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News about translation, interpreting, intercultural communication, terminology and lexicography - as it happens
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Licenciatura en Lingüística Aplicada a la Enseñanza y Traducción del Francés

Perfil de ingreso

Quien aspire a ingresar a la Licenciatura en Lingüística Aplicada a la Enseñanza y Traducción del Francés deberá contar con las siguientes características formativas:

Características formativas evaluables

  • Habilidades de razonamiento matemático
  • Habilidades analíticas de pensamiento
  • Conocimiento de la estructura de la lengua (español)
  • Habilidades de comprensión lectora
  • Habilidades del lenguaje escrito
  • Conocimientos básicos sobre Literatura e Historia
  • Habilidad para comunicarse en el idioma francés (nivel A1)

Características formativas deseables:

  • Tener hábito por la lectura.
  • Mostrar interés en la adquisición de un segundo idioma.
  • Interesarse por la diversidad lingüística y cultural.
  • Favorecer la convivencia y el dialogo con respecto a la diversidad y equidad.
  • Colaborar de manera constructiva, trabajar en equipo y ejercer liderazgo participativo.
  • Sustentar una postura personal sobre temas de interés y relevancia general, considerando otros puntos de vista de manera crítica y reflexiva.
  • Proponer alternativas para la solución de problemas y toma de decisiones.
  • Utilizar las tecnologías de vanguardia para identificar, discernir y seleccionar información de acuerdo con los propósitos de la enseñanza y la traducción del francés.
  • Cuidar el medio ambiente y encontrar soluciones sostenibles.

Requisitos de ingreso

Académicos

Haber concluido satisfactoriamente el nivel medio superior o equivalente.

Legales

Los que establezca la normatividad y los procedimientos de la Universidad, vigentes; u otros, en caso de que apliquen.

De selección

El estudiante deberá someterse al examen de Concurso de Ingreso establecido por la UANL, EXANI-II Módulo de Selección y Módulo de Diagnóstico de Humanidades y Artes.

Aprobar el examen de acreditación de francés A1*
*El estudiante es capaz de comprender y utilizar expresiones cotidianas de uso muy frecuente, así como, frases sencillas destinadas a satisfacer necesidades de tipo inmediato. Puede presentarse a sí mismo y a otros, pedir y dar información personal básica sobre su domicilio, sus pertenencias y las personas que conoce. Puede relacionarse de forma elemental siempre que su interlocutor hable despacio y con claridad y esté dispuesto a cooperar

Específicos del programa

Cumplir con el curso de inducción.

Perfil de egreso

Propósito:

Formar profesionales en Lingüística Aplicada a la Enseñanza y Traducción del Francés que egresen al menos con un nivel C1  en el dominio del francés, con un enfoque integral hacia la enseñanza y traducción de este idioma; competentes para: realizar investigación en la didáctica y traducción de la lengua francesa; utilizar las tecnologías de vanguardia; emplear el pensamiento lógico, crítico, creativo y propositivo, con una actitud de compromiso y respeto hacia la diversidad e identidad en los contextos interculturales, sociolingüísticos, sociohistóricos, integrando la perspectiva de género y demostrando habilidades socioemocionales y dialógicas. Lo anterior con la finalidad de responder a la demanda social de docentes de francés capaces de realizar diseño curricular y planeación didáctica; además  de traductores que contribuyan a facilitar el acceso al conocimiento producido en lengua francesa, capaces de traducir textos de alta calidad en diferentes registros y de diversos campos temáticos; así como de gestores de proyectos que identifican y analizan problemas relacionados con la enseñanza, el aprendizaje y la traducción del francés para adaptarse de manera eficiente a un entorno de rápida evolución que surge de los intercambios económicos, sociales y culturales entre los distintos países francófonos e hispanohablantes.

*De acuerdo con el Marco Común Europeo de Referencia para las lenguas (MCER, 2002). El C1: es capaz de comprender una amplia variedad de textos extensos y con cierto nivel de exigencia, así como reconocer en ellos sentidos implícitos. Sabe expresarse de forma fluida y espontánea sin muestras muy evidentes de esfuerzo para encontrar la expresión adecuada. Puede hacer un uso flexible y efectivo del idioma para fines sociales, académicos y profesionales. Puede producir textos claros, bien estructurados y detallados sobre temas de cierta complejidad, mostrando un uso correcto de los mecanismos de organización, articulación y cohesión del texto.

