GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture
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GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture
Site with information in English and French, used for teaching and educational purposes. Information about sustainable development, mainly related to agriculture, as well as assessment of [CO2] and climate change impact on plants;  or methods to decrease the use or the amount of  pesticides will be included on this site. Because biotechnologies are a part of the answer to these agricultural challenges, information about GMOs will be largely reported here.
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Scooped by Christophe Jacquet
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Peut-on créer un potager sur Mars ?

Peut-on créer un potager sur Mars ? | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
Des chercheurs néerlandais, qui rêvent de coloniser la planète Mars, ont reconstitué le sol de la planète rouge pour y planter des fleurs et légumes.
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Stacking resistance to crown gall and nematodes in walnut rootstocks - BMC Genomics

Stacking resistance to crown gall and nematodes in walnut rootstocks - BMC Genomics | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
Background

Crown gall (CG) (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) and the root lesion nematodes (RLNs) (Pratylenchus vulnus) are major challenges faced by the California walnut industry, reducing productivity and increasing the cost of establishing and maintaining orchards. Current nematode control strategies include nematicides, crop rotation, and tolerant cultivars, but these methods have limits. Developing genetic resistance through novel approaches like RNA interference (RNAi) can address these problems. RNAi-mediated silencing of CG disease in walnut (Juglans regia L.) has been achieved previously. We sought to place both CG and nematode resistance into a single walnut rootstock genotype using co-transformation to stack the resistance genes. A. tumefaciens, carrying self-complimentary iaaM and ipt transgenes, and Agrobacterium rhizogenes, carrying a self-complimentary Pv010 gene from P. vulnus, were used as co-transformation vectors. RolABC genes were introduced by the resident T-DNA in the A. rhizogenes Ri-plasmid used as a vector for plant transformation. Pv010 and Pv194 (transgenic control) genes were also transferred separately using A. tumefaciens. To test for resistance, transformed walnut roots were challenged with P. vulnus and microshoots were challenged with a virulent strain of A. tumefaciens.

Results

Combining the two bacterial strains at a 1:1 rather than 1:3 ratio increased the co-transformation efficiency. Although complete immunity to nematode infection was not observed, transgenic lines yielded up to 79% fewer nematodes per root following in vitro co-culture than untransformed controls. Transgenic line 33-3-1 exhibited complete crown gall control and 32% fewer nematodes. The transgenic plants had thicker, longer roots than untransformed controls possibly due to insertion of rolABC genes. When the Pv010 gene was present in roots with or without rolABC genes there was partial or complete control of RLNs. Transformation using only one vector showed 100% control in some lines.

Conclusions

CG and nematode resistance gene stacking controlled CG and RLNs simultaneously in walnuts. Silencing genes encoding iaaM, ipt, and Pv010 decrease CG formation and RLNs populations in walnut. Beneficial plant genotype and phenotype changes are caused by co-transformation using A. tumefaciens and A. rhizogenes strains. Viable resistance against root lesion nematodes in walnut plants may be accomplished in the future using this gene stacking technology.

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‘Symphony of the Soil’ film examines the fascinating world below your feet

‘Symphony of the Soil’ film examines the fascinating world below your feet | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it

A new movie looks at the lively life of healthy soil, and humans wouldn’t know it from a hole in the ground.

 

“It’s like Times Square on New Year’s Eve all the time,” Elaine Ingham says in the recent film “Symphony of the Soil” by Deborah Koons Garcia. Ingham, a well-known soil microbiologist, is excited about the teeming masses of creatures in the soil — bacteria, fungi and others — that make all life on Earth possible. And Koons Garcia manages to devote 101 minutes to the living soil without letting any of that excitement flag.


