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HIPAA Physical Security is Just as Important as Cyber-Security

HIPAA Physical Security is Just as Important as Cyber-Security | Radiology | Scoop.it
HIPAA Physical Security is Just as Important as Cyber-Security

There are many misconceptions when it comes to HIPAA and security controls for covered entities. While security is related to technical measures such as encryption, firewalls, and security risk assessments, it also addresses physical and administrative safeguards that must be in place to protect patient information. In order to comply with HIPAA regulation, healthcare organizations must address each standard and safeguard outlined in the HIPAA Security Rule.

 

The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Office for Civil Rights (OCR) has now released new information further emphasizing the importance of physical safeguards for healthcare organizations across the country. HIPAA not only requires technical controls to protect the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of protected health information (PHI) but also proper physical security controls.

 

Physical safeguards are generally seen as the simplest and cheapest forms of protecting PHI, yet many organizations tend to overlook this important element of security. There are even some physical security controls that cost nothing- such as simply locking up portable electronic devices when they are not in use (laptops, portable storage devices, and pen drives).

 

Although this may seem like a very basic form of security, it is one of the most effective ways of preventing theft. To illustrate the importance of HIPAA physical security safeguards, OCR focuses on a 2015 HIPAA settlement with Lahey Hospital and Medical Center that affected 599 patients. This breach and subsequent HIPAA fine were triggered by the theft of an unencrypted laptop from the Tufts Medical School-affiliated teaching hospital.

 

The laptop was stolen from an unlocked treatment room off an inner corridor of the radiology department and contained ePHI. Lahey Hospital was fined $850,000 for failing to implement physical controls–a high price to pay for something that could have been avoided if some simple physical security safeguards were in place.

 

Prior to the Lahey Hospital settlement, QCA Health Plan paid $250,000 to OCR in 2014 for potential HIPAA violations. QCA Health Plan neglected to implement physical safeguards for all workstations to restrict access to ePHI to authorized users only. In this case, an unencrypted laptop was stolen from an employee’s vehicle.

 

Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary (MEEI) also settled a HIPAA violation with OCR in 2012 for $1.5 million. Again, this incident was related to the theft of an unencrypted laptop, resulting in the exposure of patients’ ePHI.

 

In 2016, Feinstein Institute for Medical Research settled potential HIPAA violations with OCR for $3.9 million. Feinstein Institute failed to physically secure a laptop that was stolen from an employee’s vehicle containing the ePHI of 13,000 patients.

 

In July 2016, the University of Mississippi Medical Center was fined $2,750,000 for a failure to implement HIPAA physical security safeguards. An unencrypted laptop that contained ePHI of approximately 10,000 patients was stolen from its Medical Intensive Care Unit.

Preventing HIPAA Physical Security Breaches

It is up to covered entities and their business associates to decide on the most appropriate physical security safeguards that will protect their patients’ ePHI. One way organizations can implement these physical security controls is by adopting an effective compliance program.

 

Compliance Group gives health care organizations confidence in their HIPAA compliance with The Guard. The Guard is our HIPAA compliance web-app that covers every element of HIPAA compliance.

 

Our Compliance Coaches will guide users through every step of their compliance program with the help of our HIPAA compliance web-app. The Guard is built to address the full extent of HIPAA regulation, including everything needed to implement an effective HIPAA compliance program that will help safeguard your practice from violations and fines.

 

With The Guard, health care professionals will not only address their physical security safeguards but the technical and administrative safeguards as well, along with the other HIPAA requirements.


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HIPAA Physical Security is Just as Important as Cyber-Security

HIPAA Physical Security is Just as Important as Cyber-Security | Radiology | Scoop.it
HIPAA Physical Security is Just as Important as Cyber-Security

There are many misconceptions when it comes to HIPAA and security controls for covered entities. While security is related to technical measures such as encryption, firewalls, and security risk assessments, it also addresses physical and administrative safeguards that must be in place to protect patient information. In order to comply with HIPAA regulation, healthcare organizations must address each standard and safeguard outlined in the HIPAA Security Rule.

 

The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Office for Civil Rights (OCR) has now released new information further emphasizing the importance of physical safeguards for healthcare organizations across the country. HIPAA not only requires technical controls to protect the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of protected health information (PHI) but also proper physical security controls.

 

Physical safeguards are generally seen as the simplest and cheapest forms of protecting PHI, yet many organizations tend to overlook this important element of security. There are even some physical security controls that cost nothing- such as simply locking up portable electronic devices when they are not in use (laptops, portable storage devices, and pen drives).

 

Although this may seem like a very basic form of security, it is one of the most effective ways of preventing theft. To illustrate the importance of HIPAA physical security safeguards, OCR focuses on a 2015 HIPAA settlement with Lahey Hospital and Medical Center that affected 599 patients. This breach and subsequent HIPAA fine were triggered by the theft of an unencrypted laptop from the Tufts Medical School-affiliated teaching hospital.

