GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture
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GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture
Site with information in English and French, used for teaching and educational purposes. Information about sustainable development, mainly related to agriculture, as well as assessment of [CO2] and climate change impact on plants;  or methods to decrease the use or the amount of  pesticides will be included on this site. Because biotechnologies are a part of the answer to these agricultural challenges, information about GMOs will be largely reported here.
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Les bourdons peuvent s’épanouir en ville : la preuve par Détroit

Les bourdons peuvent s’épanouir en ville : la preuve par Détroit | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
Dans l’océan de pessimisme actuel, une étude vient apporter une goutte d’espoir : les bourdons, ces insectes indispensables, pourraient s’épanouir dans les grandes villes… pourvu qu’on y mette du vert ! Je vous détaille une passionnante publication américaine, disponible ici, qui mérite le détour.

 

Blog Vigie Nature, 09.11.2017

 

Big city Bombus: using natural history and land-use history to find significant environmental drivers in bumble-bee declines in urban development | Open Science, 17.05.2017 http://rsos.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/4/5/170156



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Furthering knowledge of seaweed growth and development to facilitate sustainable aquaculture

Furthering knowledge of seaweed growth and development to facilitate sustainable aquaculture | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
Macroalgae (seaweeds) are the subject of increasing interest for their potential as a source of valuable, sustainable biomass in the food, feed, chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Compared with microalgae, the pace of knowledge acquisition in seaweeds is slower despite the availability of whole-genome sequences and model organisms for the major seaweed groups. This is partly a consequence of specific hurdles related to the large size of these organisms and their slow growth. As a result, this basic scientific field is falling behind, despite the societal and economic importance of these organisms. Here, we argue that sustainable management of seaweed aquaculture requires fundamental understanding of the underlying biological mechanisms controlling macroalgal life cycles – from the production of germ cells to the growth and fertility of the adult organisms – using diverse approaches requiring a broad range of technological tools. This Viewpoint highlights several examples of basic research on macroalgal developmental biology that could enable the step-changes which are required to adequately meet the demands of the aquaculture sector.
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Biostimulants : Halte au flou ! | ForumPhyto

Biostimulants : Halte au flou ! | ForumPhyto | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
Les Biostimulants sont une nouvelle catégorie d’intrants agricoles nés il y a une quinzaine d’année dans la continuité des travaux multiples et des découvertes réalisées sur les Stimulateurs des Défenses Naturelles des Plantes (SDP) qui sont aujourd’hui classés dans la catégorie des produits de protection des cultures. A cette période, les responsables de recherche des laboratoires publics et des entreprises innovantes dans le domaine ont pris conscience que les plantes, à travers leurs différents métabolismes (croissance, défenses, développement, reproduction…) étaient capables de se défendre ou bien d’activer certaines voies métaboliques favorisant la croissance ou la nutrition des plantes.
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Frontiers | Combining Fungicides and Prospective NPR1-Based “Just-in-Time” Immunomodulating Chemistries for Crop Protection | Plant Science

Frontiers | Combining Fungicides and Prospective NPR1-Based “Just-in-Time” Immunomodulating Chemistries for Crop Protection | Plant Science | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
Each year, crop yield is lost to weeds competing for resources, insect herbivory and diseases caused by pathogens. To thwart these insults and preserve yield security and a high quality of traits, conventional agriculture makes use of improved cultivars combined with fertilizer and agrochemical applications. However, given that regulatory bodies and consumers are demanding environmentally safer agrochemicals, while at the same time resistance to agrochemicals is mounting, it is crucial to adopt a “holistic” approach to agriculture by not excluding any number of management tools at our disposal. One such tool includes chemicals that stimulate plant immunity. The development of this particular type of alternative crop protection strategy has been of great interest to us. We have approached this paradigm by studying plant immunity, specifically systemic acquired resistance (SAR). The deployment of SAR immunity requires the production by the crop plant of an endogenous small molecule metabolite called salicylic acid (SA). Furthermore, immunity can only be deployed if SA can bind to its receptor and activate the genes responsible for the SAR program. The key receptor for SAR is a transcription coactivator called NPR1. Since discovering this NPR1-SA receptor–ligand pair, we have embarked on a journey to develop novel chemistries capable of deploying SAR in the field. The journey begins with the development of a scalable assay to identify these novel chemistries. One such assay, presented here, is based on differential scanning fluorimetry technology and demonstrates that NPR1 is destabilized by binding to SA.
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Photomicrographie : les 5 plus belles images de sciences