Competencias generales

Competencias instrumentales

  1. Aplicar estrategias de aprendizaje autónomo en los diferentes niveles y campos del conocimiento que le permitan la toma de decisiones oportunas y pertinentes en los ámbitos personal, académico y profesional.
  2. Utilizar los lenguajes lógico, formal, matemático, icónico, verbal y no verbal de acuerdo a su etapa de vida, para comprender, interpretar y expresar ideas, sentimientos, teorías y corrientes de pensamiento con un enfoque ecuménico.
  3. Manejar las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación como herramienta para el acceso a la información y su transformación en conocimiento, así como para el aprendizaje y trabajo colaborativo con técnicas de vanguardia que le permitan su participación constructiva en la sociedad.
  4. Dominar su lengua materna en forma oral y escrita con corrección, relevancia, oportunidad y ética adaptando su mensaje a la situación o contexto, para la transmisión de ideas y hallazgos científicos.
  5. Emplear pensamiento lógico, crítico, creativo y propositivo para analizar fenómenos naturales y sociales que le permitan tomar decisiones pertinentes en su ámbito de influencia con responsabilidad social.
  6. Utilizar un segundo idioma, preferentemente el inglés, con claridad y corrección para comunicarse en contextos cotidianos, académicos, profesionales y científicos.
  7. Elaborar propuestas académicas y profesionales inter, multi y transdisciplinarias de acuerdo a las mejores prácticas mundiales para fomentar y consolidar el trabajo colaborativo.
  8. Utilizar los métodos y técnicas de investigación tradicionales y de vanguardia para el desarrollo de su trabajo académico, el ejercicio de su profesión y la generación de conocimientos

Competencias personales y de interacción social

  1. Mantener una actitud de compromiso y respeto hacia la diversidad de prácticas sociales y culturales que reafirman el principio de integración en el contexto local, nacional e internacional con la finalidad de promover ambientes de convivencia pacífica.
  2. Intervenir frente a los retos de la sociedad contemporánea en lo local y global con actitud crítica y compromiso humano, académico y profesional para contribuir a consolidar el bienestar general y el desarrollo sustentable.
  3. Practicar los valores promovidos por la UANL: verdad, equidad, honestidad, libertad, solidaridad, respeto a la vida y a los demás, paz, respeto a la naturaleza, integridad, comportamiento ético y justicia, en su ámbito personal y profesional para contribuir a construir una sociedad sustentable.

Competencias integradoras

12.Construir propuestas innovadoras basadas en la comprensión holística de la realidad para contribuir a superar los retos del ambiente global interdependiente.

  1. Asumir el liderazgo comprometido con las necesidades sociales y profesionales para promover el cambio social pertinente.
  2. Resolver conflictos personales y sociales conforme a técnicas específicas en el ámbito académico y de su profesión para la adecuada toma de decisiones.
  3. Lograr la adaptabilidad que requieren los ambientes sociales y profesionales de incertidumbre de nuestra época para crear mejores condiciones de vida.

Competencias específicas

No. Declaración 1 Dominar el francés como lengua extranjera en sus cuatro habilidades básicas; comprensión y expresión oral, comprensión y expresión escrita, mediante el desarrollo de la competencia comunicativa en sus tres componentes; lingüístico, sociolingüístico y pragmático con la finalidad de comunicarse con eficiencia en contextos interculturales y en las áreas de docencia y traducción. 2 Diseñar estrategias para la enseñanza del francés en diversos contextos escolares integrando las tecnologías de vanguardia con la finalidad de proponer soluciones a dificultades de orden metodológico, teórico, práctico y lingüístico en el ejercicio profesional de la enseñanza de esta lengua. 3 Traducir textos en diferentes registros y de diversos campos temáticos, de manera directa e inversa, con calidad, integrando las tecnologías de vanguardia y utilizando las normas vigentes de redacción del español y del francés, considerando las estructuras gramaticales de ambas lenguas, para adaptarse de manera eficiente a un entorno de rápida evolución que surge de los intercambios económicos, sociales y culturales entre los distintos países francófonos e hispanohablantes. 4 Gestionar procesos administrativos y educativos de calidad en las áreas de la enseñanza y la traducción, aportando políticas y acciones alternativas en la solución de problemas y toma de decisiones para responder a las necesidades de las instituciones públicas y privadas. 5 Fomentar la comunicación intercultural en el ejercicio profesional de la enseñanza y traducción del francés con la finalidad de desarrollar la comunicación eficiente en los diversos contextos socioculturales, sociolingüísticos y sociohistóricos de los países francófonos e hispanohablantes. 6 Desarrollar propuestas innovadoras a partir de la revisión de la literatura en el campo de la lingüística aplicada con la finalidad de incorporar nuevos conocimientos mediante la investigación científica que coadyuven a la implementación de mejores prácticas en la enseñanza y traducción del francés.