 

The laptop was stolen from an unlocked treatment room off an inner corridor of the radiology department and contained ePHI. Lahey Hospital was fined $850,000 for failing to implement physical controls–a high price to pay for something that could have been avoided if some simple physical security safeguards were in place.

 

Prior to the Lahey Hospital settlement, QCA Health Plan paid $250,000 to OCR in 2014 for potential HIPAA violations. QCA Health Plan neglected to implement physical safeguards for all workstations to restrict access to ePHI to authorized users only. In this case, an unencrypted laptop was stolen from an employee’s vehicle.

 

Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary (MEEI) also settled a HIPAA violation with OCR in 2012 for $1.5 million. Again, this incident was related to the theft of an unencrypted laptop, resulting in the exposure of patients’ ePHI.

 

In 2016, Feinstein Institute for Medical Research settled potential HIPAA violations with OCR for $3.9 million. Feinstein Institute failed to physically secure a laptop that was stolen from an employee’s vehicle containing the ePHI of 13,000 patients.

 

In July 2016, the University of Mississippi Medical Center was fined $2,750,000 for a failure to implement HIPAA physical security safeguards. An unencrypted laptop that contained ePHI of approximately 10,000 patients was stolen from its Medical Intensive Care Unit.

Preventing HIPAA Physical Security Breaches

It is up to covered entities and their business associates to decide on the most appropriate physical security safeguards that will protect their patients’ ePHI. One way organizations can implement these physical security controls is by adopting an effective compliance program.

 

Compliance Group gives health care organizations confidence in their HIPAA compliance with The Guard. The Guard is our HIPAA compliance web-app that covers every element of HIPAA compliance.

 

Our Compliance Coaches will guide users through every step of their compliance program with the help of our HIPAA compliance web-app. The Guard is built to address the full extent of HIPAA regulation, including everything needed to implement an effective HIPAA compliance program that will help safeguard your practice from violations and fines.

 

With The Guard, health care professionals will not only address their physical security safeguards but the technical and administrative safeguards as well, along with the other HIPAA requirements.


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inquiry@technicaldr.com or 877-910-0004
www.technicaldr.com

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A review on brain tumor diagnosis from MRI images: Practical implications, key achievements, and lessons learned

A review on brain tumor diagnosis from MRI images: Practical implications, key achievements, and lessons learned | Radiology | Scoop.it

Mahmoud Khaled Abd-Ellah, Ali Ismail Awad, Ashraf A.M. Khalaf, Hesham F.A. Hamed


Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Volume 61, September 2019, Pages 300-318


DOI: 10.1016/j.mri.2019.05.028

The successful early diagnosis of brain tumors plays a major role in improving the treatment outcomes and thus improving patient survival. Manually evaluating the numerous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images produced routinely in the clinic is a difficult process. Thus, there is a crucial need for computer-aided methods with better accuracy for early tumor diagnosis. Computer-aided brain tumor diagnosis from MRI images consists of tumor detection, segmentation, and classification processes. Over the past few years, many studies have focused on traditional or classical machine learning techniques for brain tumor diagnosis. Recently, interest has developed in using deep learning techniques for diagnosing brain tumors with better accuracy and robustness. This study presents a comprehensive review of traditional machine learning techniques and evolving deep learning techniques for brain tumor diagnosis. This review paper identifies the key achievements reflected in the performance measurement metrics of the applied algorithms in the three diagnosis processes. In addition, this study discusses the key findings and draws attention to the lessons learned as a roadmap for future research.

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A Ciencia Cierta 26/6/2019 Teoría de la Relatividad Especial en A Ciencia Cierta en mp3(27/06 a las 00:01:08) 01:00:58 37647788

A Ciencia Cierta 26/6/2019 Teoría de la Relatividad Especial en A Ciencia Cierta en mp3(27/06 a las 00:01:08) 01:00:58 37647788 | Radiology | Scoop.it
Escucha y descarga los episodios de A Ciencia Cierta gratis. En 1905 Albert Einstein publicó 4 artículos que cambiaron nuestra forma de ver el mundo.

En uno de ellos desarrollaba lo que hoy se conoce como...

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Diagnosing growth in low-grade gliomas with and without longitudinal volume measurements: A retrospective observational study

Diagnosing growth in low-grade gliomas with and without longitudinal volume measurements: A retrospective observational study | Radiology | Scoop.it
Hassan M. Fathallah-Shaykh, Andrew DeAtkine, Elizabeth Coffee, Elias Khayat, Asim K. Bag, Xiaosi Han, Paula Province Warren, Markus Bredel, John Fiveash, James Markert, Nidhal Bouaynaya, Louis B. Nabors


PLOS x, May 28, 2019


DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002810

Background

Low-grade gliomas cause significant neurological morbidity by brain invasion. There is no universally accepted objective technique available for detection of enlargement of low-grade gliomas in the clinical setting; subjective evaluation by clinicians using visual comparison of longitudinal radiological studies is the gold standard. The aim of this study is to determine whether a computer-assisted diagnosis (CAD) method helps physicians detect earlier growth of low-grade gliomas.