Photomicrographie : les 5 plus belles images de sciences | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
Depuis 1975, le fabricant japonais d'appareils photo Nikon propose aux amoureux de science et de jolies choses de montrer la beauté des sujets qu'ils étudient en participant au concours Small World. Cette année encore, plus de 2.000 photos provenant de près de 90 pays étaient en compétition. Et la photo lauréate de l'édition 2017 révèle une nature sublime et un peu effrayante.
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Random peptides

Random peptides | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
After designing overexpression vectors containing fragments of random DNA, the authors transformed Arabidopsis and screened around 2,000 individual plants for visual phenotypes. The proportion of peptides that had an effect was surprisingly high, given the vast size of the peptide sequence space. Folta and colleagues observed a wide phenotypic spectrum, including dwarfism, larger rosettes, early flowering, insensitivity to red light, reduced fertility and drought tolerance, flower developmental phenotypes, sucrose-dependent growth arrest and so on. A few of the most interesting phenotypes were validated by re-transformation into wild-type Arabidopsis or petunia.

Although this study was designed as a proof of concept, and is already making a novel resource accessible to the community, it is easy to speculate that the next stage may be the most difficult to achieve. The bottleneck of this chemical genetics approach is to find out which proteins or processes are targeted by the peptides. Nevertheless, this method could be useful for fundamental and applied plant biology as it offers new probes to analyse biological pathways, and new active chemicals for agriculture.
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European infrastructures for sustainable agriculture

European infrastructures for sustainable agriculture | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
The European infrastructures EMPHASIS and AnaEE aim to collaborate in bringing innovative solutions for a sustainable intensification of agriculture. By integrating the study of plant phenomics and agricultural ecology they hope to foster the development of novel scientific concepts, sensors and integrated models.
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Feeding behaviour of generalist pests on Brassica juncea: implication for manipulation of glucosinolate biosynthesis pathway for enhanced resistance

Feeding behaviour of generalist pests on Brassica juncea: implication for manipulation of glucosinolate biosynthesis pathway for enhanced resistance | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
Differential accumulation of plant defence metabolites has been suggested to have important ecological consequence in the context of plant–insect interactions. Feeding of generalist pests on Brassica juncea showed a distinct pattern with selective exclusion of leaf margins which are high in glucosinolates. Molecular basis of this differential accumulation of glucosinolates could be explained based on differential expression profile of BjuMYB28 homologues, the major biosynthetic regulators of aliphatic glucosinolates, as evident from quantitative real-time PCR and promoter:GUS fusion studies in allotetraploid B. juncea. Constitutive overexpression of selected BjuMYB28 homologues enhanced accumulation of aliphatic glucosinolates in B. juncea. Performance of two generalist pests, Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura larvae, on transgenic B. juncea plants were poor compared to wild-type plants in a no-choice experiment. Correlation coefficient analysis suggested that weight gain of H. armigera larvae was negatively correlated with gluconapin (GNA) and glucobrassicanapin (GBN), whereas that of S. litura larvae was negatively correlated with GNA, GBN and sinigrin (SIN). Our study explains the significance and possible molecular basis of differential distribution of glucosinolates in B. juncea leaves and shows the potential of overexpressing BjuMYB28 for enhanced resistance of Brassica crops against the tested generalist pests.
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Des chercheurs ont trouvé comment rendre la soie d'araignée encore plus résistante

Des chercheurs ont trouvé comment rendre la soie d'araignée encore plus résistante | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
Si les araignées produisent déjà une soie aux propriétés naturelles remarquables, des chercheurs italiens on

 

Spider silk reinforced by graphene or carbon nanotubes - 2D Materials, 14.08.2017 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/2053-1583/aa7cd3

 