Campo laboral

Campo Descripción de tareas 1. Instituciones educativas públicas y privadas 1.           Impartir cursos del idioma francés

 

2.           Diseñar planes de clase y programas de cursos de francés

3.           Impartir cursos de contenido en el idioma francés

4.           Elaborar material didáctico

5.           Gestionar procesos de administración educativa

6.           Ofrecer capacitación y actualización en los métodos de enseñanza del francés

7.           Realizar investigación educativa, didáctica y lingüística del francés

8.           Utilizar las Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación y las Tecnologías del Aprendizaje y del Conocimiento aplicadas a la enseñanza del francés

9.           Ofrecer capacitación para la certificación en el francés

10.      Impartir cursos de especialización (redacción, pronunciación, gramática, conversación, etc.) de la lengua francesa

11.      Enseñar francés en empresas

2.Casas editoriales, revistas y periódicos 1.           Editar textos en español y francés.

 

2.           Supervisar los procesos de edición.

3.           Coordinar equipos de trabajo editorial

3. Agencias de traducción, sector empresarial y negocio propio

 

 

1.           Gestionar proyectos de traducción

 

2.           Traducir, de forma directa e inversa, textos de alta calidad en diferentes registros y de diversos campos temáticos.

3.           Gestionar proyectos de doblaje y subtitulación

4.           Utilizar recursos informáticos aplicados a la traducción del francés

5.           Traducir de forma independiente (freelance)

Requisitos de egreso

Académicos

Cursar y aprobar los 220 créditos del plan de estudios del programa educativo, incluyendo el Servicio social obligatorio.

Legales

Los que establezca la normatividad y los procedimientos de la Universidad, vigentes; u otros, en caso de que apliquen.

Específicos del programa

 

Cumplir con el Seminario para el desempeño profesional.

Presentar el examen de egreso.

Constancia de participación en las actividades para la formación integral.

Constancia de certificación en lengua francesa, nivel C1.

 

Ubicación

Responsable: Dirección de Estudios del Nivel Licenciatura

Dirección

Avenida Universidad s/n, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León.

Modalidad

Escolarizada

Tipo de ingreso

Semestral

Tipo de periodo académico

Semestral

Duración

10 semestres

Teléfono

+52 8113-40-4380 Ext. 7517

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Using translation software is often quite time consuming and inaccurate, but it can be useful if others are busy. And English versions of protocols tend to be available only from international biotechnology companies, and not, say, for those written by colleagues. Translating them myself relies on me being fortunate enough to find a colleague who can patiently explain each step to me in Chinese. Which solution will work best will depend on the situation, so experiment with different methods and tailor your solutions to draw on your strengths and counterbalance your weaknesses.

Make technology your friend

The website translate.google.cn and the app Pleco have been extremely useful for me in China. Google Translate has helped me to understand medical terminology, sentences and paragraphs. It gives me a technical term in English, or an idea of what a lengthy block of text is saying. Meanwhile, Pleco is helpful for learning individual words because it breaks sentences down into distinct chunks and translates those phrases, rather than forming a reworded sentence, as Google Translate does. For instance, for the sentence “这些结果都是阳性的”, Google Translate will give me “These results are all positive”, whereas Pleco will give me “这些, these; 结果, results, outcome; 都, all; 是, [used like ‘be’ before a noun]; 阳性, positive; 的, [used at the end of a declarative sentence for emphasis]”. These two apps are very useful in different ways. Play around with different tools to see what works best for you.

