SRI Global News: Nov. 2023 - Jan. 2024 **sririce.org -- System of Rice Intensification
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Agronomy | Special Issue : The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) Contributions to Agricultural Sustainability-II

Agronomy | Special Issue : The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) Contributions to Agricultural Sustainability-II | SRI Global News: Nov. 2023 - Jan. 2024 **sririce.org -- System of Rice Intensification | Scoop.it

This issue will present findings on ways in which SRI concepts are being utilized in diverse environments with modified practices, such as reducing labor requirements through mechanization and improving the production and profitability of crops other than rice. Various objectives are also being served, such as enhancing crops’ resilience to the stresses of climate change, reducing emissions of greenhouse gases, increasing the micronutrient content of the grain, and conserving crop biodiversity. The ten papers included in this issue will thus update our understanding and application of the original ideas that constitute SRI, welcoming critical and empirical evaluations of SRI.

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INDONESIA: Utilizing the Genetic Potentials of Traditional Rice Varieties and Conserving Rice Biodiversity with System of Rice Intensification Management

INDONESIA: Utilizing the Genetic Potentials of Traditional Rice Varieties and Conserving Rice Biodiversity with System of Rice Intensification Management | SRI Global News: Nov. 2023 - Jan. 2024 **sririce.org -- System of Rice Intensification | Scoop.it

 New and ‘improved’ rice varieties have contributed greatly to increased production over the past 50 years, but the rate of rice yield increase based on genetic changes has declined in recent decades compared with the early years of the Green Revolution. In fact, many rice consumers continue to prefer to consume ‘traditional’ rice varieties because of their taste, aroma, texture, and other qualities. Furthermore, many farmers prefer to cultivate these varieties because of their better adaptation to local climatic and soil conditions and their evolved resistance to endemic stresses.

 

The practices that comprise the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) provide traditional rice varieties with micro-environments that are more favorable for the expression of their genetic and agronomic potentials. Interactions among rice plants, soil characteristics, water, energy, and other inputs improve the phenotypic and physiological performance of rice plants. This paper considers how the cultivation of traditional rice varieties with SRI methods can raise yields, reduce farmers’ costs of production, and generate higher incomes while contributing to the conservation of rice biodiversity.

SRI-Rice's insight:

Yheni Dwiningsihi. 2023. Utilizing the genetic potentials of traditional rice varieties and conserving rice biodiversity with System of Rice Intensification management. Agronomy 13(12): 3015. doi:10.3390/agronomy13123015

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System of Rice Intensification: Empowering Farmers to Work with Nature to Achieve Productive, Resilient and Climate-Neutral Farming Systems in Rice-Based Landscapes

System of Rice Intensification: Empowering Farmers to Work with Nature to Achieve Productive, Resilient and Climate-Neutral Farming Systems in Rice-Based Landscapes | SRI Global News: Nov. 2023 - Jan. 2024 **sririce.org -- System of Rice Intensification | Scoop.it

The authors analyze the role of agroecological-based climate-smart rice farming systems with focus on system of rice intensification (SRI) in climate adaptation and mitigation. Modern agriculture contributes significantly to climate change through methane production, with paddy rice production being a major source. However, there is the potential to reduce the negative impact through SRI. At the same time, the SRI intervention can increase yield by encouraging aerobic soil conditions, improving soil health and stimulating root systems. The chapter provides a conceptual framework for optimizing the management of ecosystem goods and services reflected in the biodiversity contained in healthy rice paddy fields.

SRI-Rice's insight:

Abha Mishra, Jan Willem Ketelaar, and Max Whitten. 2022. System of rice intensification Empowering farmers to work with nature to achieve productive, resilient and climate-neutral farming systems in rice-based landscapes, pp. 87-105, in Climate Neutral and Resilient Farming Systems: Routledge

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 NIGERIA: Best-Bet System of Rice Intensification for Sustainable Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Production in Northwestern Nigeria

 This study undertook to identify a ‘best-bet’ version of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI)  for conditions in northwestern Nigeria, considering what is feasible for farmer use. Two years of experimental data from 260 farmer-managed rice plots evaluating four of the SRI practices in Zamfara State were analyzed. The variables evaluated were seedling age at transplanting, plant density, irrigation schedule, and fertilizer application. Farm budget analysis showed that the best-bet SRI practices most productive given the natural environment and farming system were transplanting 11-day-old seedlings at 25 cm × 25 cm spacing, with alternate wetting-and-drying of fields, as well as providing full compost plus some inorganic fertilization.