Via Jean-Michel Ané
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Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi reduce growth and infect roots of the non-host plant Arabidopsis thaliana - VEIGA - 2013 - Plant, Cell & Environment -

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi reduce growth and infect roots of the non-host plant Arabidopsis thaliana - VEIGA - 2013 - Plant, Cell & Environment - | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it

The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is widespread throughout the plant kingdom and important for plant nutrition and ecosystem functioning. Nonetheless, most terrestrial ecosystems also contain a considerable number of non-mycorrhizal plants. The interaction of such non-host plants with AM fungi (AMF) is still poorly understood. Here, in three complementary experiments, we investigated whether the non-mycorrhizal plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the model organism for plant molecular biology and genetics, interacts with AMF. We grew A. thaliana alone or together with a mycorrhizal host species (either Trifolium pratense or Lolium multiflorum) in the presence or absence of the AMF Rhizophagus irregularis. Plants were grown in a dual-compartment system with a hyphal mesh separating roots of A. thaliana from roots of the host species, avoiding direct root competition. The host plants in the system ensured the presence of an active AM fungal network. AM fungal networks caused growth depressions in A. thaliana of more than 50% which were not observed in the absence of host plants. Microscopy analyses revealed that R. irregularis supported by a host plant was capable of infecting A. thaliana root tissues (up to 43% of root length colonized), but no arbuscules were observed. The results reveal high susceptibility of A. thaliana to R. irregularis, suggesting that A. thaliana is a suitable model plant to study non-host/AMF interactions and the biological basis of AM incompatibility.

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Les stimulateurs de défenses naturelles à l'épreuve du terrain - Agro Perspectives

Les stimulateurs de défenses naturelles à l'épreuve du terrain - Agro Perspectives | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it

Les Stimulateurs de Défenses Naturelles (SDN) sont des substances naturelles ou non, capables d’induire, chez les plantes traitées, un état de résistance aux bio-agresseurs. Ces produits sont utilisés en préventif pour réduire les applications de produits phytopharmaceutiques contre les insectes et les maladies fongiques.


Via Agriculture Nouvelle
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Harzianolide, a novel plant growth regulator and systemic resistance elicitor from Trichoderma harzianum

Harzianolide, a novel plant growth regulator and systemic resistance elicitor from Trichoderma harzianum | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
Publication date: December 2013 Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 73 Author(s): Feng Cai , Guanghui Yu , Ping Wang , Zhong Wei , Lin Fu , Qirong Shen , Wei Chen A detailed understanding of the effect of natural products...
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Age versus stage: does ontogeny modify the effect of phosphorus and arbuscular mycorrhizas on above- and below-ground defence in forage sorghum?

Age versus stage: does ontogeny modify the effect of phosphorus and arbuscular mycorrhizas on above- and below-ground defence in forage sorghum? | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
Abstract
Arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM) can increase plant acquisition of P and N. No published studies have investigated the impact of P and AM on the allocation of N to the plant defence, cyanogenic glucosides.
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Direct and Indirect Plant Defenses are not Suppressed by Endosymbionts of a Specialist Root Herbivore - Springer

Direct and Indirect Plant Defenses are not Suppressed by Endosymbionts of a Specialist Root Herbivore - Springer | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it

Insect endosymbionts influence many important metabolic and developmental processes of their host. It has been speculated that they may also help to manipulate and suppress plant defenses to the benefit of herbivores. Recently, endosymbionts of the root herbivore Diabrotica virgifera virgifera have been reported to suppress the induction of defensive transcripts in maize roots, which may explain the finding of another study that once attacked plants become more susceptible to subsequent D. v. virgifera attack. To test this hypothesis, we cured D. v. virgifera from its major endosymbiont Wolbachia and tested whether endosymbiont-free individuals elicit different defense responses in maize roots. The presence of Wolbachia did not alter the induction of defense marker genes and resistance in a susceptible maize hybrid and a resistant line. Furthermore, attacked maize plants emitted the same amount of (E)-β-caryophyllene, a volatile signal that serves as foraging cue for both entomopathogenic nematodes and D. v. virgifera. Finally, the effectiveness of the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora to infest D. v. virgifera was not changed by curing the larvae from their endosymbionts. These results show that the defense mechanisms of maize are not affected by Wolbachia. Consequently, D. v. virgifera does not seem to derive any plant-defense mediated benefits from its major endosymbiont.Keywords Diabrotica virgifera Zea mays Wolbachia Plant defense Suppression Entomopathogenic nematodes