Methods and findings

We reviewed 165 patients diagnosed with grade 2 gliomas, seen at the University of Alabama at Birmingham clinics from 1 July 2017 to 14 May 2018. MRI scans were collected during the spring and summer of 2018. Fifty-six gliomas met the inclusion criteria, including 19 oligodendrogliomas, 26 astrocytomas, and 11 mixed gliomas in 30 males and 26 females with a mean age of 48 years and a range of follow-up of 150.2 months (difference between highest and lowest values). None received radiation therapy. We also studied 7 patients with an imaging abnormality without pathological diagnosis, who were clinically stable at the time of retrospective review (14 May 2018). This study compared growth detection by 7 physicians aided by the CAD method with retrospective clinical reports. The tumors of 63 patients (56 + 7) in 627 MRI scans were digitized, including 34 grade 2 gliomas with radiological progression and 22 radiologically stable grade 2 gliomas. The CAD method consisted of tumor segmentation, computing volumes, and pointing to growth by the online abrupt change-of-point method, which considers only past measurements. Independent scientists have evaluated the segmentation method. In 29 of the 34 patients with progression, the median time to growth detection was only 14 months for CAD compared to 44 months for current standard of care radiological evaluation (p < 0.001). Using CAD, accurate detection of tumor enlargement was possible with a median of only 57% change in the tumor volume as compared to a median of 174% change of volume necessary to diagnose tumor growth using standard of care clinical methods (p < 0.001). In the radiologically stable group, CAD facilitated growth detection in 13 out of 22 patients. CAD did not detect growth in the imaging abnormality group. The main limitation of this study was its retrospective design; nevertheless, the results depict the current state of a gold standard in clinical practice that allowed a significant increase in tumor volumes from baseline before detection. Such large increases in tumor volume would not be permitted in a prospective design. The number of glioma patients (n = 56) is a limitation; however, it is equivalent to the number of patients in phase II clinical trials.


Conclusions

The current practice of visual comparison of longitudinal MRI scans is associated with significant delays in detecting growth of low-grade gliomas. Our findings support the idea that physicians aided by CAD detect growth at significantly smaller volumes than physicians using visual comparison alone. This study does not answer the questions whether to treat or not and which treatment modality is optimal. Nonetheless, early growth detection sets the stage for future clinical studies that address these questions and whether early therapeutic interventions prolong survival and improve quality of life.

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Host mediated inflammatory influence on glioblastoma multiforme recurrence following high-dose ionizing radiation

Host mediated inflammatory influence on glioblastoma multiforme recurrence following high-dose ionizing radiation | Radiology | Scoop.it

J. Tyson McDonald, Xuefeng Gao, Cole Steber, Jawon Lee Breed, Caitlin Pollock, Lili Ma, Lynn Hlatky

PLOS May 22, 2017


DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0178155

Despite optimal clinical treatment, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) inevitably recurs. Standard treatment of GBM, exposes patients to radiation which kills tumor cells, but also modulates the molecular fingerprint of any surviving tumor cells and the cross-talk between those cells and the host. Considerable investigation of short-term (hours to days) post-irradiation tumor cell response has been undertaken, yet long-term responses (weeks to months) which are potentially even more informative of recurrence, have been largely overlooked. To better understand the potential of these processes to reshape tumor regrowth, molecular studies in conjunction with in silico modeling were used to examine short- and long-term growth dynamics. Despite survival of 2.55% and 0.009% following 8 or 16Gy, GBM cell populations in vitro showed a robust escape from cellular extinction and a return to pre-irradiated growth rates with no changes in long-term population doublings. In contrast, these same irradiated GBM cell populations injected in vivo elicited tumors which displayed significantly suppressed growth rates compared to their pre-irradiated counterparts. Transcriptome analysis days to weeks after irradiation revealed, 281 differentially expressed genes with a robust increase for cytokines, histones and C-C or C-X-C motif chemokines in irradiated cells. Strikingly, this same inflammatory signature in vivo for IL1A, CXCL1, IL6 and IL8 was increased in xenografts months after irradiation. Computational modeling of tumor cell dynamics indicated a host-mediated negative pressure on the surviving cells was a source of inhibition consistent with the findings resulting in suppressed tumor growth. Thus, tumor cells surviving irradiation may shift the landscape of population doubling through inflammatory mediators interacting with the host in a way that impacts tumor recurrence and affects the efficacy of subsequent therapies. Clues to more effective therapies may lie in the development and use of pre-clinical models of post-treatment response to target the source of inflammatory mediators that significantly alter cellular dynamics and molecular pathways in the early stages of tumor recurrence.