 

Net economic returns were found to be highest with best-bet SRI practices and ranged from USD 1450–2120 ha−1. While rice production was profitable under both SRI and more conventional management, the return on investment was at least 40% higher with SRI practices than with the other practices evaluated. Based on our data and analysis, we recommend that the Nigerian government and its development partners prioritize and expand the testing and promotion of SRI in the northwest and other regions of the country. This initiative can significantly enhance farmers’ incomes and, ultimately, bolster food security.

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INDONESIA:  Rice Plants’ Resistance to Sheath Blight Infection is Increased by the Synergistic Effects of Trichoderma Inoculation with SRI Management

INDONESIA:  Rice Plants’ Resistance to Sheath Blight Infection is Increased by the Synergistic Effects of Trichoderma Inoculation with SRI Management | SRI Global News: Nov. 2023 - Jan. 2024 **sririce.org -- System of Rice Intensification | Scoop.it
The capability of endophytic Trichoderma spp. to reduce sheath blight disease in rice caused by Rhizoctonia solani was assessed under the growth conditions established by practices of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI), compared to those of standard irrigated rice cultivation. Rice seeds inoculated with a local isolate of the fungus Trichoderma asperellum SL2 were grown under respective SRI and conventional conditions with the inoculated or uninoculated plants and then infected with the pathogen R. solani. It was seen that inoculation with this strain of Trichoderma protected rice plants against R. solani infection while enhancing plant growth, photosynthetic rate, and stomatal conductance. The biocontrol effectiveness of inoculation with a particular strain of Trichoderma was significantly greater under SRI management compared to conventional cultivation. This is the first report on how a crop management system, in this case, SRI, can influence the biocontrol effectiveness of Trichoderma spp.
SRI-Rice's insight:

Febri Doni, Anizan Isahak, F. Fathurrahman, and Wan Mohtar Wan Yusoff. 2023. Rice plants’ resistance to sheath blight infection is increased by the synergistic effects of Trichoderma inoculation with SRI management. Agronomy 13(3): 711 doi:.10.3390/agronomy13030711 

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INDIA: System of Rice Intensification Practices Produce Rice Plants Phenotypically and Physiologically Superior to Conventional Practice?

INDIA: System of Rice Intensification Practices Produce Rice Plants Phenotypically and Physiologically Superior to Conventional Practice? | SRI Global News: Nov. 2023 - Jan. 2024 **sririce.org -- System of Rice Intensification | Scoop.it

This paper considers the phenotypical changes and physiological improvements in SRI-grown rice plants could account for the reported enhancement in yield.  The published literature provides abundant evidence that the earlier evaluations of SRI were either not well-informed or not objective, and possibly, that they discouraged others from embarking on systematic evaluations of their own.

 

This article examines the results of 78 studies in the published literature where SRI results were explicitly compared with Recommended Practices (RPs) , including BMPs, or Farmer Practices (FPs). The results from 27 countries, plus several large-scale evaluations, show that in 80% of the evaluations, grain yield was higher under SRI than with RPs or FPs. SRI on average gave 24% higher grain yield than RPs and 56% more than FPs, while reducing seed, water, and fertilizer inputs.

SRI-Rice's insight:

Amod Thakur. 2023. Do System of Rice Intensification practices produce rice plants phenotypically and physiologically superior to conventional practice? Agronomy 13(4): 1098. doi:10.3390/agronomy13041098.