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The Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Community Response to Warming and Grazing Differs between Soil and Roots on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

The Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Community Response to Warming and Grazing Differs between Soil and Roots on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
by Wei Yang, Yong Zheng, Cheng Gao, Xinhua He, Qiong Ding, Yongchan Kim, Yichao Rui, Shiping Wang, Liang-Dong Guo

Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi form symbiotic associations with most plant species in terrestrial ecosystems, and are affected by environmental variations. To reveal the impact of disturbance on an AM fungal community under future global warming, we examined the abundance and community composition of AM fungi in both soil and mixed roots in an alpine meadow on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China. Warming and grazing had no significant effect on AM root colonization, spore density and extraradical hyphal density. A total of 65 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of AM fungi were identified from soil and roots using molecular techniques. AM fungal OTU richness was higher in soil (54 OTUs) than in roots (34 OTUs), and some AM fungi that differed between soil and roots, showed significantly biased occurrence to warming or grazing. Warming and grazing did not significantly affect AM fungal OTU richness in soil, but warming with grazing significantly increased AM fungal OTU richness in roots compared to the grazing-only treatment. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis showed that the AM fungal community composition was significantly different between soil and roots, and was significantly affected by grazing in roots, whereas in soil it was significantly affected by warming and plant species richness. The results suggest that the AM fungal community responds differently to warming and grazing in soil compared with roots. This study provides insights into the role of AM fungi under global environmental change scenarios in alpine meadows of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

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Nature: Microbiome: Soil science comes to life (2013)

Nature: Microbiome: Soil science comes to life (2013) | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it

Farmers have long tried to improve the chemical and physical condition of their soils, seeking to make more nutrients available to their plants, to retain more moisture in the soil, and to ease the growth of plant roots. But they have typically ignored the role of the teeming diversity of fungi and bacteria in the soil.

 

Now, however, soil biologists are beginning to understand the significance of the interactions at work in the microbiome surrounding plants' root systems. Recent research has shown, for example, that major food crops can be made dramatically more stress tolerant by transplanting into them various microbiota, such as fungi or bacteria, that colonize other species. There is a clear parallel with medical science, where the myriad microorganisms on our skin and in our gut are now recognized as crucial mediators of a whole range of bodily responses — an understanding that has profoundly changed the way we think about human health.

 

In agriculture, the drive to eliminate pathogens has encouraged a bazooka approach to the soil microbiome with the widespread use of biocides and fungicides. But the role of the microbiome is too varied and complex for this to be sustainable. “We are standing on a treasure of beneficial microbes, each of them contributing a little bit to plant yield,” says Alexandre Jousset, a microbiologist at the University of Göttingen, Germany. “Understanding how these diverse communities help plants to resist adverse situations will open new doors to developing sustainable practices, calling up microbial services that are sleeping in virtually any soil.”


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
Geoponics Corp's curator insight, September 25, 2013 8:48 PM

Yes-- diversity in the soil is key! 

Peter Buckland's curator insight, September 27, 2013 8:02 AM

Excellent article on the importance of bacteria and fungi to a 'healthy' soil.

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The rhizosphere microbiome: significance of plant beneficial, plant pathogenic, and human pathogenic microorganisms

The rhizosphere microbiome: significance of plant beneficial, plant pathogenic, and human pathogenic microorganisms | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it

