GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture
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GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture
Site with information in English and French, used for teaching and educational purposes. Information about sustainable development, mainly related to agriculture, as well as assessment of [CO2] and climate change impact on plants;  or methods to decrease the use or the amount of  pesticides will be included on this site. Because biotechnologies are a part of the answer to these agricultural challenges, information about GMOs will be largely reported here.
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Blattaculture

Blattaculture | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it

 

C’est facile, pas cher et ça rapporte. L’éleveur peut espérer 20 € d’une livre de la poudre, qui sera utilisée en pharmacie et en cosmétique. Les bêtes mangent n’importe quoi, vivent dans le noir, trouvent leur bien-être animal entre des cartons à œufs bloqués par des tôles ondulées rouillées. Une fois engraissées, après s’être laissé ébouillanter sans crier ni provoquer les cris des amis des bêtes, elles sèchent au soleil.
C’est la Blatte américaine Periplaneta americana (Blat. Blattidé) qui marche le mieux.

 

[...]

 

D’après « Cockroach farms multiplying in China », par Barbara Demick. Lu le 15 octobre 2012 à www.latimes.com/

 


Via Bernadette Cassel
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Metabolic potential of endophytic bacteria

Metabolic potential of endophytic bacteria | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it

The bacterial endophytic microbiome promotes plant growth and health and beneficial effects are in many cases mediated and characterized by metabolic interactions. Recent advances have been made in regard to metabolite production by plant microsymbionts showing that they may produce a range of different types of metabolites. These substances play a role in defense and competition, but may also be needed for specific interaction and communication with the plant host. Furthermore, few examples of bilateral metabolite production are known and endophytes may modulate plant metabolite synthesis as well. We have just started to understand such metabolic interactions between plants and endophytes, however, further research is needed to more efficiently make use of beneficial plant-microbe interactions and to reduce pathogen infestation as well as to reveal novel bioactive substances of commercial interest.


Via Jean-Michel Ané
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Emergence of Azole-Resistant Aspergillus fumigatus Strains due to Agricultural Azole Use Creates an Increasing Threat to Human Health

Emergence of Azole-Resistant Aspergillus fumigatus Strains due to Agricultural Azole Use Creates an Increasing Threat to Human Health | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
by Anuradha Chowdhary, Shallu Kathuria, Jianping Xu, Jacques F. Meis
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Sharing of Diverse Mycorrhizal and Root-Endophytic Fungi among Plant Species in an Oak-Dominated Cool–Temperate Forest

Sharing of Diverse Mycorrhizal and Root-Endophytic Fungi among Plant Species in an Oak-Dominated Cool–Temperate Forest | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
by Hirokazu Toju, Satoshi Yamamoto, Hirotoshi Sato, Akifumi S. Tanabe
Most terrestrial plants interact with diverse clades of mycorrhizal and root-endophytic fungi in their roots.
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Quelle agriculture dans 10 ans? - Stratégie


Via Paul-Jean Ricolfi, Agriculture Nouvelle
Avenir Adn Agri's curator insight, October 17, 2013 6:43 AM

Merci *PJ Ricolfi* pour ces infos intéressantes. Cependant c'est du prévisionnel...

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Synergism and context dependency of interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobia with a prairie legume

Synergism and context dependency of interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobia with a prairie legume | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it

Biotic interactions play primary roles in major theories of the distribution and abundance of species, yet the nature of these biotic interactions can depend upon the larger ecological community. Leguminous plants, for example, commonly associate with both arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and rhizobia bacteria and the pairwise interactions may depend upon the presence or identity of the third partner. To determine if the dynamics of plant-AMF and plant-rhizobia interactions are affected by the alternate symbiont, we manipulated the presence and identity of each symbiont, as well as levels of the nutrients supplied by each symbiont (nitrogen and phosphorus), on the growth of prairie legume Amorpha canescens. We found strong synergistic effects of AMF and rhizobia inoculation on plant biomass production that were independent of nutrient levels. AMF and rhizobia responses were influenced by the other, but not in the same direction. AMF infection increased root nodule number and weight, but rhizobia inoculation decreased AMF hyphal colonization of roots. The relative benefits of each combination of symbionts depended upon phosphorus level. The effect of nitrogen was also contingent on the biotic environment where nitrogen addition decreased nodulation but this reduction was reduced with coinfection by AMF. Our results demonstrate a strong contingency on the co-occurrence of AMF and rhizobia for the long-term fitness of A. canescens and suggest that the belowground community is critical for the success of this species in tallgrass prairies.