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Simulation Training: Evaluating the Instructor’s Contribution to a Wizard of Oz Simulator in Obstetrics and Gynecology Ultrasound Training

Simulation Training: Evaluating the Instructor’s Contribution to a Wizard of Oz Simulator in Obstetrics and Gynecology Ultrasound Training | Radiology | Scoop.it
A New Peer-Reviewed Journal with Focus on Technology, Innovation and Openess in Medical Education

Via Mariano Fernandez S., juandoming
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A novel super-resolution approach to time-resolved volumetric 4DMRI with high spatiotemporal resolution for multi-breathing cycle motion assessment

Guang Li, Jie Wei, Mo Kadbi, Jason Moody, August Sun, Shirong Zhang, Svetlana Markova, Kristen Zakian, Margie Hunt, Joseph O. Deasy

International Journal of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics, 17 February 2017

Purpose To develop and evaluate a super-resolution approach to reconstruct time-resolved four-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (TR-4DMRI) with a high spatiotemporal resolution for multi-breathing cycle motion assessment.

Methods and Materials A super-resolution approach was developed to combine fast 3D cine MRI with low-resolution during free breathing (FB) and high-resolution 3D static MRI during breath hold (BH) using deformable image registration (DIR). A T1-weighted, turbo field echo sequence, coronal 3D cine acquisition, partial Fourier approximation, and SENSE parallel acceleration were employed. The same MRI pulse sequence, field of view, and acceleration techniques were applied in both FB and BH acquisitions; the intensity-based Demons DIR method was used. Under an IRB-approved protocol, seven volunteers were studied with 3D cine FB scan (voxel size:5x5x5mm3) at 2Hz for 40s and a 3D static BH scan (2x2x2mm3). To examine the image fidelity of 3D cine and super-resolution TR-4DMRI, a mobile gel phantom with multi-internal targets was scanned at three velocities and compared with the 3D static image. Image similarity among 3D cine, 4DMRI, and 3D static was evaluated visually using difference image and quantitatively using voxel intensity correlation and Dice index (phantom only). Multi-breathing-cycle waveforms were extracted and compared in both phantom and volunteer images using the 3D cine as the references.

Results Mild imaging artifacts were found in the 3D cine and TR-4DMRI of the mobile gel phantom with a Dice index of >0.95. Among seven volunteers, the super-resolution TR-4DMRI yielded high voxel-intensity correlation (0.92±0.05) and low voxel-intensity difference (<0.05). The detected motion differences between TR-4DMRI and 3D cine were -0.2±0.5mm (phantom) and -0.2±1.9mm (diaphragms).

Conclusion Super-resolution TR-4DMRI has been reconstructed with adequate temporal (2Hz) and spatial (2x2x2mm3) resolutions. Further TR-4DMRI characterization and improvement are necessary before clinical applications. Multi-breathing cycles can be examined, providing patient-specific breathing irregularities and motion statistics for future 4D radiotherapy.

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Las 7 habilidades esenciales que todo graduado debería tener

Las 7 habilidades esenciales que todo graduado debería tener | Radiology | Scoop.it
“Adentrarse en el mundo laboral nada más acabar la carrera no es tarea fácil. Bueno, en realidad no es tarea fácil en ningún momento. La crisis económica y”
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¿Cómo un MOOC puede ayudar a nuestro curriculum vitae? - Markonomia

¿Cómo un MOOC puede ayudar a nuestro curriculum vitae? - Markonomia | Radiology | Scoop.it
“Analizamos como los MOOC (Massive Online Open Courses) pueden dar valor añadido a nuestro curriculum vitae.”
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Paso a Paso para construir un marco teórico

“ Explicación breve para construir el marco teórico de una investigación científica, bajo el enfoque cuantitativo.”
Via Fernando de la Cruz Naranjo Grisales
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Experimentos mentales, una gran herramienta para los físicos

Experimentos mentales, una gran herramienta para los físicos | Radiology | Scoop.it
Os hablamos de los experimentos mentales, que son una herramienta muy utilizada en muchas disciplinas, como la física, que debe recurrir a ellos a menudo.

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Excelentes ejemplos mentales que hacen fácil la interpretación
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FINISTERRAE BigData para la optimización de fármacos en enfermedades raras, neurodegenerativas y cáncer

PROYECTO FINISTERRAE

El objetivo es hacer el big data pequeño, reduciendo al máximo la complejidad. ... acelerando la búsqueda de nuevas dianas terapéuticas y de medicamentos huérfanos en ‪‎enfermedades raras‬ ...y también en enfermedades neurodegenerativas (Parkinson, Alzheimer, ELA,...) y ‪‎Cáncer‬…

Así mismo, se trata de mejorar el diagnóstico precoz de diferentes tipos de cáncer, y posibilitar la OPTIMIZACIÓN DEL TRATAMIENTO PERSONALIZADO (medicina de precisión).