Microbial communities play a pivotal role in the functioning of plants by influencing their physiology and development. While many members of the rhizosphere microbiome are beneficial to plant growth, also plant pathogenic microorganisms colonize the rhizosphere striving to break through the protective microbial shield and to overcome the innate plant defense mechanisms in order to cause disease. A third group of microorganisms that can be found in the rhizosphere are the true and opportunistic human pathogenic bacteria, which can be carried on or in plant tissue and may cause disease when introduced into debilitated humans. Although the importance of the rhizosphere microbiome for plant growth has been widely recognized, for the vast majority of rhizosphere microorganisms no knowledge exists. To enhance plant growth and health, it is essential to know which microorganism is present in the rhizosphere microbiome and what they are doing. Here, we review the main functions of rhizosphere microorganisms and how they impact on health and disease. We discuss the mechanisms involved in the multitrophic interactions and chemical dialogues that occur in the rhizosphere. Finally, we highlight several strategies to redirect or reshape the rhizosphere microbiome in favor of microorganisms that are beneficial to plant growth and health.


Via Francis Martin
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Algues vertes : « Le problème sera réglé dans dix ans » (Stéphane Le Foll)- La France Agricole

Algues vertes : « Le problème sera réglé dans dix ans » (Stéphane Le Foll)- La France Agricole | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it

« Dans dix ans, on aura réglé le problème des algues vertes en Bretagne. » Stéphane Le Foll est formel, il a répété cette affirmation autant de fois que nécessaire aux journalistes agglutinés autour de lui, au sortir de la table-ronde sur l'eau à laquelle il participait ce week-end, dans le cadre de laConférence environnementale

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Sustainable agriculture: possible trajectories from mutualistic symbiosis and plant neodomestication

Sustainable agriculture: possible trajectories from mutualistic symbiosis and plant neodomestication | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it

Food demand will increase concomitantly with human population. Food production therefore needs to be high enough and, at the same time, minimize damage to the environment. This equation cannot be solved with current strategies. Based on recent findings, new trajectories for agriculture and plant breeding which take into account the belowground compartment and evolution of mutualistic strategy, are proposed in this opinion article. In this context, we argue that plant breeders have the opportunity to make use of native arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis in an innovative ecologically intensive agriculture.

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Strategies and future trends to identify the mode of action of phytotoxic compounds

Strategies and future trends to identify the mode of action of phytotoxic compounds | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it

Abstract

Small molecules affecting plant processes have been widely used as probes to study basic physiology. In agricultural practices some of these molecules have served as herbicides or plant growth regulators. Historically, most of the compounds were identified in large screens by the agrochemical industry, but also as phytoactive natural products. More recently, novel phytoactive compounds originated from academic research by chemical screens performed to induce specific phenotypes of interest. In the present review different approaches were evaluated for the identification of the mode of action (MoA) of phytoactive compounds. Based on the methodologies used for MoA identification, three approaches are differentiated: a phenotyping approach, an approach based on a genetic screen and a biochemical screening approach.

Target sites of compounds targeting primary or secondary metabolism were identified most successfully with a phenotyping approach. Target sites for compounds that influence cell structure, such as cell wall biosynthesis or the cytoskeleton, or compounds that interact with the hormone system, were in most cases discovered by using a genetic approach. Examples showing the strengths and weaknesses of the different approaches are discussed in detail. Additionally, new techniques that could contribute to future MoA identification projects are reviewed. In particular, next-generation sequencing techniques may be used for the fast-forward mapping of mutants identified in genetic screens.

Finally, a revised three-tiered approach for the MoA identification of phytoactive compounds is proposed. The approach consists of a 1st tier, which addresses compound stability, uniformity of effects in different species, general cytotoxicity and the effect on common processes such as transcription and translation. Advanced studies based on these findings initiate the 2nd tier MoA characterization, either with further phenotypic characterization, starting a genetic screen or establishing a biochemical screen. At the 3rd tier, enzyme assays or protein affinity studies should show the activity of the compound on the hypothesized target and should associate the in vitro effects with the in vivo profile of the compound.

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Semences : haro sur les brevets

Semences : haro sur les brevets | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
Alors que l'UE prévoit de réviser l'encadrement des semences, le CGSP avance des pistes pour maintenir la diversité culturale et éviter la concentration du secteur à une poignée de multinationales. Les brevets sont pointés du doigt.