Read More: http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/13-0025.1?af=R&


Via Jean-Michel Ané
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Bioéthanol : la première grande usine de biocarburants de deuxième génération inaugurée en Italie

Bioéthanol : la première grande usine de biocarburants de deuxième génération inaugurée en Italie | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it

La première usine de bioéthanol de deuxième génération « de taille commerciale» au monde a été inaugurée mercredi dernier en Italie, ont annoncé ses promoteurs, le groupe italien Mossi Ghisolfi (via une filiale baptisée Beta Renewables).

 

Située à Crescentino près de Turin (nord-ouest de l'Italie), cette usine utilisera de la paille et de la canne de Provence (Arundo Donax), un roseau qui pousse rapidement sur des terres pauvres non agricoles.

 

Les agrocarburants de deuxième génération sont produits à base de biomasse non alimentaire (paille, bois, etc.), et ne contribuent donc pas à la hausse des cours des matières premières alimentaires (maïs entre autres) ni à l'augmentation des terres cultivées, contrairement à leurs aînés de « première génération ».

 

L'usine a été construite par le groupe italien Mossi Ghisolfi (via une filiale baptisée Beta Renewables) en partenariat avec le géant danois des enzymes Novozymes. Elle permettra de produire 75 millions de litres d'éthanol dit « cellulosique ».

 

Cette production (40.000 tonnes par an initialement, qui doit être portée à 60.000) en fait soit une très grande usine pilote soit une petite usine commerciale, selon des experts du secteur.

 

Une dizaine d'usines pilotes d'« éthanol 2G » (seconde génération) beaucoup plus petites existent déjà aux Etats-Unis et en Europe, mais ce projet est le plus grand en fonctionnement dans le monde.

 

Malgré le souhait affiché par l'Union européenne de développer rapidement la deuxième génération, la plupart des premières usines de bioéthanol de deuxième génération devraient voir le jour outre-Atlantique dans les années à venir.

 

Au moins quatre projets d'une taille comparable à Crescentino, dont un du géant de la chimie DuPont, devrait voir le jour à partir de l'an prochain aux Etats-Unis, selon une récente présentation de l'institut français IFP énergies nouvelles. Le Chinois Sinopec a également un projet de 80.000 tonnes par an.

 

Le principal défi des agrocarburants de deuxième génération sera d'être produit à un prix compétitif, d'abord avec les agrocarburants de première génération, puis le pétrole.

 

Utilisant des matières à faible densité énergétique, ils mobilisent des quantités de matière plus grandes avec des technologies de production souvent complexes.

 

Mais l'enjeu est important : le transport reste un des points faibles des énergies renouvelables, avec une dépendance encore quasi absolue à l'or noir.

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Desert soil microbes could help halt desertification and boost agriculture in arid regions

Desert soil microbes could help halt desertification and boost agriculture in arid regions | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it

Scientists from the United Arab Emirates [UAE] have isolated local salt- and drought-tolerant strains of Rhizobia, soil bacteria that fix nitrogen when they become established inside the root nodules of legumes.

 

Rhizobia bacteria establish a mutually beneficial relationship with their host plant in which they exchange nitrogen they fix for nutrients plants produce through photosynthesis, and could be integral to improving the quality and nitrogen content of soil.

 

The study was carried out by scientists from the Dubai-based International Center for Biosaline Agriculture (ICBA) in collaboration with the Dubai branch of the Birla Institute of Technology and Science.