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Ears, shoots and leaves

Ears, shoots and leaves | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
Semi-dwarf cereal varieties have greatly increased crop yields due to their reduced stature, but they also reduce individual spike (ear) size. However, these traits appear to be regulated by distinct pathways, opening new opportunities to develop higher yielding crops.
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Tomato development: MADS-box engineering

Tomato development: MADS-box engineering | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it


Tomato development: MADS-box engineering


Wild-type tomato plants bear unbranched inflorescences with jointed pedicels. Branched inflorescences produce more flowers and, presumably, more fruits. However, excessively branched variants exhibit sterility and are avoided by breeders. Compared to jointed pedicels, jointless pedicels enhance fruit retention and facilitate machine harvesting. A desirable tomato inflorescence is thus weakly branched with jointless pedicels. Although a range of inflorescence variants exist in tomato germplasm, our understanding of the genetic programme controlling inflorescence architecture has remained limited, hindering effective breeding. By exploring branched tomato variants, Sebastian Soyk, from the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, and colleagues uncovered two artificially selected MADS-box genes that control meristem maturation and inflorescence development....

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Genetic engineering strategies for biotic and abiotic stress tolerance and quality enhancement in horticultural crops: a comprehensive review - Parmar &al (2017) - 3 Biotech

Genetic engineering strategies for biotic and abiotic stress tolerance and quality enhancement in horticultural crops: a comprehensive review - Parmar &al (2017) - 3 Biotech | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it

Genetic engineering technique offers myriads of applications in improvement of horticultural crops for biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, and produce quality enhancement. During last two decades, a large number of transgenic horticultural crops has been developed and more are underway. A number of genes including natural and synthetic Cry genes, protease inhibitors, trypsin inhibitors and cystatin genes have been used to incorporate insect and nematode resistance. For providing protection against fungal and bacterial diseases, various genes like chitinase, glucanase, osmotin, defensin and pathogenesis-related genes are being transferred to many horticultural crops world over. RNAi technique has been found quite successful in inducing virus resistance in horticultural crops in addition to coat protein genes. 


Abiotic stresses such as drought, heat and salinity adversely affect production and productivity of horticultural crops and a number of genes encoding for biosynthesis of stress protecting compounds including mannitol, glycine betaine and heat shock proteins have been employed for abiotic stress tolerance besides various transcription factors like DREB1, MAPK, WRKY, etc. Antisense gene and RNAi technologies have revolutionized the pace of improvement of horticultural crops, particularly ornamentals for color modification, increasing shelf-life and reducing post-harvest losses. Precise genome editing tools, particularly CRISPR/Cas9, have been efficiently applied in tomato, petunia, citrus, grape, potato and apple for gene mutation, repression, activation and epigenome editing. 


This review provides comprehensive overview to draw the attention of researchers for better understanding of genetic engineering advancements in imparting biotic and abiotic stress tolerance as well as on improving various traits related to quality, texture, plant architecture modification, increasing shelf-life, etc. in different horticultural crops. 


http://doi.org/10.1007/s13205-017-0870-y



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Researchers find corn gene conferring resistance to multiple plant leaf diseases

Researchers find corn gene conferring resistance to multiple plant leaf diseases | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
Researchers at North Carolina State University have found a specific gene in corn that appears to be associated with resistance to two and possibly three different plant leaf diseases.

In a paper published this week in Nature Genetics, NC State researchers pinpoint the gene - caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase - that seems to confer partial resistance to Southern leaf blight and gray leaf spot, and possibly to Northern leaf blight, a trio of diseases that cripple corn plants worldwide.

Finding out more about the mechanisms behind complex traits like disease resistance has the potential to help plant breeders build the best traits into tomorrow's corn plants, says paper corresponding author Peter Balint-Kurti, a research plant pathologist and geneticist for the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agriculture Research Service (USDA-ARS) who is housed at NC State.
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« L’idée de nourrir les métropoles grâce aux ceintures vertes est une illusion ! »