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INDIA: Cyanobacterial Inoculation Enhances Nutrient Use Efficiency and Grain Quality of Basmati Rice in the System of Rice Intensification

INDIA: Cyanobacterial Inoculation Enhances Nutrient Use Efficiency and Grain Quality of Basmati Rice in the System of Rice Intensification | SRI Global News: Nov. 2023 - Jan. 2024 **sririce.org -- System of Rice Intensification | Scoop.it

Field experiments were carried out to evaluate the influence of the system of rice intensification (SRI) and microbial inoculation, which revealed significant enhancement in the uptake of nitrogen and zinc in brown rice grain, husk, and straw. Increases of 30–60% in the soil dehydrogenase activity and the total polysaccharide content were recorded with an Anabaena-Mesorhizobium biofilm, while the N recovery efficiency was the highest (86%) with BF1–4 (cyanobacterial consortium) inoculant. Available N and zinc in soil were highly correlated with soil organic carbon and dehydrogenase activity, indicative of the significance of soil microbiological processes in nutrient availability.... Our investigation illustrates that microbial options can significantly contribute toward greater uptake of N and Zn, with superior efficiency-related and agronomic productivity indices.

SRI-Rice's insight:

Shivay, Yashbir Singh, et al. 2022. Cyanobacterial inoculation enhances nutrient use efficiency and grain quality of Basmati rice in the System of Rice Intensification. ACS Agricultural Science & Technology 2(4): 742-753. doi:10.1021/acsagscitech.2c00030

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INDIA: Development of a Solar Energy Operated Weeder for Wetland Paddy Crop

INDIA: Development of a Solar Energy Operated Weeder for Wetland Paddy Crop | SRI Global News: Nov. 2023 - Jan. 2024 **sririce.org -- System of Rice Intensification | Scoop.it

A solar energy operated two-row weeder was developed for weeding in wetland paddy crop. Its major components are power source, power transmission system, weeding wheels, and a float. The power source comprised a DC motor, solar panel, and power storage unit with maximum power point tracker and motor controller. Solar panel/power storage unit through a motor controller supplied power to the DC motor and it was transmitted to the shaft of the weeding wheel through a dog clutch. A float prevents sinkage of the weeder. The weeder could do weeding at a rate of 0.06 ha per hour with field efficiency, weeding efficiency, and plant damage of 83.3%, 83% and 2-3%, respectively. As compared to cono-weeder, the cost of weeding was 41.2 % lower due to higher field capacity and fewer labor requirements. Annual use less than 4.13 ha for the developed weeder was found uneconomical for carrying out weeding. The developed powering system comprising solar photovoltaic panels could supply power to do weeding continuously for 2 hours with a maximum discharge of 20 % from the battery.

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It's Not the Market, Stupid: On the Importance of Non-Market Economies in Sustainability Transitions

"It has been widely assumed that market mechanisms are central in incentivizing the development of sustainable innovations and that market formation is critical for the diffusion of innovations. We challenge the centrality of markets in understanding and promoting the development and diffusion of sustainable innovations using the case of the System of Rice Intensification. This innovation for sustainable rice cultivation was developed and diffused without relying on market mechanisms yet has been adopted by millions of farmers worldwide. To further our understanding of economic mechanisms beyond markets, we revisit Polanyi's distinction between markets, reciprocity, redistribution, and subsistence. This distinction helps to situate markets in a broader economic context and helps to understand how mechanisms for market exchange intersect with other types of economies in ways that can either positively or negatively affect sustainability."

SRI-Rice's insight:

Koen Beumer, Harro Maat, and Dominic Glover. 2022. It's not the market, stupid: On the importance of non-market economies in sustainability transitions. Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions 42: 429-441. doi:10.1016/j.eist.2022.02.001

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TELANGANA, INDIA: Potential of System of Rice Intensification (SRI) to Contribute to the Policy Objectives: Paradigm of Three-tier Approach in Southern Telangana

A System of Rice Intensification (SRI) impact assessment was undertaken in 20 project villages in the Narayanpet block. Analyses were carried out on water usage, input cost, plant growth, farmer group collectivization, gross and net returns of SRI, and conventional paddy cultivation. The result shows that significant water saving was achieved for SRI, i.e., 8586 m3∙ha−1 under tubewell irrigation over conventional. Less utilisation of water and distance maintained in SRI reduced biotic and abiotic stress caused by snails and nutrient deprivation, respectively. Yield for sampled SRI farmers showed a 22% increase, 13% less than conventional paddy farmers, which highly impacts the SRI farmers’ net income, i.e., 69% more than the conventional returns. The SRI method has a lower labour deployment of 8 people/ha than the conventional method, which requires 16 people/ha. Input cost saving in these two categories has ranked top and fetched maximum production efficiency among the others. The seed cost was significantly (87%) reduced for SRI as 8 kg per ha was required rather than the conventional that required 62 kg/ha.