 

"The project was conceived when I noticed, at a research farm in Dubai, some leguminous crops forming nodules to fix atmospheric nitrogen," lead author Nanduri Rao, a researcher at ICBA, tells SciDev.Net.

 

Rao's team began isolating several naturally moccurring Rhizobia strains from the root nodules of three leguminous plants: sesbania (Sesbania sesban), lablab (Lablab purpureus) and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan). Rao explains that the team has also been studying the Rhizobiastrains'tolerance to environmental stresses such as high temperature, salinity, acidity and heavy metal concentrations in laboratory tests.

 

"The strains, native to the United Arab Emirates desert, were found to have a high tolerance to such stresses," Rao says, adding that a full length journal article based on this additional research is currently being prepared.

 

Daniele Daffonchio, professor of microbiology at the University of Milan, Italy, tells SciDev.Net that the identification of microbes capable of surviving in stressful conditions has important implications for agriculture in arid regions.

 

Philippe Normand, professor of microbial ecology at the University of Claude Bernard Lyon 1, France, tells SciDev.Net that the UAE project "has great potential for improving plant productivity under extreme environments," and is "an interesting approach for deserts".


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald, Jean-Michel Ané
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Hidden Host Plant Associations of Soilborne Fungal Pathogens: An Ecological Perspective -Phytopathology -

Hidden Host Plant Associations of Soilborne Fungal Pathogens: An Ecological Perspective -Phytopathology - | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it

Much of the current knowledge on population biology and ecology of soilborne fungal pathogens has been derived from research based on populations recovered from plants displaying disease symptoms or soil associated with symptomatic plants. Many soilborne fungal pathogens are known to cause disease on a large number of crop plants, including a variety of important agronomical, horticultural, ornamental, and forest plants species. For instance, the fungus Verticillium dahliae causes disease on >400 host plants. From a phytopathological perspective, plants on which disease symptoms have not been yet observed are considered to be nonhosts for V. dahliae. This term may be misleading because it does not provide information regarding the nature of the plant–fungus association; that is, a nonhost plant may harbor the fungus as an endophyte. Yet, there are numerous instances in the literature where V. dahliae has been isolated from asymptomatic plants; thus, these plants should be considered hosts. In this article, we synthesize scattered research that indicates that V. dahliae, aside from being a successful and significant vascular plant pathogen, may have a cryptic biology on numerous asymptomatic plants as an endophyte. Thus, we suggest here that these endophytic associations among V. dahliae and asymptomatic plants are not unusual relationships in nature. We propose to embrace the broader ecology of many fungi by differentiating between “symptomatic hosts” as those plants in which the infection and colonization by a fungus results in disease, and “asymptomatic hosts” as those plants that harbor the fungus endophytically and are different than true nonhosts that should be used for plant species that do not interact with the given fungus. In fact, if we broaden our definition of “host plant” to include asymptomatic plants that harbor the fungus as an endophyte, it is likely that the host ranges for some soilborne fungal pathogens are much larger than previously envisioned. By ignoring the potential for soilborne fungal pathogens to display endophytic relationships, we leave gaps in our knowledge about the population biology and ecology, persistence, and spread of these fungi in agroecosystems.

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Fertilization affects severity of disease caused by fungal plant pathogens - Veresoglou - 2012 - Plant Pathology

Fertilization affects severity of disease caused by fungal plant pathogens - Veresoglou - 2012 - Plant Pathology | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it