Ask others for help

Whenever I needed help, I was able to find many people who generously provided assistance.

When I had difficulty reading directional signs or addresses, I found myself tapping on the closest shoulder or calling out “Oh! Hello there!” in Chinese to someone nearby. By asking for help, I have encountered friendly people who were willing to slow down and show me the way.

At the bank, when a staff member gives me paperwork to fill out, I sheepishly ask for an explanation about what I need to complete. Staff members have been extremely patient with me and take the time to tell me exactly what information I need to enter.

In the laboratory, I have my ‘go-to’ colleagues who kindly show me how to use equipment, even when there are step-by-step instructions (in Chinese, of course) on how to use it. I try to avoid always asking the same person, and alternate among a small group of researchers who happily explain things that range from the simple (‘What does this Chinese character mean?’) to the complex (‘What do these delicate knobs do?’).

Learn to be confident, and be eager to ask for assistance. This helps to make your life easier, while connecting you with people in your community and research spaces.

Practise, practise, practise

During the first two to three months of my stay in China, I wanted to remember everything after being told the first time. However, I soon discovered that this was impossible. I just couldn’t write down every new word I heard, look up its meaning and remember it the first time around.

And that was OK. I learnt to keep asking — asking people to repeat a phrase, to re-explain a word, to correct me when I said something wrong. Ask more than once helps to to reinforce your memory of new words.

Embrace difficult conversations

After a few months, I realized that I had been avoiding or zoning out of conversations about topics such as popular culture, which has its own unique lexicon, because I had been so focused on trying to learn scientific lingo. After this epiphany, I decided to start engaging with these harder conversations, pushing myself to learn what I could and further expanding my word bank. Over time, it got easier, and I began to explore fresh avenues of interest and conversation.

Try to engage in conversations about non-scientific subjects, particularly those that contain new vocabulary. The more you expose yourself to the unfamiliar, the more your horizons will broaden.

Be there for others

During my first few months in China, I needed a lot of help. There was so much to do to get settled in a new place, and once-simple tasks suddenly became very difficult. But, after this storm had passed, I started to notice opportunities that allowed me to give back to others. Perhaps someone needed help to understand a particular phrase or pronounce a particular word in English. Perhaps someone was interested in learning more about US culture, politics or housing prices. Or how much it costs to go to NBA (National Basketball Association) games. Perhaps someone just needed a listening ear, or someone to talk to.

When these opportunities come, take them readily and give as much as you can, especially when you need a way to express your gratitude for all the help you have received during your journey.

Even if you’ve mispronounced that same word for the third time, or felt your heart sink from looking at yet another page of foreign text, understand that it will get better. One day, you will be able to pronounce that word perfectly and perhaps be able to read all (or most) of the words on that page. Just keep trying, and remind yourself of why you are there, what your goal is and what an enlightening journey you are embarking on."

doi: 10.1038/d41586-019-01915-y

This is an article from the Nature Careers Community, a place for Nature readers to share their professional experiences and advice. Guest posts are encouraged. You can get in touch with the editor at naturecareerseditor@nature.com.

 
 
 
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The importance of being earnest in translation

TCD project explores how Oscar Wilde’s play evolves in translation in order to help minority languages prosper
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Why we shouldn’t change the translation of the liturgy again

It is tempting to want to change the words of the 2011 Roman Missal. But we shouldn't—part of the point of ritual is its seeming changelessness.
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Comment le doublage russe des films étrangers ruine (parfois) vos œuvres préférées - Russia Beyond FR

Les Russes sont habitués à visionner des films étrangers adaptés pour le marché local. Cette approche a néanmoins des inconvénients de taille, qu’il s’agisse des titres bizarrement traduits, du massacre d’expressions idiomatiques et de la synchronisation doublage-lèvres particulièrement mauvaise.
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Facebook est parvenu à créer une IA capable de traduire 200 langues automatiquement