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El electromagnetismo ante la mente matemática (y 2) | Experientia docet | Cuaderno de Cultura Científica

El electromagnetismo ante la mente matemática (y 2) | Experientia docet | Cuaderno de Cultura Científica | Radiology | Scoop.it
Finalizamos nuestro artículo anterior diciendo que una cosa es aceptar esta conexión descubierta entre los campos eléctrico y magnético y otra, un poco más difícil pero más interesante, comprender la necesidad física de esa conexión.

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La incompatibilidad del efecto fotoeléctrico con la física clásica

La incompatibilidad del efecto fotoeléctrico con la física clásica | Radiology | Scoop.it
Los resultados experimentales del estudio del efecto fotoeléctrico se pueden resumir en las siguientes afirmaciones. 1. Un metal muestra un efecto fotoeléctrico si, y solo si, la luz incidente tiene una frecuencia superior a una determinada frecuencia umbral característica de ese metal, que...

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Disruption!: El debate no debe ser si TIC si o no, si no que educación queremos!

Disruption!: El debate no debe ser si TIC si o no, si no que educación queremos! | Radiology | Scoop.it
juandon Ni podemos creer ni vehicular esta impresión a los demás que la escuela es el ecosistema " necesario" donde se aprende

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Automated 3-D lung tumor detection and classification by an active contour model and CNN classifier

Automated 3-D lung tumor detection and classification by an active contour model and CNN classifier | Radiology | Scoop.it

Gopi Kasinathan, Selvakumar Jayakumar, Amir H. Gandomi, Manikandan Ramachandran, Simon James Fong, Rizwan Patan


Expert Systems with Applications, Volume 134, 15 November 2019, Pages 112-119


DOI: 10.1016/j.eswa.2019.05.041

The World Health Organization (WHO) recently reported that the lung tumor was the leading cause of death worldwide. In this study, a practical computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system is developed to increase a patient's chance of survival. Segmentation is acritical analysis tool for dividing a lung image into several sub-regions. This work characterized an automated 3-D lung segmentation tool modeled by an active contour model for computed tomography (CT) images. The proposed segmentation model is used to integrate the local image bias field formulation with the active contour model (ACM). Here, a local energy term is specified by using the mean squared error to reconcile severely in homogeneous CT images and used to detect and segment tumor regions efficiently with intensity inhomogeneity. In addition, a Multiscale Gaussian distribution was applied to the CT images for smoothening the evolution process, and features were determined. For proposed model evaluation, were used the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC-IDRI) data set that consisted of 850 lung nodule-lesion images that were segmented and refined to generate accurate 3D lesions of lung tumor CT images. Tumor portions were extracted with 97% accuracy. Using continuous feature extraction of 3-D images leads to attributing the deformation and quantifies the centroid displacement. In this work, predict the centroid displacement and contour points by a curve evolution method which results in more accurate predictions of contour changes and than the extracted images were classified using an Enhanced Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) Classifier. The experimental result shows that the modified Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system has a high ability to acquire good accuracy and assures automated diagnosis of a lung tumor.

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Por qué no soy Constructivista

Por qué no soy Constructivista | Radiology | Scoop.it
Recomendado por Miguel Zapata a la lista EDUDIST de RedIris acabo de leer un artículo, escrito por Clifton Chadwick, que lleva el nombre de esta entrada. Es de los artículos que me gustan, de los q…

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Diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography imaging for the detection of differences between peripheral small cell lung cancer and peripheral non-small cell lung cancer

Diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography imaging for the detection of differences between peripheral small cell lung cancer and peripheral non-small cell lung cancer | Radiology | Scoop.it

Yanchen Ren, Yiyuan Cao, Weidong Hu, Xiaoxuan Wei, Xiaoyan Shen

Int J Clin Oncol (2017)

DOI: 10.1007/s10147-017-1131-0

Background

To evaluate the computed tomography features of peripheral small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer and to establish a predictive model to conveniently distinguish between them.


Materials and methods

We retrospectively reviewed the computed tomography features of 51 patients with peripheral small cell lung cancer and 207 patients with peripheral non-small cell lung cancer after pathological diagnosis. Thirteen computed tomography morphologic findings were included and analyzed statistically. Meaningful features were analyzed by logistic regression for multivariate analysis. We then used β-coefficients as the basis to establish an image scoring prediction model.


Result

The meaningful morphologic features for distinguishing between peripheral small cell lung cancer and other tumor types are multinodular shape and lymphadenectasis, with scores of 12 and 11, respectively. The scores ranged from −51 to 23, and the most reasonable cut-off was −24. The available area under the curve was 0.834 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.783–0.877). Sensitivity and specificity were 86.3% (95% CI 0.737–0.943) and 69.6% (95% CI 0.628–0.758), respectively.