Commercial fertilizers are commonly applied in farming to maximize crop yield. Lifting nutrient limitation to plant growth when water and light conditions are sufficient may permit plants to grow to the maximum of their ability; however, plant ability to resist pathogen infections is also modified. A meta-analysis was conducted on 57 articles to identify the way plant disease severity of fungal pathogen-induced infection is modified following fertilization, and the key regulators of such an effect. The analysis largely focused on N fertilization events in order to minimize the effect of heterogeneity that could result from differences in the way different nutrient fertilizers are able to modify plant disease severity. Fungal pathogen identity and fungal pathogen lifestyle were the main significant regulators affecting the extent of the modification of plant disease resistance following N fertilization, whereas contradictory results were obtained with the susceptibility of plant species. No differences were detected between pot or field experiments and following artificial or natural infection. Although in the vast majority of instances N fertilization increased disease severity, characteristic plant species and fungal pathogens could be identified for which disease severity following N fertilization declined. It is concluded that the potential of some plant species such as Solanum spp. to show reduced disease severity following N fertilization requires further investigation, as in such cases N fertilization could potentially be used as an additional means of suppressing fungal pathogens.

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Genetically Engineered Plants and Foods: A Scientist's Analysis of the Issues (Part I)

Scooped from: Annual Review of Plant Biology, 2008

Author: Peggy G. Lemaux

Image credits: Arwen Curry, KQED

Image source: http://blogs.kqed.org/bayareabites/2013/05/07/next-meal-engineering-food/

 

Abstract: 

Through the use of the new tools of genetic engineering, genes can be introduced into the same plant or animal species or into plants or animals that are not sexually compatible—the latter is a distinction with classical breeding. This technology has led to the commercial production of genetically engineered (GE) crops on approximately 250 million acres worldwide. These crops generally are herbicide and pest tolerant, but other GE crops in the pipeline focus on other traits. For some farmers and consumers, planting and eating foods from these crops are acceptable; for others they raise issues related to safety of the foods and the environment. In Part I of this review some general and food issues raised regarding GE crops and foods will be addressed. Responses to these issues, where possible, cite peer-reviewed scientific literature. In Part II to appear in 2009, issues related to environmental and socioeconomic aspects of GE crops and foods will be covered.

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Moderating mycorrhizas: arbuscular mycorrhizas modify rhizosphere chemistry and maintain plant phosphorus status within narrow boundaries

Moderating mycorrhizas: arbuscular mycorrhizas modify rhizosphere chemistry and maintain plant phosphorus status within narrow boundaries | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
Abstract
Pastures often experience a pulse of phosphorus (P) when fertilised. We examined the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in uptake of P from a pulse.
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Biological Control - Lipopolysaccharide of Enterobacter asburiae strain RS83: A bacterial determinant for induction of early defensive enzymes in Lactuca sativa against soft rot disease

Biological Control - Lipopolysaccharide of Enterobacter asburiae strain RS83: A bacterial determinant for induction of early defensive enzymes in Lactuca sativa against soft rot disease | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it

Abstract:

Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from plant pathogenic bacteria have been reported to be determinants of induced systemic resistance (ISR) for plant disease suppression. The role of bacterial LPS in ISR elicited by beneficial rhizobacteria has not been extensively reported. The capacity of Enterobacter asburiae strain RS83 to induce ISR against several diseases was previously demonstrated under greenhouse and field trials. The objectives of this study were (1) to examine the capacity of LPS extracted from strain RS83-mediated ISR in Lactuca sativa against bacterial soft rot disease and (2) to evaluate the enhanced early defensive-related enzymes induced by LPS of strain RS83 implicated for disease restraint. LPS from strain RS83 was first recovered in a hot MgCl2-Triton X-100 solution, solubilized with EDTA Triton X-100, and finally precipitated with MgCl2. The LPS was further tested for elicitation of ISR in lettuce againstPectobacterium catovorum subsp. catovorum (Pcc) under in vitro bioassay system. A colorimetric assay for superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (PO) activities was performed. The results showed that lettuce treated with LPS of strain RS83 had less (P⩽0.05) disease incidence about 90% than the non-induced pathogen control. Before challenge with the pathogen, significant increase of SOD activity in plants induced with LPS of strain RS83 were 92% greater than the non-induced pathogen control. Only little increase of greater PO activity occurred in treatment induced with LPS of strain RS83 compared to the control. Both SOD and PO activities were significantly accelerated from 24 to 72 hours after challenge compared to the control. These results suggest that LPS of strain RS83 plays a role in the induction of early defensive-related enzymes in lettuce against soft rot disease caused by Pcc.