SRI-Rice's insight:

K. Meesala and S. Rasala. 2022. Potential of System of Rice Intensification (SRI) to contribute to the policy objectives: Paradigm of three-tier approach in southern Telangana - A case study of Narayanpet. Agricultural Sciences 13(4): 542-554. doi: 10.4236/as.2022.134036.

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INDONESIA: A Model of Evapotranspirative Irrigation to Manage the Various Water Levels in the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) and Its Effect on Crop and Water Productivities

INDONESIA: A Model of Evapotranspirative Irrigation to Manage the Various Water Levels in the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) and Its Effect on Crop and Water Productivities | SRI Global News: Nov. 2023 - Jan. 2024 **sririce.org -- System of Rice Intensification | Scoop.it

Evapotranspirative irrigation is a simple idea in a watering field based on the actual evapotranspiration rate, by operating an automatic floating valve in the inlet without electric power to manage water levels. The current study introduces a model of evapotranspirative irrigation and its application under different water levels. The objectives were (1) to evaluate the performances of evapotranspirative irrigation under various irrigation regimes, and to (2) to observe crop and water productivities of the system of rice intensification (SRI) as affected by different types of irrigation. The experiment was performed during one rice planting season, starting from July to November 2020, with three irrigation regimes, i.e., continuous flooded (CFI), moderate flooded (MFI) and water-saving irrigation (WSI). Developing a better drainage system can improve the system. Among the regimes, the WSI regime was most effective in water use. It was able to increase water productivity by up to 14.5% while maintaining the crop yield. In addition, it has the highest water-use efficiency index. The index was 34% and 52% higher than those of the MFI and CFI regimes, respectively. Accordingly, the evapotranspirative irrigation was effective in controlling various water levels, and we recommend the system implemented at the field levels.

SRI-Rice's insight:

 Arif, Chusnul, et al. 2022. A model of evapotranspirative irrigation to manage the various water levels in the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) and its effect on crop and water productivities. Water 14(2): 170. doi:10.3390/w14020170

 

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INDIA: System of Rice Intensification in India

INDIA: System of Rice Intensification in India | SRI Global News: Nov. 2023 - Jan. 2024 **sririce.org -- System of Rice Intensification | Scoop.it

This summary document provides an overview of the state of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) in India. It also covers a literature review of impact studies conducted on SRI in India. It is related to a larger CEEW study-- Sustainable Agriculture in India 2021: What we know and how to scale up (a 92-page handbook on the 16 most promising sustainable agriculture practices in India). [The full study will be covered in the next SRI-Rice newsletter.]

SRI-Rice's insight:

The full study published by the Council on Energy and Water can be found here: Niti, Gupta, Shanal Pradhan, Abhishek Jain and Nayha Patel. 2021. Sustainable Agriculture in India 2021 – What we know and how to scale up. New Delhi: Council on Energy, Environment and Water.

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WEST AFRICA: Is the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) Pro Poor? Labour, Class and Technological Change in West Africa

WEST AFRICA: Is the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) Pro Poor? Labour, Class and Technological Change in West Africa | SRI Global News: Nov. 2023 - Jan. 2024 **sririce.org -- System of Rice Intensification | Scoop.it

SRI increases yield and profitability in West African rice farming, especially when locally adapted. Farmers adjust SRI to fit lowland rice farming, where water cannot be controlled and to address labour constraints. Additional labour for transplanting (instead of broadcasting) – coinciding with an existing labour bottleneck – constrains SRI adoption. SRI is mainly practised by marginal and accumulating farmers and to a lesser extent by medium farmers. Accumulating farmers invest in agriculture, farm profit-oriented and overcome labour constraints by hiring. Thus, they can practise SRI on larger scale and their absolute benefits are higher. Nevertheless, they rely on hired labour to do so, which strengthens workers' bargaining position. Consequently, SRI benefits all: accumulating farmers who employ as well as marginal farmers and hired labourers. Contrary to findings from Asia, SRI seems to be relatively pro-poor in West Africa.