Traduire automatiquement des conversations en plusieurs langues sans apprentissage au préalable, voici la nouvelle prouesse des chercheurs de Facebook. S’appuyant sur des algorithmes divers, la traduction grâce à l’intelligence artificielle a fait un pas de géant, tout comme la reconnaissance faciale. Explications. Facebook, entre mine d’or et dérives Dans une interview donnée à nos confrères …
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Pakistan Journal of Languages and Translation Studies (PJLTS) - University of Gujrat

The Pakistan Journal of Languages and Translation Studies (PJLTS) is an annual blind peer reviewed publication of the University of Gujrat, Pakistan. PJLTS is also included in the University Grants Commission’s List of approved journals in India with other reputed national and international journals in the field of Translation Studies. The prime objective of this journal is to provide the research scholars an independent and trans-disciplinary forum for discourse on issues in Translation, Linguistics and related disciplines. It deals with the rising questions in Theoretical and Applied Translation. The trans-disciplinary nature of Translation Studies encourages researchers from fields like Art and History of Translation and its applications in various fields of knowledge and human endeavor, Linguistics, Language Learning, Comparative Literature, Literary History and Theory, Computational Linguistics, Machine Translation, Localization, Arts, Humanities and Social Science. We welcome research articles, empirical reports, reviews from the authors interested in any of these areas.



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10 Unforgettable Translators of Jewish Texts - Jewish History

Moses

Not only did we receive the Torah from G‑d through Moses, but our sages tells us that Moses was the first one to translate the Torah as well. Just weeks before his passing (on his 120th birthday), on the first day of the 11th month (Shevat), Moses reviewed the Torah and translated it into the 70 languages that existed then.

Commentaries explain that although the Jews at the time had no need for the translation and didn’t even necessarily know those languages, they would eventually be exiled and scattered among the nations. Moses translated the Torah into all languages to indicate that no matter where they were or what language they spoke, the Torah was relevant to them.

Read: Is it Torah if It’s Not in Hebrew?

Onkelos the Convert

In this standard edition of the Five Books of Moses with commentary, one can see the translation of Onkelos to the immediate left of the main Hebrew text.

Onkelos was the nephew of the Roman Emperor Titus (according to another opinion, Hadrian) and converted to Judaism (XXX). When his uncle learned of his conversion, he sent a number of emissaries to dissuade him, but not only were they not successful, Onkelos ended up persuading the Roman messengers to convert themselves. Ultimately, his uncle gave up.

Onkelos became a student of the leading sages of his day, Rabbi Eliezer and Rabbi Yehoshua. When Onkelos saw that many Jews had forgotten their holy language, he decided to translate the Torah into Aramaic. The Talmud points out that the translation already existed at the time of Ezra the Scribe, but it had been forgotten among the people, and Onkelos recorded it so it would not be forgotten again.1

Onkelos’s translation is often referred to simply as targum (“translation”) and is printed alongside most editions of the Chumash.

Read: Onkelos

Jonathan ben Uzziel

In this edition of Mishlei (Proverbs) with classic commentaries and Yiddish translation, the Aramaic rendering of Jonathan appears directly beside the text.

Jonathan ben Uzziel (1st century CE) was considered the greatest of Hillel the Elder’s students.

Jonathan ben Uzziel wrote his translation of the Prophets based on traditions going back to the prophets HaggaiZechariah and Malachi. Unlike the translation of Onkelos, Jonathan’s translation includes select elucidations and commentary as well.

There is also a translation of the Five Books of Moses attributed to Jonathan. However, the Talmud only mentions his translating the Prophets. As such, many are of the opinion that the translation printed in some Chumashim under his name, while also from around that era, was not actually authored by him.2

The Talmud tells us that when he wrote his commentary on the books of the Prophets, the Land of Israel trembled and a heavenly voice called out: "Who has dared to reveal My secrets to mortal men?" R’ Jonathan ben Uzziel then arose and declared: "I am the one responsible for revealing Your holy secrets to mankind. But not to do myself honor, nor for the glory of my ancestors did I do this, but solely so that the Jews may understand what the Prophets have told them."