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Underground allies: How and why do mycelial networks help plants defend themselves? - Babikova - 2013 - BioEssays - Wiley Online Library

Underground allies: How and why do mycelial networks help plants defend themselves? - Babikova - 2013 - BioEssays - Wiley Online Library | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it

Most land plants associate with mycorrhizal fungi that can connect roots of neighboring plants in common mycelial networks (CMNs). Recent evidence shows that CMNs transfer warning signals of pathogen and aphid attack between plants. However, we do not know how defence-related signaling via CMNs operates or how ubiquitous it is. Nor do we know what the ecological relevance and fitness consequences are, particularly from the perspective of the mycorrhizal fungus. Here, we focus on the potential fitness benefits for mycorrhizal fungi and outline hypothetical scenarios in which signal transfer via CMNs is modulated in order to acquire the most benefit for the fungus (i.e. acquisition of carbon) for minimal cost. We speculate that the signal may be quantitative and may elicit plant defence responses on different levels depending on the distance the signal is transferred. Finally, we discuss the possibility of practical applications of this phenomenon for crop protection.

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Root Exudate-Induced Alterations in Bacillus cereus Cell Wall Contribute to Root Colonization and Plant Growth Promotion

Root Exudate-Induced Alterations in Bacillus cereus Cell Wall Contribute to Root Colonization and Plant Growth Promotion | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
The outcome of an interaction between plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and plants may depend on the chemical composition of root exudates (REs). We report the colonization of tobacco, and not groundnut, roots by a non-rhizospheric Bacillus cereus (MTCC 430). There was a differential alteration in the cell wall components of B. cereus in response to the REs from tobacco and groundnut. Attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy revealed a split in amide I region of B. cereus cells exposed to tobacco-root exudates (TRE), compared to those exposed to groundnut-root exudates (GRE). In addition, changes in exopolysaccharides and lipid-packing were observed in B. cereus grown in TRE-amended minimal media that were not detectable in GRE-amended media. Cell-wall proteome analyses revealed upregulation of oxidative stress-related alkyl hydroperoxide reductase, and DNA-protecting protein chain (Dlp-2), in response to GRE and TRE, respectively. Metabolism-related enzymes like 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate coenzyme A ligase and 2-methylcitrate dehydratase and a 60 kDa chaperonin were up-regulated in response to TRE and GRE. In response to B. cereus, the plant roots altered their exudate-chemodiversity with respect to carbohydrates, organic acids, alkanes, and polyols. TRE-induced changes in surface components of B. cereus may contribute to successful root colonization and subsequent plant growth promotion.
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Une résistance ébranlée par les polluants

Une résistance ébranlée par les polluants | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
Quand un herbicide ne tue pas directement les amphibiens, il les rend plus sensibles aux infections fongiques.
Depuis 40 ans, la communauté scientifique voit les populations amphibiennes se réduire.
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Metarhizium robertsii Produces an Extracellular Invertase (MrINV) That Plays a Pivotal Role in Rhizospheric Interactions and Root Colonization

Metarhizium robertsii Produces an Extracellular Invertase (MrINV) That Plays a Pivotal Role in Rhizospheric Interactions and Root Colonization | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it

As well as killing pest insects, the rhizosphere competent insect-pathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii also boosts plant growth by providing nitrogenous nutrients and increasing resistance to plant pathogens. Plant roots secrete abundant nutrients but little is known about their utilization by Metarhizium spp. and the mechanistic basis of Metarhizium-plant associations. We report here that M. robertsii produces an extracellular invertase (MrInv) on plant roots. Deletion of MrInv (⊿MrInv) reduced M. robertsii growth on sucrose and rhizospheric exudates but increased colonization of Panicum virgatum and Arabidopsis thaliana roots. This could be accounted for by a reduction in carbon catabolite repression in ⊿MrInv increasing production of plant cell wall-degrading depolymerases. A non-rhizosphere competent scarab beetle specialist Metarhizium majus lacks invertase which suggests that rhizospheric competence may be related to the sugar metabolism of different Metarhizium species.