SRI-Rice's insight:

Sarah Lena Graf and Carlos Oya. 2021. Is the system of rice intensification (SRI) pro poor? Labour, class and technological change in West Africa. Agricultural Systems 193: 103229. doi:10.1016/j.agsy.2021.103229

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Introducing the New SRI Global Research Network

Introducing the New SRI Global Research Network | SRI Global News: Nov. 2023 - Jan. 2024 **sririce.org -- System of Rice Intensification | Scoop.it

Join the NEW System of Rice Intensification (SRI) Global Research Network, which is jointly hosted by the Indonesian SRI Research and Innovation Network (IndoSRInet) and the SRI-Rice Center at Cornell University. By becoming a part of this network, you will gain access to a wealth of cutting-edge SRI research, facilitated through our comprehensive upgraded Zotero library offering research abstracts, metadata, and full-text content of refereed and high quality material.Don't miss our first SRI Research Newsletter, which will come out April 2024! [See contacts on the website to subscribe.]

 

In addition, we provide comprehensive updates on the latest research news in the field of SRI, ensuring you stay informed about current trends and breakthroughs. We also share news on funding and educational opportunities. Finally, upon joining the SRI Global Research Network, you will have the opportunity to actively participate in discussions with fellow members, fostering the exchange of insights and knowledge within our community.

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KENYA: A Cost Benefit Analysis of the Adoption of System of Rice Intensification: Evidence in Oluch Irrigation Scheme, Kenya

KENYA: A Cost Benefit Analysis of the Adoption of System of Rice Intensification: Evidence in Oluch Irrigation Scheme, Kenya | SRI Global News: Nov. 2023 - Jan. 2024 **sririce.org -- System of Rice Intensification | Scoop.it

... Over a period of four years (2016–2019), we quantify the benefits accrued to the uptake of SRI among smallholder farmers in Oluch irrigation scheme western Kenya. Our comparisons are in reference to a baseline study conducted prior to the full-scale promotion of SRI in the study area. Our study findings reveal that the uptake of specific SRI practices increased by at least 30–80%, and acreage under rice farming increased by 50%. Although SRI required more production costs per acre (as much as 63% increase), SRI had at least 28.6% higher return per shilling invested. Our findings underscore previous results in the literature that SRI is associated with not only productivity but also economic benefits justifying the need for scaling especially among smallholder farmers.

SRI-Rice's insight:

M.A. Ouma,. L.. Ouma, J.M. Ombati, and C.A. Onyango. 2024. A cost benefits analysis of the adoption of system of rice intensification: Evidence from smallholder rice farmers within an innovation platform in Oluch irrigation scheme, Kenya. PLoS ONE 19(1): e0290759. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0290759

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INDIA: Comparison of System of Rice Intensification Applications and Alternatives in India: Agronomic, Economic, Environmental, Energy, and Other Effects

INDIA: Comparison of System of Rice Intensification Applications and Alternatives in India: Agronomic, Economic, Environmental, Energy, and Other Effects | SRI Global News: Nov. 2023 - Jan. 2024 **sririce.org -- System of Rice Intensification | Scoop.it

Initial evaluations of the System of Rice Intensification focused mainly on its impacts on yield and income. Researchers at the ICAR-Indian Institute of Rice Research have conducted a more comprehensive evaluation of SRI methods over six years, comparing them with three alternatives: modified, partially mechanized SRI (MSRI); direct-seeded rice (DSR); and conventional rice with flooding of fields (CTF). Grain yield with SRI methods was found to be about 50% higher than with CTF (6.35 t ha−1 vs. 4.27 t ha−1), while the MSRI yield was essentially the same (6.34 t ha−1), 16% more than with DSR (5.45 t ha−1).

Water productivity with SRI methods was 5.32–6.85 kg ha-mm−1, followed by 4.14–5.72 kg ha-mm−1 for MSRI, 5.06–5.11 kg ha-mm−1 for DSR, and 3.52–4.56 kg ha-mm−1 for CTF. In comparison with CTF, SRI methods significantly enhanced soil microbial populations over time. Biological activity in the rhizosphere was also higher. Similarly, an indicator of soil organic matter, glucosidase activity, was 78% higher compared to CTF. SRI management reduced GHG emissions by 21%, while DSR reduced them by 23%, and MSRI by 13%, compared to CTF. Economic analysis showed both gross and net economic returns to be higher with SRI. While the study documented advantages of SRI, it also showed that MSRI is a promising adaptation that provides similar benefits but with lower labor requirements.