He originally intended to write his translation on the Ketuvim (Writings) as well. When he was about to write it, a heavenly voice called out, “You have done enough,” lest he reveal the secret of when the Messiah is meant to come, which is hidden in the book of Daniel.3

Read: Jonathan ben Uzziel

Rabbi Saadia Gaon

This handwritten edition features vowelized Hebrew verses (in large type), followed by Arabic translation (in smaller type), formatted to be used in the weekly review of the Torah portion as per the ancient custom of chanting the original Hebrew two times and a translation once.

Rabbi Saadia Gaon (882-942) authored many works, including writings on Jewish philosophy, grammar and Jewish law. Perhaps his most famous work was Emunot Vede’ot(“Beliefs and Opinions”), the first systematic treatment of Jewish philosophy, written in Judeo-Arabic.

What is perhaps less known is that he authored an Arabic translation and commentary of the Torah known as the Tafsir (Tafsir is Arabic for “biblical commentary”).

His commentary on the Torah is divided into two parts: 1) Peirush Hakatzar (“The Short Commentary”), the translation of Tanach into Arabic, including some brief explanations. 2) Peirush Ha’aroch (“The Long Commentary”), which includes discussion and analysis of linguistics, halachah and philosophy.

Read: Rendering an Epic Commentary into Modern Arabic

Ibn Tibbon Family

A page from an early draft of Maimonides's “Guide for the Perplexed.”

In earlier generations, books needed to be translated from Hebrew into other Semitic languages. Eventually, the pendulum swung the other way. Jews migrated to Europe and could not read Arabic, so Hebrew once again became the lingua franca of the Jewish world. This brings us to the Ibn Tibbon family.

The Ibn Tibbon family lived in southern France during the 12th and 13th centuries. Their translations of some of the most classic Jewish works into Hebrew from the original Arabic made these works accessible to the wider Jewish audience.

Judah ben Saul ibn Tibbon (1120–c. 1190) was the first in the illustrious line of translators. In addition to authoring his own works, he is best known for translating classic works such as Rabbi Saadiah Gaon's Emunot Vedeiot (“Beliefs and Opinions”), Rabbi Bahya Ibn Paquda's Chovot Halevovot (“Duties of the Heart”) and Rabbi Yehuda Halevi's Kuzari.

Shmuel ibn Tibbon (c. 1165–1232), like his father Judah, was a merchant, and translator. He is perhaps most famous for rendering Maimonides's Moreh Nevuchim (“Guide for the Perplexed”) into Hebrew. He also translated smaller works of Maimonides such as Shemoneh Perakim (“Eight Chapters), the commentary on AvotIggeret Techiyat Hameitim(“Letter on Resurrection”), and Iggeret Teiman (“Letter to Yemen”).

During the course of his work of translating “Guide for the Perplexed,” he consulted and corresponded with Maimonides regarding some difficult passages. Maimonides responded with praise and gave some guidelines for translating his work.

Moses ibn Tibbon (fl. 1244–1283), son of Shmuel, was a physician and followed the family tradition of both authoring original works as well as translating various works into Hebrew. He is perhaps most famous for his translation of Maimonides’s Sefer Hamitzvot(“Book of Commandments”) into Hebrew.

Rabbi Yaakov ben Yitzchak Ashkenazi

Tze'ena Ure'ena was printed and reprinted dozens of times. This edition was printed in Solanka (Salzbach) in 1798. (Image: YIVO Institute for Jewish Research)

Rabbi Yaakov ben Yitzchak Ashkenazi (1550–1625) lived in Janów, Poland. Although most Jewish works at the time were written in Hebrew, the common spoken language among Jews was Yiddish (see Why Do Jews Still Insist on Speaking Yiddish?). As such, Rabbi Yaakov Ashkenazi wrote a work calledTze’ena Ure’enah. In addition to translating the weekly Torah portions and haftarahs into Yiddish, it mixes biblical passages with translations of teachings from the Talmud, Midrash and commentaries on the verses. Until recently, this was common in Jewish homes and often served as the base for women’s study groups.

Rabbi Yosef Qafih (Kapach)

Maimonides' original commentary to Mishnah in the original Arabic, written in Hebrew characters.