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Certification environnementale : la HVE remplacera l'Agriculture raisonnée

La Commission nationale de la certification environnementale (CNCE) s'est réunie le 9 octobre 2013 pour réfléchir à l'avenir de la certification environnementale créée par les lois Grenelle.

« Compte tenu de l'évolution de la réglementation et des attentes environnementales croissantes de la société, il est apparu indispensable d'engager les exploitations dans une nouvelle dynamique », indique mardi un communiqué du ministère de l'Agriculture. Celui-ci « incite les agriculteurs à s'engager » dans cette certification, au moins au niveau 2. Ce niveau est équivalent à l'Agriculture raisonnée, qui sera abrogée d'ici à cinq ans pour laisser pleinement la place à la certification environnementale dite HVE (haute valeur environnementale).

« Le ministère de l'Agriculture prendra les mesures nécessaires afin d'assurer une continuité pour les agriculteurs et les partenaires concernés. Les exploitations déjà engagées en agriculture raisonnée garderont cependant l'effectivité de leur reconnaissance jusqu'à la fin de leur engagement de cinq ans », précise le communiqué.

Celui-ci souligne que « l'agriculture raisonnée a été pionnière dans le domaine des pratiques agricoles plus respectueuses de l'environnement » et a « inspiré de nombreux cahiers des charges de bonnes pratiques dans plusieurs filières, même si elle n'a pas eu les résultats escomptés.

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Une puissance agricole peut-elle se passer de la recherche ? - Wikiagri

La demande mondiale croissante de produits alimentaires et d’autres produits issus de la biomasse d’ici 2050 est une chance pour notre agriculture qui possède un potentiel agricole exceptionnel avec encore de belles marges de progression de sa productivité. La mondialisation des échanges agricoles constitue un atout géopolitique pour la France compte tenu de ses infrastructures portuaires, ses capacités de stockage, ses structures de commercialisation. Les capacités exportatrices de notre agriculture sont une bénédiction pour notre balance commerciale dramatiquement déficitaire. Notre industrie agroalimentaire apporte une valeur ajoutée à nos productions agricoles qui est productive d’emplois sur le territoire et qui fait notre réputation dans le monde entier. L’agriculture redevient ainsi un secteur stratégique pour l’avenir de notre pays.

Mais au-delà de ce défi pour notre pays de contribuer à la sécurité alimentaire du monde, notre agriculture est aussi confrontée à quatre autres défis tout aussi stratégiques : conserver sa compétitivité ou la reconquérir selon les filières, répondre aux nouvelles attentes des consommateurs, et pas seulement des français, préserver la qualité de notre environnement et enfin mettre en place des systèmes de production moins gourmands en énergie fossile et en intrants chimiques de synthèse.

Peut on imaginer de grandes mutations sans innovations et sans recherche ?

?


Via Agriculture Nouvelle
JJ Grodent's curator insight, October 21, 2013 5:44 AM

Il y a "recherche" et "recherche" ...

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Biocarburants : Sofiprotéol se lance dans la production de biodiesel à base de graisses animales et d'huiles usagées- La France Agricole

Sofiprotéol, le leader européen du biodiesel, a annoncé lundi la création de la société européenne ADBiodiesel, dont il détiendra 60 % du capital.
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Direct and legacy effects of long-term elevated CO2 on fine root growth and plant–insect interactions - Stiling - 2013 - New Phytologist - Wiley Online Library