SRI-Rice's insight:

R.M. Kumar, P. Chintalapati. et al. 2023. Comparison of System of Rice Intensification applications and alternatives in India: Agronomic, economic, environmental, energy, and their effects. Agronomy 13(10): 2492. doi:10.3390/agronomy13102492

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SRI 2.0 and Beyond: Sequencing the Protean Evolution of the System of Rice Intensification

SRI 2.0 and Beyond: Sequencing the Protean Evolution of the System of Rice Intensification | SRI Global News: Nov. 2023 - Jan. 2024 **sririce.org -- System of Rice Intensification | Scoop.it

As the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) has evolved in many ways and in several directions over the past two decades, this review follows the evolution of SRI over time. This overview explains how rainfed SRI, direct-seeded SRI, mechanized SRI, and other modifications have emerged since 2000, and how versions of SRI have been adapted to improve the production of other crops such as wheat, finger millet, maize, and sugar cane.

 

SRI thinking and practices are also being incorporated into diversified farming systems, broadening the impact of SRI beyond monoculture to achieve broader objectives like the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and the conservation of biodiversity. SRI observations and research have been contributing to the crop and soil sciences by focusing attention on plant roots and soil ecology and by showing how crop management can elicit more desirable phenotypes from a given genotype.

SRI-Rice's insight:

Norman Uphoff. 2023. SRI 2.0 and beyond: Sequencing the protean evolution of the System of Rice Intensification. Agronomy 13(5): 1253. doi:10.3390/agronomy13051253

Orientation Professionnelle's curator insight, December 27, 2023 3:39 PM

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IRAQ: Water Savings, Yield, and Economic Benefits of Using SRI Methods with Deficit Irrigation in Water-Scarce Southern Iraq

IRAQ: Water Savings, Yield, and Economic Benefits of Using SRI Methods with Deficit Irrigation in Water-Scarce Southern Iraq | SRI Global News: Nov. 2023 - Jan. 2024 **sririce.org -- System of Rice Intensification | Scoop.it

This study evaluated what intervals of irrigation in conjunction with the use of SRI methods could achieve the greatest economic, as well as agronomic returns when growing irrigated rice under the water-deficit conditions of southern Iraq. A field study at the Al-Mishkhab Rice Research Station in southern Iraq recorded input and output data for three different irrigation regimes: continuous submergence of the rice crop; irrigation at 3-day intervals; and irrigation at 7-day intervals. Benefit–cost analysis showed 3-day intervals with SRI methods, giving the highest net returns and highest internal rate of return, indicating that the continuous irrigation of rice fields is a waste of water, with neither agronomic nor economic benefit. In Iraq, there are large opportunity costs for any unnecessary use of irrigation water. The highest water productivity was achieved with 7-day intervals of irrigation together with SRI methods, but this entails some sacrifice of the yield ha−1, as 13% less grain is produced than with continuous submergence of the crop. With 7-day intervals compared to 3-day intervals, water-saving was 44%, but compared to continuous submergence of the crop, the water-saving was 72%. This large amount of water could, if redeployed, enable many more farmers to cultivate larger areas of the land, increasing total rice production for Iraq.

SRI-Rice's insight:

See also the related video on SRI in Iraq by Khidhir Hameed--
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KOM4KYWKM5Y

Orientation Professionnelle's curator insight, December 27, 2023 3:41 PM

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TANZANIA: Assessment of Variation in Marginal Productivity Value of Water in Paddy Farming Systems in Times of Water Stress

TANZANIA: Assessment of Variation in Marginal Productivity Value of Water in Paddy Farming Systems in Times of Water Stress | SRI Global News: Nov. 2023 - Jan. 2024 **sririce.org -- System of Rice Intensification | Scoop.it

The study assesses agricultural water productivity (AWP) values for paddy farming in terms of both physical (Kg/m3) and economic (US$/m3) in the conventional transplant and flooding system (CTFS), the system of rice intensification (SRI), and the Kilombero Plantation Limited (KPL) mechanized system. Findings showed that rainfed systems have good (AWP), leading the authors to recommend a rollout of rainfed SRI to secure local food security and downstream ecosystem services, although the authors believe that adoption of SRI will require intensive demonstration that needs public financing.