« L’idée de nourrir les métropoles grâce aux ceintures vertes est une illusion ! » | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
Sabine Barles est professeure en urbanisme et aménagement à l’Université Paris 1 Panthéon/Sorbonne. Chercheuse dans l’unité mixe Géographie Cités (avec le CNRS), elle y coordonne le Centre de recherche sur les réseaux, l’industrie et l’aménagement, qui travaille essentiellement sur « la fabrique de la ville ». Entre 2009 et 2012, elle a coordonné le projet Confluent sur la ville durable, qui s’est intéressé au « métabolisme urbain » (l’ensemble des flux de matières et d’énergie engendrés par le fonctionnement des villes), à sa gouvernance et aux empreintes environnementales. Dans ce cadre, elle a étudié les besoins et les flux des produits alimentaires pour nourrir les urbains, notamment pour les métropoles de Paris et de Toulouse. Son constat et son analyse battent en brèche plusieurs idées reçues et clarifient les enjeux écologiques et alimentaires pour les zones urbaines.

Via Bernadette Cassel, Saclay Plant Sciences
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 Biocontrôle Des chercheurs de l’Université de Milan ont identifié des souches de levures qui pourraient s’avérer plus efficaces que certains fongicides. 

 Biocontrôle Des chercheurs de l’Université de Milan ont identifié des souches de levures qui pourraient s’avérer plus efficaces que certains fongicides.  | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it

Publiés le 4 novembre dernier sur la revue scientifique en ligne Frontiers in Microbiology, les travaux des chercheurs de l’Université de Milan ouvrent une nouvelle voie au biocontrôle.


Des levures présentes sur les vignes sauvages s’avèrent opérantes dans la lutte fongicide. Les chercheurs les ont prélevées en Géorgie, Italie, Roumanie et Espagne (ils ont aussi recueilli des souches de variétés cultivées). Au total, ils ont collecté 231 souches de levures issues de 26 espèces. Parmi ces souches, 20 ont donnés des résultats intéressants dans le contrôle des champignons de la vigne. Et, surprise, 18 provenaient de prélèvements sur vignes sauvages. Les chercheurs ont constaté que leur mode d’actions est varié. Certaines produisent une enzyme capable de digérer la membrane cellulaire des levures pathogènes. D’autres agissent en sécrétant de l’acide acétique ou du sulfure d’hydrogène qui tuent les levures pathogènes. L’efficacité de six souches dont l’effet fongique était le plus important a été comparée in vivo a un fongicide de synthèse (composé de 37.5 % de cyprodinil et 25 % de fludioxonil). L’une d’elle, P. Kluyveri a montré un effet plus intéressant que le fongicide contre le botrytis.

à suivre....


Via Médiadoc, bibliothèque d'AgroSup Dijon, Agriculture Nouvelle
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Volatile terpenoids: multiple functions, biosynthesis, modulation and manipulation by genetic engineering

Volatile terpenoids: multiple functions, biosynthesis, modulation and manipulation by genetic engineering | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
Terpenoids play several physiological and ecological functions in plant life through direct and indirect plant defenses and also in human society because of their enormous applications in the pharmaceutical, food and cosmetics industries. Through the aid of genetic engineering its role can by magnified to broad spectrum by improving genetic ability of crop plants, enhancing the aroma quality of fruits and flowers and the production of pharmaceutical terpenoids contents in medicinal plants.
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Silencing of RBOHF2 Causes Leaf Age–Dependent Accelerated Senescence, Salicylic Acid Accumulation, and Powdery Mildew Resistance in Barley | Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions

Silencing of RBOHF2 Causes Leaf Age–Dependent Accelerated Senescence, Salicylic Acid Accumulation, and Powdery Mildew Resistance in Barley | Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
Plant RBOH (RESPIRATORY BURST OXIDASE HOMOLOGS)-type NADPH oxidases produce superoxide radical anions and have a function in developmental processes and in response to environmental challenges. Barley RBOHF2 has diverse reported functions in interaction with the biotrophic powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei. Here, we analyzed, in detail, plant leaf level- and age-specific susceptibility of stably RBOHF2-silenced barley plants. This revealed enhanced susceptibility to fungal penetration of young RBOHF2-silenced leaf tissue but strongly reduced susceptibility of older leaves when compared with controls. Loss of susceptibility in old RBOHF2-silenced leaves was associated with spontaneous leaf-tip necrosis and constitutively elevated levels of free and conjugated salicylic acid. Additionally, these leaves more strongly expressed pathogenesis-related genes, both constitutively and during interaction with B. graminis f. sp. hordei. Together, this supports the idea that barley RBOHF2 contributes to basal resistance to powdery mildew infection in young leaf tissue but is required to control leaf cell death, salicylic acid accumulation, and defense gene expression in older leaves, explaining leaf age–specific resistance of RBOHF2-silenced barley plants.
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Green technology: Disease-resistant GMO tomato that could eliminate need for copper pesticides, double yields--blocked by public fears | Genetic Literacy Project