Direct and legacy effects of long-term elevated CO2 on fine root growth and plant–insect interactions - Stiling - 2013 - New Phytologist - Wiley Online Library | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations alter leaf physiology, with effects that cascade to communities and ecosystems. Yet, responses over cycles of disturbance and recovery are not well known, because most experiments span limited ecological time. We examined the effects of CO2 on root growth, herbivory and arthropod biodiversity in a woodland from 1996 to 2006, and the legacy of CO2 enrichment on these processes during the year after the CO2 treatment ceased.We used minirhizotrons to study root growth, leaf censuses to study herbivory and pitfall traps to determine the effects of elevated CO2 on arthropod biodiversity.Elevated CO2 increased fine root biomass, but decreased foliar nitrogen and herbivory on all plant species. Insect biodiversity was unchanged in elevated CO2. Legacy effects of elevated CO2 disappeared quickly as fine root growth, foliar nitrogen and herbivory levels recovered in the next growing season following the cessation of elevated CO2.Although the effects of elevated CO2 cascade through plants to herbivores, they do not reach other trophic levels, and biodiversity remains unchanged. The legacy of 10 yr of elevated CO2 on plant–herbivore interactions in this system appear to be minimal, indicating that the effects of elevated CO2 may not accumulate over cycles of disturbance and recovery.
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Genetically Engineered Plants and Foods: A Scientist's Analysis of the Issues (Part II)

Scooped from: Annual Review of Plant Biology, 2009

Author: Peggy G. Lemaux

Image Credits: James Block

Image Source: http://ucanr.org/repository/cao/landingpage.cfm?article=ca.v066n02p46&fulltext=yes

 

Abstract:

Genetic engineering provides a means to introduce genes into plants via mechanisms that are different in some respects from classical breeding. A number of commercialized, genetically engineered (GE) varieties, most notably canola, cotton, maize and soybean, were created using this technology, and at present the traits introduced are herbicide and/or pest tolerance. In 2007 these GE crops were planted in developed and developing countries on more than 280 million acres (113 million hectares) worldwide, representing nearly 10% of rainfed cropland. Although the United States leads the world in acres planted with GE crops, the majority of this planting is on large acreage farms. In developing countries, adopters are mostly small and resource-poor farmers. For farmers and many consumers worldwide, planting and eating GE crops and products made from them are acceptable and even welcomed; for others GE crops raise food and environmental safety questions, as well as economic and social issues. In Part I of this review, some general and food issues related to GE crops and foods were discussed. In Part II, issues related to certain environmental and socioeconomic aspects of GE crops and foods are addressed, with responses linked to the scientific literature.

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An overview of the last 10 years of genetically engineered crop safety research

An overview of the last 10 years of genetically engineered crop safety research | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it

Scooped from: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology, 2013.

Authors: Alessandro Nicolia, Alberto Manzo, Fabio Veronesi, and Daniele Rosellini.

 

Abstract:

The technology to produce genetically engineered (GE) plants is celebrating its 30th anniversary and one of the major achievements has been the development of GE crops. The safety of GE crops is crucial for their adoption and has been the object of intense research work often ignored in the public debate. We have reviewed the scientific literature on GE crop safety during the last 10 years, built a classified and manageable list of scientific papers, and analyzed the distribution and composition of the published literature. We selected original research papers, reviews, relevant opinions and reports addressing all the major issues that emerged in the debate on GE crops, trying to catch the scientific consensus that has matured since GE plants became widely cultivated worldwide. The scientific research conducted so far has not detected any significant hazards directly connected with the use of GE crops; however, the debate is still intense. An improvement in the efficacy of scientific communication could have a significant impact on the future of agricultural GE. Our collection of scientific records is available to researchers, communicators and teachers at all levels to help create an informed, balanced public perception on the important issue of GE use in agriculture.

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Age versus stage: does ontogeny modify the effect of phosphorus and arbuscular mycorrhizas on above- and below-ground defence in forage sorghum?

Age versus stage: does ontogeny modify the effect of phosphorus and arbuscular mycorrhizas on above- and below-ground defence in forage sorghum? | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
Abstract
Arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM) can increase plant acquisition of P and N. No published studies have investigated the impact of P and AM on the allocation of N to the plant defence, cyanogenic glucosides.
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