Via Agriculture Nouvelle
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Interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants: do non-mycorrhizal species at both extremes of nutrient availability play the same game? - LAMBERS - 2013 - Plant, Cell & Env...

Interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants: do non-mycorrhizal species at both extremes of nutrient availability play the same game? - LAMBERS - 2013 - Plant, Cell & Env... | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it

The vast majority of vascular plants are capable of forming an arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, and only 18% cannot (Brundrett 2009). It is widely accepted that all ancestors of vascular plant species were arbuscular mycorrhizal (Pirozynski & Malloch 1975; Wang et al. 2010). Non-mycorrhizal species presumably lost or suppressed their ability to establish an arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis because its benefits did not outweigh its costs, but the mechanism explaining a high cost to benefit relationship may have been very different in distant plant lineages, as explored below.

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Suppression of the clubroot pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae by plant growth promoting formulations in roots of two Brassica species

Suppression of the clubroot pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae by plant growth promoting formulations in roots of two Brassica species | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it

In this study, the ability of two organic plant growth stimulants, mainly based on algal extracts, amino acids and phosphonate, to reduce clubroot formation in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and two economically important Brassica species, Brassia rapa (Chinese cabbage) and Brassica napus (oilseed rape) was investigated. A commercial liquid (Frutogard®) and a granulate (PlasmaSoil®) formulation was used to find optimum conditions for both control of the pathogen and plant growth. Both formulations were able to reduce gall formation after Plasmodiophora brassicae infection on Chinese cabbage significantly, but PlasmaSoil® gave better effects possibly due to continuous supply of the components to the soil. Individual components did not have the same effect. Clubroots on oilseed rape could also be reduced. In contrast, club formation was not reduced in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. This points to interesting differences in the induction of resistance in the different species. Cross-sections of infected and treated roots stained for different macromolecules (callose, lignin, suberin) indicated differences in anatomy due to the two formulations. Our results indicate an application for the granulate formulation PlasmaSoil® in clubroot control.

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Mycorrhiza-induced resistance: more than the sum of its parts?

Mycorrhiza-induced resistance: more than the sum of its parts? | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it

Plants can develop an enhanced defensive capacity in response to infection by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). This ‘mycorrhiza-induced resistance’ (MIR) provides systemic protection against a wide range of attackers and shares characteristics with systemic acquired resistance (SAR) after pathogen infection and induced systemic resistance (ISR) following root colonisation by non-pathogenic rhizobacteria. It is commonly assumed that fungal stimulation of the plant immune system is solely responsible for MIR. In this opinion article, we present a novel model of MIR that integrates different aspects of the induced resistance phenomenon. We propose that MIR is a cumulative effect of direct plant responses to mycorrhizal infection and indirect immune responses to ISR-eliciting rhizobacteria in the mycorrhizosphere.

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Biochar quiets microbes, including some plant pathogens

Biochar quiets microbes, including some plant pathogens | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
In the first study of its kind, Rice University scientists have used synthetic biology to study how a popular soil amendment called 'biochar' can interfere with the chemical signals that some microbes use to communicate.

Via SustainOurEarth
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Moderating mycorrhizas: arbuscular mycorrhizas modify rhizosphere chemistry and maintain plant phosphorus status within narrow boundaries

Moderating mycorrhizas: arbuscular mycorrhizas modify rhizosphere chemistry and maintain plant phosphorus status within narrow boundaries | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
Abstract
Pastures often experience a pulse of phosphorus (P) when fertilised. We examined the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in uptake of P from a pulse.
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Investigating the efficacy of Bacillus subtilis SM21 on controlling Rhizopus rot in peach fruit

Investigating the efficacy of Bacillus subtilis SM21 on controlling Rhizopus rot in peach fruit | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it