Rabbi Qafih (1917–2000) was born in in Sana’a, Yemen. He eventually emigrated to Mandatory Palestine (Israel) in 1943. A leading scholar on Jewish law and thoroughly proficient in both Hebrew and Arabic, he found many of the earlier translations of classic Jewish works wanting. Additionally, he was in possession of what is said to be Maimonides’s own manuscripts. As such, he set about creating new translations of many of the classic Jewish works, including “Book of Beliefs and Opinions,” “Duties of the Heart,” Kuzari, “Guide for the Perplexed,” Sefer Hamitzvot and Maimonides’s commentary on the Mishnah. He translated some works from Arabic to Hebrew for the first time. Included with many of his translations is his own commentary culled from various commentators. His translations are considered by many to be the definitive translations of these works.

Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan

Living Torah provides a translation that is accessible to the beginner and enlightening to the accomplished scholar.

Rabbi Aryeh Moshe Eliyahu Kaplan (1934–1983) was born in the Bronx, New York, to a non-religious family of Sephardic descent (the family name was originally Carmona, after a city in southern Spain. His grandfather, upon arriving in the United States around the turn of the century, changed the name to the more Ashkenazic-sounding Kaplan). His mother died when he was only 13, and he attended synagogue to recite Kaddish for her. A chassidic teenager noticed that he was out of place, not wearing tefillin or even holding a siddur, and befriended him. Eventually, he went on to embrace Jewish observance and go to yeshivah as well as university, becoming proficient in both physics and Kabbalah. He authored over 50 works, including introductory pamphlets on Jewish beliefs and philosophy. He is equally famous for translating many works into English, including the kabbalistic works Sefer Yetzirah (“Book of Formation”) and Sefer Habahir (Book of the Bright), as well as the Five Books of Moses (entitled “Living Torah”).

He is also famous for his translation of the classic work by Rabbi Yaakov Culi (d. 1732) called Me'am Lo'ez, which was originally written in Ladino (Judeo-Spanish). The work is mostly written as a commentary on the Torah but includes Midrash, Talmud commentary, relevant halachah, as well as other areas of Jewish thought. Me'am Lo'ez had been previously translated into Hebrew, but Rabbi Kaplan taught himself Ladino in order to translate this monumental work straight from the original. This 45-volume work is known as the "Torah Anthology."

 
 
FOOTNOTES
1.

Megillah 3a.

2.

See Shem Hagedolim, Ma’arechet Seforim, Targum Yonatan.

3.

See Talmud, Megillah 3a, and Rashi ad loc.

A noted scholar and researcher, Rabbi Yehuda Shurpin serves as content editor at Chabad.org, and writes the popular weekly Ask Rabbi Y column. Rabbi Shurpin is the rabbi of the Chabad Shul in St. Louis Park, Minn., where he resides with his wife, Ester, and their children.
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Yahoo fait désormais partie d’Oath

Hong Kong (AFP) - Hong Kong social media lit up on Friday when protesters noticed Google's translation software was briefly churning out a rather odd suggestion during a week that has seen the worst political violence to hit the city in decades.

Eagle-eyed Google users discovered that when people entered the phrase "I am sad to see Hong Kong become part of China" the suggested translation in both Simplified and Traditional Chinese converted the word "sad" to "happy".

"Oh my god, I can't believe my eyes," one Facebook user commented under one of the many screen grabs of the false translation that went viral on Friday.

"The app intentionally mistranslates the English to 'so happy/content' instead of 'so sad'," added student Rachel Wong on Twitter. "I hope Google fixes this."

When AFP entered the sentence "I am sad to see Hong Kong become part of China" on Friday morning it did show the wrong translation, replacing sad with happy.

Searches involving some other combinations of countries or territories also reproduced the error.

An hour later, a correct translation was showing.

The company's hugely popular software tool uses complex algorithms and deep learning, as well as allowing users to make suggested translations to improve accuracy.

"Google Translate is an automatic translator, using patterns from millions of existing translations to help decide on the best translation for you," a spokesman for Google told AFP.

"These automatic systems can sometimes make unintentional mistakes like translating a negative to a positive."

The international finance hub has been rocked this week by political violence as protesters opposed to a proposed China extradition law clashed with police.

On Thursday, the popular encrypted messaging app telegram, which is being used by protesters to coordinate, announced it had suffered a major cyber-attack that originated from China.

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