Conclusion

The image scoring predictive model that we constructed provides a simple and economical noninvasive method for distinguishing between peripheral small cell lung cancer and peripheral non-small cell lung cancer.

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¡Crea geniales infografías con Easel.ly! | El Blog de Educación y TIC

¡Crea geniales infografías con Easel.ly! | El Blog de Educación y TIC | Radiology | Scoop.it
El uso de las infografías en educación se extiende cada vez más rápido, debido a que se tratan de una interesante y creativa manera de trabajar didácticamente cualquier información. ¿Te animas entonces a crear tus propias infografías? ¡Easel.ly te lo pone más fácil que nunca!
Via Fernando de la Cruz Naranjo Grisales
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El método definitivo para tener hijos lectores: consejos y recetas milagrosas que garantizan el éxito escolar

El método definitivo para tener hijos lectores: consejos y recetas milagrosas que garantizan el éxito escolar | Radiology | Scoop.it
“Girbés, J. C. (2016). [e-Book] El método definitivo para tener hijos lectores: consejos y recetas milagrosas que garantizan el éxito escolar. Barcelona, Fundación Bancaria “La Caixa” y la Fundación Jaume Bofill, 2017 Texto completoTexto completo El método definitivo para tener hijos lectores es una guía para ayudar a padres y madres en la estimulante tarea…”
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Matemáticas para mirar dentro del cuerpo humano

Matemáticas para mirar dentro del cuerpo humano | Radiology | Scoop.it

Por Ágata Timón En el Congreso Internacional de Matemáticos de 1998, Gunther Uhlmann (Universidad de Washington, EE UU) llamó la atención sobre un viejo problema del argentino Alberto Calderón en el que se preguntaba si existe un método para crear imágenes del interior de un objeto a partir de medidas eléctricas en la superficie. Uhlmann lo señaló como el problema más importante del área de problemas inversos, más allá de su interés aplicado, de donde nació. Calderón dio con la cuestión como método para buscar petróleo utilizando medidas en la superficie de la tierra cuando trabajaba en la petrolera YPF. La técnica EIT emplea una serie de electrodos en la piel del paciente. Se emiten corrientes eléctricas y, una vez atraviesan el cuerpo, se mide los voltajes generados, otra vez en la piel Esta misma técnica se puede utilizar en exámenes médicos de tomografía de impedancia eléctrica (EIT en sus siglas en inglés), una prueba diagnóstica barata y no invasiva. No solo no hace falta introducir objetos en el cuerpo (como se hace en la endoscopia, por ejemplo), sino que tampoco se ha de someter a radiaciones agresivas (como se hace en el TAC, con rayos X). La técnica EIT emplea una serie de electrodos en la piel del paciente. Se emiten corrientes eléctricas y, una vez atraviesan el cuerpo, se mide los voltajes generados, otra vez en la piel. Se repite el experimento con diferentes configuraciones de corriente y, a partir de estos datos, se reconstruye la conductividad del interior del cuerpo. Cada material resiste la electricidad de distinta forma (un hueso, el aire del interior del pulmón, la sangre, un tumor…), de manera que las distintas conductividades en cada punto permiten obtener una imagen del cuerpo. El problema de Calderón es lo que se llama un problema inverso. En vez de partir de una ecuación y calcular sus soluciones, se tienen las soluciones, y se quiere determinar la conductividad y por tanto la ecuación. De cierta manera es buscar la pregunta, dada la respuesta. Si alguien responde “Mañana hará soleado”, podemos deducir que la pregunta habrá sido “¿Qué tiempo hará mañana?”. Siguiendo con la analogía anterior, si la respuesta es menos determinante, por ejemplo “25”, hay muchas preguntas que podrían ser contestadas con ella:“¿Cuántos años tienes?”, “¿qué día era tu cumpleaños?, “¿cuánto te costó esa falda?”… Por tanto, no siempre hay una única cuestión de fondo; para algunos problemas podría haber varias configuraciones que dieran lugar al mismo resultado, y por tanto no habría manera de resolver el problema inverso. El trabajo de estos dos científicos es estrictamente teórico, pero podría ayudar a mejorar los algoritmos con los que funcionan los aparatos Sin embargo, Pedro Caro (Ikerbasque-BCAM) y Keith Rogers (CSIC-ICMAT) han probado que el Problema de Calderón sí puede resolverse. Han confirmado la conjetura de Uhlmann, demostrando que existe una única ecuación para cada conjunto de mediciones en la superficie, siempre y cuando la conductividad en el interior y la superficie cumpla ciertos requisitos de regularidad. Gracias a este reciente trabajo, publicado en la revista Forum of Mathematics, Pi, se sabe que si la conductividad en nuestro cuerpo no crece descontroladamente en ninguna región, se puede esperar que las imágenes que generan las máquinas de EIT sean fiables, más o menos. “En un mundo perfecto, con una máquina ideal, la imagen sería perfecta. Pero en el problema de Calderón no se consideran posibles errores, redondeo, etc.”, puntualiza Rogers. El trabajo de estos dos científicos es estrictamente teórico, pero podría ayudar a mejorar los algoritmos con los que funcionan los aparatos. “Pero para implementarlo en una máquina no interesa tanto la fórmula perfecta, sino la mas estable o la que pueda funcionar bien con datos imperfectos. Además entran otras variables de ingeniería informática”, asegura Rogers. Sin embargo, más allá de cerrar una pregunta abierta desde hace décadas, dentro de la propia matemática las implicaciones de este trabajo son importantes. Muchos problemas inversos comparten la misma estructura fundamental. Por ejemplo en los llamados problemas de tipo scattering, en los que se pretende reconstruir un objeto a partir de la manera en que perturba las ondas de sonido o luz. Es la idea que fundamenta los radares, o el funcionamiento del ojo humano.