The efficacy of Bacillus subtilis SM21 on controlling Rhizopus rot caused by Rhizopus stolonifer in postharvest peach fruit and the possible mechanisms were investigated. The results indicated B. subtilis SM21 treatment reduced lesion diameter and disease incidence by 37.2% and 26.7% on the 2nd day of inoculation compared with the control. The in vitro test showed significant inhibitory effect of B. subtilis SM21 on mycelial growth of R. stolonifer with an inhibition rate of 48.9%. B. subtilis SM21 treatment significantly enhanced activities of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, and promoted accumulation of H2O2. Total phenolic content and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity were also increased by this treatment. Transcription of seven defense related genes was much stronger in fruit treated with B. subtilis SM21 or those both treated with B. subtilis SM21 and inoculated with R. stolonifer compared with fruit inoculated with R. stolonifer alone. These results suggest that B. subtilis SM21 can effectively inhibit Rhizopus rot caused by R. stolonifer in postharvest peach fruit, possibly by directly inhibiting growth of the pathogen, and indirectly inducing disease resistance in the fruit.

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"Le sol, l'usine de la vie", la commission européenne le rappelle.

"Le sol, l'usine de la vie", la commission européenne le rappelle. | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it

 

lien :

http://ec.europa.eu/environment/soil/pdf/soil_biodiversity_brochure_fr.pdf

 


Via Carnets de Chr. Barbot, Agriculture Nouvelle
Carnets de Chr. Barbot's comment, September 28, 2013 10:59 AM
La version espagnole (es) est disponible pour le résumé sur la page :http://ec.europa.eu/environment/soil/factory_life.htm
Carnets de Chr. Barbot's comment, September 28, 2013 11:01 AM
Le rapport en intégralité est dispobible en langue anglaise seulement : http://ec.europa.eu/environment/soil/biodiversity.htm
Du Sol Au Vin's comment, September 30, 2013 2:04 AM
Merci M.Barbot pour vos réponses
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Studies pay off for potato producers - Phys.Org

Studies pay off for potato producers - Phys.Org | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
Studies pay off for potato producers
Phys.Org
"We started with different crop-management practices, like using different rotations and cover crops with potato, and adding disease-suppressive crops and soil amendments.
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Protéagineux : le pois tire son épingle du jeu - La France Agricole

Protéagineux : le pois tire son épingle du jeu - La France Agricole | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
En pois, le rendement moyen national est aujourd'hui estimé à 46 q/ha, en léger mieux par rapport à 2012 et à la moyenne sur dix ans. En féverole, il devrait être voisin de 40 q/ha. Toutes les régions du nord de la France sont en retrait plus ou moins marqué par rapport à la moyenne
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The PGPR strain Phyllobacterium brassicacearum STM196 induces a reproductive delay and physiological changes that result in improved drought tolerance in Arabidopsis - 2013 - New Phytologist

The PGPR strain Phyllobacterium brassicacearum STM196 induces a reproductive delay and physiological changes that result in improved drought tolerance in Arabidopsis  - 2013 - New Phytologist | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it

Understanding how biotic interactions can improve plant tolerance to drought is a challenging prospect for agronomy and ecology. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are promising candidates but the phenotypic changes induced by PGPR under drought remain to be elucidated.We investigated the effects of Phyllobacterium brassicacearum STM196 strain, a PGPR isolated from the rhizosphere of oilseed rape, on two accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana with contrasting flowering time. We measured multiple morphophysiological traits related to plant growth and development in order to quantify the added value of the bacteria to drought-response strategies of Arabidopsis in soil conditions.A delay in reproductive development induced by the bacteria resulted in a gain of biomass that was independent of the accession and the watering regime. Coordinated changes in transpiration, ABA content, photosynthesis and development resulted in higher water-use efficiency and a better tolerance to drought of inoculated plants.Our findings give new insights into the ecophysiological bases by which PGPR can confer stress tolerance to plants. Rhizobacteria-induced delay in flowering time could represent a valuable strategy for increasing biomass yield, whereas rhizobacteria-induced improvement of water use is of particular interest in multiple scenarios of water availability.

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