GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture
13.7K views | +0 today
Follow
GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture
Site with information in English and French, used for teaching and educational purposes. Information about sustainable development, mainly related to agriculture, as well as assessment of [CO2] and climate change impact on plants;  or methods to decrease the use or the amount of  pesticides will be included on this site. Because biotechnologies are a part of the answer to these agricultural challenges, information about GMOs will be largely reported here.
Your new post is loading...
Your new post is loading...
Rescooped by Christophe Jacquet from NBT - New breeding techniques
Scoop.it!

CRISPR-Cas9: a role in food security? - Global Food Security

CRISPR-Cas9: a role in food security? - Global Food Security | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
CRISPR-Cas9 technology provides an extremely precise and powerful tool for modifying genomes with countless potential applications, many of which are in agriculture. The University of Warwick’s Jessica Finch considers what this might mean for food security. With the speed and abundance of new scientific breakthroughs being made in today’s world, the term “revolutionary” is heard quite frequently; however, one genome editing technique taking the scientific world by storm seems likely to live up to this accolade: CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing. The CRISPR-Cas9 System CRISPR-Cas9 is a tool for very precisely engineering an organism’s genetic material. Derived from a bacterial defence mechanism against viruses, it allows bacteria to store a copy of viral DNA in their own genome, the RNA from which combines with a Cas enzyme to prompt the quick detection and destruction of that virus should the bacteria encounter it again. The co-opted version of this system involves using synthetic guide RNAs – sections of RNA designed to match a specific section of the gene that you wish to edit – and a slightly modified version of the naturally occurring enzyme called Cas9. When a match is found, the Cas9 enzyme cuts both strands of the DNA in the region of the genome specified by the guide RNA. During the subsequent DNA repair process, specific changes can be introduced to precisely change the function of the gene in the desired way.

Via NBT
NBT's curator insight, July 25, 2017 2:40 AM
With the speed and abundance of new scientific breakthroughs being made in today’s world, the term “revolutionary” is heard quite frequently; however, one genome editing technique taking the scientific world by storm seems likely to live up to this accolade: CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing.
Rescooped by Christophe Jacquet from NBT - New breeding techniques
Scoop.it!

Building on nature's design

Building on nature's design | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
In 1996, a breakthrough was achieved when the sequence of ∼12 million base pairs, divided among 16 chromosomes, was reported for baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Now, some 20 years later, the Synthetic Yeast Genome Project (Sc2.0) reports on five newly constructed synthetic yeast chromosomes, advancing efforts to substantially reengineer all 16 yeast chromosomes with the goal of creating a fully synthetic eukaryotic genome.

Via NBT
NBT's curator insight, March 13, 2017 8:25 AM
In 1996, a breakthrough was achieved when the sequence of ∼12 million base pairs, divided among 16 chromosomes, was reported for baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Now, some 20 years later, the Synthetic Yeast Genome Project (Sc2.0) reports on five newly constructed synthetic yeast chromosomes, advancing efforts to substantially reengineer all 16 yeast chromosomes with the goal of creating a fully synthetic eukaryotic genome.
Rescooped by Christophe Jacquet from NBT - New breeding techniques
Scoop.it!

Gene editing opens doors to seedless fruit with no need for bees

Gene editing opens doors to seedless fruit with no need for bees | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it


Don’t like the seeds in tomatoes? You might be pleased to know that seedless ones have been created by gene editing. The technique will make it possible to make a much wider range of seedless fruits than is currently available – and also means farmers might not have to rely on declining bee populations. Whether we ever see such fruits on supermarket shelves, however, may depend on how regulators decide to treat gene-edited crops. Several types of seedless fruits, from bananas to cucumbers to grapes, are already widely available, but many have come about by luck rather than design. Seedless bananas are the result of accidental crosses between subspecies, for instance, while other seedless fruits stem from spontaneous mutations. There are a few seedless varieties of tomato, but they have taken breeders many years to create. Now Keishi Osakabe at Tokushima University in Japan and his colleagues have used the CRISPR gene-editing technique to deliberately introduce a mutation that makes tomatoes seedless. The mutation increases levels of a hormone called auxin, which stimulates fruits to develop even though no seeds have begun to form. The precise nature of the CRISPR technique meant that no mutations were introduced into other parts of the plant genome. The only obvious difference is that the mutant plant’s leaves had simpler, less intricate shapes than normal, because higher auxin levels also affect the formation of leaves. “We haven’t tasted them yet, but in theory they should taste the same,” says Osakabe. Gene-edited seedless tomatoes don’t need pollinating to produce fruit – which could come in useful at a time when bees are on the decline


Via NBT
NBT's curator insight, April 12, 2017 2:52 AM
The technique will make it possible to make a much wider range of seedless fruits than is currently available – and also means farmers might not have to rely on declining bee populations.