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Redes Sociales: herramientas de aprendizaje imprescindibles hoy! Juan domingo Farnos

Redes Sociales: herramientas de aprendizaje imprescindibles hoy! Juan domingo Farnos | Radiology | Scoop.it
“juandon Por qué no tratar de entender las potencialidades de las redes sociales de aprendizaje o la creación de nuevos modelos centrados en el alumno, en la idea de que los estudiantes pueden seguir participando mediante la identificación de las rutas más interesantes y relevantes para ellos, en sus planteamientos de aprendizaje. Si partimos de…”
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FINISTERRAE BigData para la optimización de fármacos en enfermedades raras, neurodegenerativas y cáncer

PROYECTO FINISTERRAE

El objetivo es hacer el big data pequeño, reduciendo al máximo la complejidad. ... acelerando la búsqueda de nuevas dianas terapéuticas y de medicamentos huérfanos en ‪‎enfermedades raras‬ ...y también en enfermedades neurodegenerativas (Parkinson, Alzheimer, ELA,...) y ‪‎Cáncer‬…

Así mismo, se trata de mejorar el diagnóstico precoz de diferentes tipos de cáncer, y posibilitar la OPTIMIZACIÓN DEL TRATAMIENTO PERSONALIZADO (medicina de precisión).


Via Ignacio Fernández Alberti, Inforadiologia
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Phase II Study of Hemithoracic Intensity-Modulated Pleural Radiation Therapy (IMPRINT) As Part of Lung-Sparing Multimodality Therapy in Patients With Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

Andreas Rimner⇑, Marjorie G. Zauderer, Daniel R. Gomez, Prasad S. Adusumilli, Preeti K. Parhar, Abraham J. Wu, Kaitlin M. Woo, Ronglai Shen, Michelle S. Ginsberg, Ellen D. Yorke, David C. Rice, Anne S. Tsao, Kenneth E. Rosenzweig, Valerie W. Rusch, Lee M. Krug

JCO August 10, 2016 vol. 34 no. 23 2761-2768

Purpose We conducted a two-center phase II study to determine the safety of hemithoracic intensity-modulated pleural radiation therapy (IMPRINT) after chemotherapy and pleurectomy-decortication (P/D) as part of a multimodality lung-sparing treatment.

Patients and Methods Patients received up to four cycles of pemetrexed plus platinum. If feasible, P/D was performed. Hemithoracic IMPRINT was administered to a planned dose of 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions. The primary end point was the incidence of grade 3 or greater radiation pneumonitis (RP).

Results A total of 45 patients were enrolled; 18 were not evaluable (because of disease progression before radiation therapy [RT], n = 9; refusal of surgery or RT, n = 5; extrapleural pneumonectomy at time of surgery, n = 2; or chemotherapy complications, n = 2). A total of 26 patients received pemetrexed plus cisplatin, 18 received pemetrexed plus carboplatin, and four received a combination. Thirteen patients (28.9%) had a partial response, 15 patients (33.3%) experienced disease progression, one patient died during chemotherapy, and all others had stable disease. Eight patients underwent P/D or an extended P/D, and 13 underwent a partial P/D. A total of 27 patients started IMPRINT (median dose, 46.8 Gy; range, 28.8 to 50.4 Gy) and were evaluable for the primary end point (median follow-up, 21.6 months). Six patients experienced grade 2 RP, and two patients experienced grade 3 RP; all recovered after corticosteroid initiation. No grade 4 or 5 radiation-related toxicities were observed. The median progression-free survival and overall survival (OS) were 12.4 and 23.7 months, respectively; the 2-year OS was 59% in patients with resectable tumors and was 25% in patients with unresectable tumors.

Conclusions Hemithoracic IMPRINT for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is safe and has an acceptable rate of RP. Its incorporation with chemotherapy and P/D forms a new lung-sparing treatment paradigm for patients with locally advanced MPM.