 

The results showed that SRI systems have better AWP due to high yields and low water uses. In addition, it was found that irrigation does not have a substantial leap in harvests in the wetland areas being studied. Hence, rainfed systems score better values, especially SRI, providing a plural benefit that includes downstream ecosystem integrity. Furthermore, due to early planting in rainfed SRI, farmers secure competitive market prices in early harvests hence better economic water productivity (EWP). The authors suggest that farmers should be trained and encouraged to practice SRI (especially rainfed), which secures better AWP and serves more for downstream uses, reducing water use conflicts and sustaining the ecosystem.

SRI-Rice's insight:

Sigalla, O.Z., R.M.J. Kadigi, and J.R. Selemani, 2022. Assessment of variation in marginal productivity value of water in paddy farming systems in times of water stress. Water 14: 3459. doi:10.3390/w14213459

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TANZANIA: Influence of Water Management Farming Practices on Soil Organic Carbon and Nutrients: A Case Study of Rice Farming in Kilombero Valley, Tanzania

TANZANIA: Influence of Water Management Farming Practices on Soil Organic Carbon and Nutrients: A Case Study of Rice Farming in Kilombero Valley, Tanzania | SRI Global News: Nov. 2023 - Jan. 2024 **sririce.org -- System of Rice Intensification | Scoop.it

Water scarcity and nutrient availability for rice farming have become great matters of concern in the contexts of climate change and land use change globally. The objective of this study was to understand the on-farm potential response of soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorous (TP) to water management practices in rice farming within the Kilombero Valley, Tanzania. Soil samples were collected from three villages at four depths. Four water management regimes: A = traditional flooding (rainfed) without intensification of rice farming; B = traditional flooding (rainfed) involving a system of rice intensification (SRI); C = alternative wetting and drying (AWD) involving SRI for one cropping season; D = abandoned fields (fallow); and E = AWD involving SRI for two cropping seasons, were investigated as regards their impact on SOC, TN, and TP. There were significant (p < 0.05) effects of water management regimes on SOC, TN, and TP. AWD involving SRI for one cropping season indicated a positive effect on SOC and TN across all depths as compared to other practices. We conclude that water management practice that involves AWD with SRI for one cropping season is a plausible approach to maintaining high SOC and TN, with the potential for increasing crop production while minimizing water consumption.

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INDONESIA: Contrasting Rice Management Systems – Site-Specific Effects on Soil Parameters

INDONESIA: Contrasting Rice Management Systems – Site-Specific Effects on Soil Parameters | SRI Global News: Nov. 2023 - Jan. 2024 **sririce.org -- System of Rice Intensification | Scoop.it

Conventional rice production systems (CRPS) with continuous flooding demand much water. The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is an alternative management strategy to sustainably maintain rice yields while optimizing water use. We investigated whether different management translates into differences in soil parameters. Two rice production systems were compared on the same soil types, at four different study sites of D.I. Yogyakarta Province.

 

Crop yields were estimated, and soils were analysed for soil total soil organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), macro-aggregate stability, and a fungal biomarker (ergosterol) indicative of oxidative soil conditions. Rice yields in the study area were  6.7 - 9 t ha-1. For TOC, the combined effect of management and site was significant;  in Kulonprogo and Bantul, SRI significantly exceeded CRPS’ TOC values. However, a significant management effect was observed for ergosterol and DOC concentrations. Significantly higher ergosterol concentrations in SRI vs CRPS were found in Sleman and Bantul. DOC was significantly higher under SRI compared to CRPS only in Sleman. DOC and ergosterol were most responsive to management and were improved in SRI systems. The observed site-specific effects suggest the importance to consider site conditions for adapting management strategies

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NEPAL: System of Rice Intensification in Nepal: Determinant Factors for Adoption, and Relevance to Climate Change

...Nepal faces major challenges in rice production, such as low productivity, low soil fertility, land degradation, and climate-change impacts. The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) offers a sustainable solution to many of  these challenges. Trials with SRI in Nepal began in 1999. However, since the majority of Nepalese farmers are accustomed to conventional rice farming methods, the adoption of SRI has been slow. The objectives of this thesis was to a) assess the adoption behavior of farmers and b) compare (with conventional system)  potential environmental benefits of SRI in the context of climate change. The major determinant factors that influenced the adoption of SRI by the farmers were labor demands, mechanization options, research, extension, and irrigation facilities. Outreach, extension practices and policies will be necessary to accelerate the implementation and adoption of SRI, which will also assist in preserving the natural environment. SRI can best be promoted by investments in research and extension, initiatives that promote mechanization and irrigation services.