Green technology: Disease-resistant GMO tomato that could eliminate need for copper pesticides, double yields--blocked by public fears | Genetic Literacy Project | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
Some Florida tomato farmers spray copper-based pesticides up to 44 times per year in an effort to fend off bacterial spot, a devastating disease growers have been battling for over 60 years. A genetically engineered tomato resistant to the disease could cut that number to zero, while also doubling yields.

There’s only one problem: researchers have been unable to find a partner to help them commercialize the technology.

“Currently, given the climate around GMOs, no growers are willing to bite the bullet and take that first step,” said Sam Hutton, a tomato breeding and genetics professor at the University of Florida who has been involved in the project since 2010.

Scientists have tried for decades, with little success, to use conventional approaches to tackle the disease, which the Florida tomato industry spends almost $100 million each year trying to control. Researchers have simply been unable to find any tomato genes that express lasting resistance to bacterial spot. However, tomato’s cousin, sweet pepper, has several.
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Geography drives agronomy

Geography drives agronomy | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
The ‘hot-spots’ of organic farming are thought to be determined in part by socio-economic factors such as the existence of community-supported agriculture, where consumers subscribe to monthly deliveries of fresh food products directly from the farms. However, Kuo and Peters’ data show that the location of organic farming is primarily influenced by a region’s agroecological characteristics. Areas with more organic farms tend to have colder winters and summers, as well as more bodies of water and topographical variation, which may reduce the effectiveness of intensive, industrial agricultural operations.
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Corporate Concentration and Technological Change in the Global Seed Industry

Corporate Concentration and Technological Change in the Global Seed Industry | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
In the past three decades, the seed sector has experienced, and is now again experiencing, corporate concentration trends. The fallout of this consolidation is the subject of numerous concerns. However, the seed sector is rather poorly understood. Thus, it is useful to understand it better and to investigate the potential impact on the agri-food chain of the trend toward increased corporate concentration. The first part of this paper presents the main characteristics of the global seed sector, its stakeholders, and its size in the agri-food chain. Next, the corporate consolidation trends of the seed industry over the past two years are examined. The technological evolution of the seed sector is also briefly presented. In the last part of this paper, the fallout of recent mergers and acquisitions in the seed industry are analyzed. Opposing views are expressed on the impact of these mergers and acquisitions in the agri-food chain: while certain stakeholders worry about the risk of food power by the biggest companies, some others expect useful innovations.
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Budget 2018 : une hausse de 700 millions d'euros pour l'Enseignement supérieur et la Recherche

Budget 2018 : une hausse de 700 millions d'euros pour l'Enseignement supérieur et la Recherche | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it

EducPros, 14.09.2017

"Le ministère de l'Enseignement supérieur fera bien partie des privilégiés qui verront leur budget augmenter en 2018. Si la hausse de 700 millions d'euros, annoncée le 14 septembre par ..."


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Dieback vivifies GM support

Dieback vivifies GM support | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
When faced with charismatic plants that are under threat, seemingly firm attitudes against genetic modification (GM) may be malleable according to research from Paul Jepson and Irina Arakelyan. Such a stance could reflect updated views about the balance of nature and the efficacy of ‘meddling’ with species.

Native European ash trees, Fraxinus Excelsior, are currently suffering a dieback in the United Kingdom caused by the fungal pathogen Hymenoscyphus fraxineus. This has captured the public’s attention and produced a widely held belief that the UK government has not done enough to protect forest areas. Multiple responses to the threat have been proposed, ranging from ‘letting nature run its course’ to creating fungal-resistant trees within a decade by using genetic modification and resistance genes from other species.