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Scientists develop novel multifunctional platform to integrate imaging and photo-induced cancer therapy

Scientists develop novel multifunctional platform to integrate imaging and photo-induced cancer therapy | Radiology | Scoop.it

Physicists from The University of Texas at Arlington are leading a multidisciplinary project with The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas and The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston to develop a new multifunctional platform that can integrate imaging and photo-induced cancer therapy in a single, portable device. The process of destroying cancer cells by utilizing chemicals or heat generated by nanoparticles induced by near-infrared light - through processes including photodynamic therapy and photothermal therapy - has shown great promise as a treatment option, along with surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Photo-induced therapies are minimally invasive and cell destruction occurs only locally at tumor sites. Scientists believe that a real-time, tumor-guided therapy device, which can perform imaging and therapy simultaneously, will further improve the outcome of photo-induced therapies for patients. Recent studies have shown that it is possible to incorporate some imaging reporters to the nanoparticles used in photo-induced therapies. "Presently, the simultaneous cancer imaging and treatment of these nanoparticles is not possible due to the lack of a multifunctional device," said Mingwu Jin, UTA assistant professor of physics. "Our idea is to take an image of the tumor and then use that image to guide the physician where to focus the laser to deliver the therapy, while minimizing the damage to surrounding tissue." The National Institutes of Health awarded a $415,336 grant to Jin for a three-year project titled "Boosting photo-induced cancer therapies through real-time image guidance." Jin is joined by UTA physics professors Jaehoon Yu and Wei Chen, and Liping Tang, professor of bioengineering. Li Liu, assistant professor, Xiankai Sun, associate professor, both in radiology at UT Southwestern, and Chun Li, professor of diagnostic radiology at MD Anderson Cancer Center, are also collaborating on the project to provide expertise on cancer cell biology, preclinical nuclear imaging, and radio-chemistry. Previously, portable imaging probes utilizing gamma rays and beta particles have been used, but each of these comes with technical hurdles, which have not allowed for the integration of simultaneous imaging and therapy in a single, portable device. Jin and his colleagues plan to use the position-sensitive gas electron multiplier detector available in UTA's high energy physics lab and advanced spatiotemporal image processing to enable real-time image guided photo-induced therapies. The end goal is to develop a multifunctional device which they call Beta Image Guided Light-Induced Therapeutic dEvice or BIGLITE. "Gas electron multiplier or GEM-based devices have many advantages," Jin said. "In additional to its excellent detection performance, the flexibility of GEM can be used for a miniature device with the easy integration of an near infrared fiber for therapeutic purposes. Although GEM technology is rapidly evolved and widely used in high energy physics experiments, to directly detect beta particles in a miniature setup requires significant research and innovative designs which will be carried out as part of our project." Jin added that the team will apply spatiotemporal processing strategy for BIGLITE with the aid of optical imaging of visible light. A miniature digital camera will be integrated and synchronized with beta imaging to track the position and motion of BIGLITE related to the area of interest. The beta image frames can be enhanced through motion-compensated spatiotemporal processing to achieve a high frame rate to enable the real-time image guided near-infrared light delivery. The researchers believe that their proposed BIGLITE device can significantly improve the efficacy and safety of photo-induced therapies and shorten treatment time for patients in a number of ways. "First, image-guided near-infrared laser delivery can precisely kill cancer cells while sparing healthy ones," Jin said. "Second, due to this precise laser delivery, the laser power can be significantly increased so that more photon energy can be converted to chemical or thermal energy in a unit time for a faster tumor destruction. Third, this increased laser power can be utilized to lower the nanoparticle treatment dose for less toxicity." Given that tumors are increasingly being detected at an earlier stage and the proportion of elderly patients is increasing, BIGLITE's ability to enable the "seek and treat" strategy will become increasingly important for photo-induced therapies as a minimally invasive and effective treatment option for a broad spectrum of cancers, Jin said. Morteza Khaledi, dean of the College of Science, said that the project is a prime example of the important collaborative research being done at UTA and reflects the University's emphasis on health and the human condition, one of the four main pillars of UTA's Strategic Plan 2020: Bold Solutions | Global Impact. "This project has tremendous potential to introduce a safer, faster, more efficient method of providing treatment for cancer patients," Khaledi said. "The research being done by Dr. Jin and his colleagues demonstrates again that we are committed to finding solutions to pressing medical issues which affect the health of so many people." Chen's role in the project is to provide copper sulfide nanoparticles to use in testing with the BIGLITE device. In 2010, Chen led a team which first developed copper sulfide nanoparticles for use in photothermal therapy to remove cancer cells. Due to their unique optical properties, small size, low cost of production and low toxicity to cells, Chen and his colleagues found the copper sulfide nanoparticles to be promising nanomaterials for use in photothermal therapy. Yu will provide the assistance on hardware development using GEM and Tang will help design studies to test the efficacy of the BIGLITE therapy.

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