SRI-Rice's insight:

Surabhi Khanal. 2021. System of rice intensification in Nepal: determinant factors for adoption, and relevance to climate change. Master's thesis, Norwegian University of Life Sciences. 59p.

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TAMIL NADU, INDIA: Innovative Farm Practices and Water Use Efficiency: A Study of the System of Rice Intensification Under Different Settings in South India

TAMIL NADU, INDIA: Innovative Farm Practices and Water Use Efficiency: A Study of the System of Rice Intensification Under Different Settings in South India | SRI Global News: Nov. 2023 - Jan. 2024 **sririce.org -- System of Rice Intensification | Scoop.it

Paddy, which is predominantly cultivated under the conventional inundation method, is the largest water consuming crop in India. Given the looming water scarcity, the inundation method of paddy cultivation is no longer sustainable. The impacts of SRI on water saving, land and water productivity as well as on profitability are expected to vary in different ecological settings namely tank, canal and groundwater irrigated areas. In this chapter, utilising data collected from a total of 300 sample farmers from three different settings in Tamil Nadu state, an attempt has been made to fill this gap. The study shows that by adopting SRI method, farmers can save about 40% of irrigation water, increase land productivity by about 46% while reducing 23% in cost of cultivation over the conventional inundation method. While increasing irrigation water productivity and economic water productivity substantially, SRI also generates an additional profit of INR 17,169/acre over the same realised by non-SRI farmers.

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WEST BENGAL, INDIA: Crop Establishment Methods and Integrated Nutrient Management Improve: Part I. Crop Performance, Water Productivity and Profitability of Rice ...

WEST BENGAL, INDIA: Crop Establishment Methods and Integrated Nutrient Management Improve: Part I. Crop Performance, Water Productivity and Profitability of Rice ... | SRI Global News: Nov. 2023 - Jan. 2024 **sririce.org -- System of Rice Intensification | Scoop.it

A field trial was conducted [in] Polba, West Bengal, India, under aerobic culture, SRI, and conventional flooded culture. It was conducted to evaluate the influence of integrated plant nutrition and water-saving rice production methodologies on the crop performance and water productivity of rice and analyse the economic profitability of rice under different nutritional management and crop production methods... The results revealed that crop productivity significantly (p ≤ 0.05) varied from 4.68 t ha−1 (average yield recorded under aerobic culture) to 6.21 t ha−1 (average yield as achieved under SRI). Cultivation of rice under aerobic and conventional culture resulted in 24.6% and 20.9% yield reduction respectively as compared to SRI. Integrating 75% of the recommended dose of nitrogen (RDN) through chemicals with 25% RDN from vermicompost resulted in maximum crop productivity irrespective of crop culture... The study concludes that, for maximization of economic profitability, value cost ratio and partial factor productivity of nutrients the SRI method can be adopted along with integrated nutrient management (75% of RDN through chemicals with 25% RDN from vermicompost) in the lower Indo-Gangetic Plain Zone (IGPZ) of West Bengal, India.

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BANGLADESH: Reaping the Benefits: Training in Rice Growing System Ups Yields and Well-Being

Researchers conducted randomized trials of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) agronomy method. Following SRI training of 5,486 Bangladeshi rice farmers, they compared trained and untrained farmers. The results showed compelling benefits for SRI's efficacy in increasing yield and profits, how it improves farming households' well-being, and its positive spillover effects in communities. This bolsters support for SRI's value, especially in the Global South.
SRI-Rice's insight:

Read the article referred to here: Barrett, Christopher B., et al. 2021. Experimental evidence on adoption and impact of the System of Rice Intensification. American Journal of Agricultural Economics. doi:10.1111/ajae.12245 [if you don't have access, contact the SRI Research Network (joining is free at https://tinyurl.com/sri-research-network ).

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