Surveying the general public, the researchers found that more people approved of the GM options for saving the ash trees over doing nothing, even while respondents were generally anti-GM and believed that humans should not tamper with nature in the abstract. Younger and more educated respondents were even more relaxed about GM and intervening to save the species. This is in contrast with older, rural respondents who preferred planting different native trees, and policy experts who question the morality and financial justification of intervention in the first place.
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A transgenic strategy for controlling plant bugs (Adelphocoris suturalis) through expression of double‐stranded RNA homologous to fatty acyl‐coenzyme A reductase in cotton

A transgenic strategy for controlling plant bugs (Adelphocoris suturalis) through expression of double‐stranded RNA homologous to fatty acyl‐coenzyme A reductase in cotton | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
Plant bugs (Miridae species), which are sap-sucking insects, have emerged as major pests of cotton in China. Most Miridae species are not sensitive to commercial Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton, resulting in significant economic losses and an increased application of insecticide, which eventually may compromise the future of Bt cotton.
We demonstrate that FATTY ACYL-COA REDUCTASE (AsFAR) plays an essential role in the reproduction of the bug Adelphocoris suturalis. Down-regulation of AsFAR expression by injection of double-stranded RNA suppresses ovarian development and female fertility, resulting in females producing few viable offspring.
To determine the viability of an RNA interference approach to limit FAR expression and reproductive ability in A. suturalis, a dsRNA targeting the AsFAR gene (dsAsFAR) of A. suturalis was expressed in transgenic cotton plants. AsFAR transcription levels were significantly downregulated in A. suturalis feeding on the transgenic plants. In contained field trials, the transgenic cotton lines significantly suppressed the development of A. suturalis populations and were resistant to damage caused by plant bug infestation.
These results suggest a new strategy for the management of plant bug pests of cotton.
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CRISPR-Cas9: a role in food security? - Global Food Security

CRISPR-Cas9: a role in food security? - Global Food Security | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
CRISPR-Cas9 technology provides an extremely precise and powerful tool for modifying genomes with countless potential applications, many of which are in agriculture. The University of Warwick’s Jessica Finch considers what this might mean for food security. With the speed and abundance of new scientific breakthroughs being made in today’s world, the term “revolutionary” is heard quite frequently; however, one genome editing technique taking the scientific world by storm seems likely to live up to this accolade: CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing. The CRISPR-Cas9 System CRISPR-Cas9 is a tool for very precisely engineering an organism’s genetic material. Derived from a bacterial defence mechanism against viruses, it allows bacteria to store a copy of viral DNA in their own genome, the RNA from which combines with a Cas enzyme to prompt the quick detection and destruction of that virus should the bacteria encounter it again. The co-opted version of this system involves using synthetic guide RNAs – sections of RNA designed to match a specific section of the gene that you wish to edit – and a slightly modified version of the naturally occurring enzyme called Cas9. When a match is found, the Cas9 enzyme cuts both strands of the DNA in the region of the genome specified by the guide RNA. During the subsequent DNA repair process, specific changes can be introduced to precisely change the function of the gene in the desired way.

Via NBT
NBT's curator insight, July 25, 2017 2:40 AM
With the speed and abundance of new scientific breakthroughs being made in today’s world, the term “revolutionary” is heard quite frequently; however, one genome editing technique taking the scientific world by storm seems likely to live up to this accolade: CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing.
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Impacts of Bt cotton on profitability, productivity and farm inputs in Pakistan: use of panel models - Bakhsh (2017) - Env Dev Econ

This study estimates the benefits from adopting Bt cotton seeds in Punjab, Pakistan over two cropping seasons - 2008 and 2009. The study uses the panel modeling approach to determine the average effects of Bt cotton technology on short-run profits, yields and farm inputs. This approach controls for biases resulting from self-selection and endogenous farm inputs. 


The study shows that, on average, Bt adopting farmers receive 9 per cent higher yields per hectare (ha), reduce per-ha pesticide use by 22 per cent, and increase per-ha use of irrigation water by 6 per cent.... Allowing more Bt cotton varieties and ensuring the availability of quality Bt cotton seeds in the market is likely to lead to further increase in the private benefits from Bt cotton. 


https://doi.org/10.1017/S1355770X17000080



Via Alexander J. Stein
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