medication because of the high it produces. Some common opioid pain medications include:[17] Dilaudid (hydromorphone) Percocet (oxycodone) Oxycontin (oxycodone) Percodan (oxycodone) Vicodin (hydrocodone) Lorcet (hydrocodone) Lortab (hydrocodone) Demerol (pethidine) Duragesic (fentanyl) 4 Be aware that people can be addicted to more than just alcohol and drugs. While the majority of people who suffer from addiction are addicted to alcohol or drugs, there are many other things that people can be addicted to. It is possible to have an addiction to sex, gambling, food, video games, and even shopping.[18] Any activity that helps numb an individual to unpleasant feelings while providing a reward can be considered an addiction.[19] Edit Help Recognizing and Discussing Addiction EditRelated wikiHows EditReferences

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