Mycorrhiza: plant-fungus symbiosis
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Suivre le chercheur à la trace | Mondes Sociaux

Suivre le chercheur à la trace | Mondes Sociaux | Mycorrhiza: plant-fungus symbiosis | Scoop.it

Mondes Sociaux vient de créer la rubrique "Un film" dédiée aux "films-recherche", outil de médiation scientifique. Jouons au Petit Poucet : regardons "De traces en traces".


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HOW A FUNGUS INHIBITS THE IMMUNE SYSTEM OF PLANTS - Global Plant Council 

HOW A FUNGUS INHIBITS THE IMMUNE SYSTEM OF PLANTS - Global Plant Council  | Mycorrhiza: plant-fungus symbiosis | Scoop.it
The fungus Piriformospora indica colonizes the roots of different plants. This can be orchids, tobacco, barley or even moss. It penetrates into the roots, but does not damage the plants. On the contrary, it can even promote the growth of its plant partners. Such and other interactions between the fungus and its partners are already known to the scientific community.

Research groups from Cologne and Würzburg are now reporting a new facet of the fungus-plant relationship in Nature Communications: The researchers identified a protein with which the fungus suppresses the immune defence of the populated plants. So it makes sure that it is not attacked like disease-inducing fungi and the relationship can succeed in the long run.

The protein "Fungal Glucan Binding 1" (FGB1) prevents the plant from producing an "oxidative burst". This usually generates aggressive oxygen radicals, which destroy potential pathogens and activate the immune system of the plant.

Protein makes the plant blind to fungus structures
How does the protein lame the immune response of the plant? "It binds with highly affinity and very specifically to sugar molecules that sit in the cell wall of the fungi and which are normally recognized as 'foreign' by the plant," explains Professor of Molecular Biology Alga Zuccaro from the University of Cologne. FGB1 acts like a camouflage coat and conceals the foreign sugar molecules from the immune system.

Via Francis Martin, Jean-Michel Ané
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Stressed out symbiotes: hypotheses for the influence of abiotic stress on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi | Plant-Microbe Symbiosis

Stressed out symbiotes: hypotheses for the influence of abiotic stress on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi | Plant-Microbe Symbiosis | Mycorrhiza: plant-fungus symbiosis | Scoop.it
Abiotic stress is a widespread threat to both plant and soil communities. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can alleviate effects of abiotic stress by improving host plant stress tolerance, but the direct effects of abiotic stress on AM fungi are less well understood. We propose two hypotheses predicting how AM fungi will respond to abiotic stress. The stress exclusion hypothesis predicts that AM fungal abundance and diversity will decrease with persistent abiotic stress. The mycorrhizal stress adaptation hypothesis predicts that AM fungi will evolve in response to abiotic stress to maintain their fitness. We conclude that abiotic stress can have effects on AM fungi independent of the effects on the host plant. AM fungal communities will change in composition in response to abiotic stress, which may mean the loss of important individual species. This could alter feedbacks to the plant community and beyond. AM fungi will adapt to abiotic stress independent of their host plant. The adaptation of AM fungi to abiotic stress should allow the maintenance of the plant-AM fungal mutualism in the face of changing climates. | Plant-Microbe Symbiosis
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MOOC - Histoire des sciences : une introduction

MOOC - Histoire des sciences : une introduction | Mycorrhiza: plant-fungus symbiosis | Scoop.it

L'histoire des sciences, qu'est-ce que c'est et à quoi ça sert ? Comprendre les dynamiques qui ont permis aux sciences de se constituer, explorer ses évolutions, son organisation et ses démarches, telle est l'ambition de ce MOOC qui propose une initiation à une histoire critique des sciences.


Via Nath B
Nath B's curator insight, April 19, 2016 3:44 PM
Début du MOOC : 18 avril 2016
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The Plant Microbiota: Systems Biology Insights and Perspectives | MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions

The Plant Microbiota: Systems Biology Insights and Perspectives | MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions | Mycorrhiza: plant-fungus symbiosis | Scoop.it
Plants do not grow as axenic organisms in nature but host a diverse community of microorganisms, the plant microbiota. There is an increasing awareness that the plant microbiota plays a role in plant growth and can provide protection from invading pathogens. Apart from intense research on crop plants, Arabidopsis is emerging as a valuable model system to investigate the drivers shaping stable bacterial communities on leaves and roots and as a tool to decipher the intricate relationship among the host and its colonizing bacteria. Gnotobiotic experimental systems help establish causal relationships between plant and microbiota geno- and phenotypes, and test hypotheses on biotic and abiotic perturbations in a systematic way. We highlight major recent findings in plant microbiota research using comparative community profiling and omics analyses, and discuss these approaches in light of community establishment and beneficial traits like nutrient acquisition and plant health.

Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Genetics Volume 50 is November 23, 2016. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates. | MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions
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Current Opinion in Plant Biology: Signals and cues in the evolution of plant–microbe communication (2016) | Plants and Microbes

Current Opinion in Plant Biology: Signals and cues in the evolution of plant–microbe communication (2016) | Plants and Microbes | Mycorrhiza: plant-fungus symbiosis | Scoop.it
Communication has played a key role in organismal evolution. If sender and receiver have a shared interest in propagating reliable information, such as when they are kin relatives, then effective communication can bring large fitness benefits. However, interspecific communication (among different species) is more prone to dishonesty. Over the last decade, plants and their microbial root symbionts have become a model system for studying interspecific molecular crosstalk. However, less is known about the evolutionary stability of plant–microbe communication. What prevents partners from hijacking or manipulating information to their own benefit? Here, we focus on communication between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and their host plants. We ask how partners use directed signals to convey specific information, and highlight research on the problem of dishonest signaling. | Plants and Microbes
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PLANTS COMMUNICATE USING AN INTERNET OF FUNGUS

PLANTS COMMUNICATE USING AN INTERNET OF FUNGUS | Mycorrhiza: plant-fungus symbiosis | Scoop.it
Gardeners, keep an eye on your tomato plants. There's no knowing what they are plotting underground.Some 80 per cent of plants are colonised by fungi that form the familiar network of fine white threads that hang off many roots. The threads, called mycorrhizae, take in water and minerals from the soil, and hand some over to the plant in exchange for nutrients. Now it seems plants use them to communicate too.Ren Sen Zeng and colleagues at South China Agricultural University in Guangzhou, grew pairs of tomato plants in pots. The team allowed some pairs to form mycorrhizal networks betwee
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Sugar exchanges in arbuscular mycorrhiza: RiMST5 and RiMST6, two novel Rhizophagus irregularis monosaccharide transporters, are involved in both sugar uptake from the soil and from the plant partner

Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are associated with about 80% of land plants. AM fungi provide inorganic nutrients to plants and in return up to 20% of the plant-fixed CO2 is transferred to the fungal symbionts. Since AM fungi are obligate biotrophs, unraveling how sugars are provided to the fungus partner is a key for understanding the functioning of the symbiosis. In this study, we identified two new monosaccharide transporters from Rhizophagus irregularis (RiMST5 and RiMST6) that we characterized as functional high affinity monosaccharide transporters. RiMST6 was characterized as a glucose specific, high affinity H+ co-transporter. We provide experimental support for a primary role of both RiMST5 and RiMST6 in sugar uptake directly from the soil. The expression patterns of RiMSTs in response to partial light deprivation and to interaction with different host plants were investigated. Expression of genes coding for RiMSTs was transiently enhanced after 48 h of shading and was unambiguously dependent on the host plant species. These results cast doubt on the 'fair trade' principle under carbon-limiting conditions. Therefore, in light of these findings, the possible mechanisms involved in the modulation between mutualism and parasitism in plant-AM fungus interactions are discussed.
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Sustainable strategies towards a phosphorus circular economy

Sustainable strategies towards a phosphorus circular economy | Mycorrhiza: plant-fungus symbiosis | Scoop.it
Veille. Centre d'Etudes et de Prospectives (MAAF)
14/06/2016
Propositions pour une économie circulaire autour du phosphore
Prolongeant la 4e conférence Sustainable Phosphorus Summit, le journal Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems a publié un numéro spécial sur les approches intégrées et la gestion du phosphore. L'ensemble des articles offre un tour d'horizon des enjeux autour de ce nutriment indispensable pour les êtres vivants. L'éditorial met en perspective l'hétérogénéité des problèmes selon les régions et les stratégies adaptées pour tendre vers une économie circulaire. Alors que les nations les plus riches doivent gérer l'excès de phosphore dans les sols, les sédiments et les déchets, les pays les plus pauvres (ex : Afrique sub-saharienne) font face à un déficit dans les systèmes alimentaires. Quant aux pays émergents, l'évolution rapide de l'agriculture ne s'est pas accompagnée de réglementations adaptées à la protection de l'environnement, engendrant une accumulation de phosphore dans les sols et des pertes dans les eaux (illustration en Chine).
Voir figure : Économie circulaire et phosphore, les différentes composantes phosphore.jpg Source : Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems
Parmi les articles, Rosemarin et Ekane discutent de la gouvernance du phosphore, indispensable pour assurer la disponibilité et l'accès à long terme à cet élément. Ils concluent sur la nécessité d'inclure l'ensemble des acteurs « de la mine à la fourchette », et proposent un plan d'action sous l'égide des Nations unies. Ce dernier reposerait sur la création d'un Global Phosphorus Facility, dont l'objectif serait de communiquer sur les risques encourus et les solutions disponibles, ainsi que d'établir des normes et des lignes directrices pour une gestion durable du phosphore.
Cette gestion durable passera notamment par une meilleure connaissance des principales ressources : les roches phosphatées. Les auteurs insistent en particulier sur la nécessité de disposer de données fiables, qui seraient établies par un organisme indépendant. Leur propos est illustré par la variation des estimations, par l'United States Geological Survey, des réserves allant de 16 à 60 milliards de tonnes pour les années 2010 et 2011. Élise Delgoulet, Centre d'études et de prospective Source : Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems
Élise Delgoulet, Centre d'études et de prospective Source : Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems
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Roots and Associated Fungi Drive Long-Term Carbon Sequestration in Boreal Forest | Mycorrhiza: plant-fungus symbiosis

Roots and Associated Fungi Drive Long-Term Carbon Sequestration in Boreal Forest | Mycorrhiza: plant-fungus symbiosis | Mycorrhiza: plant-fungus symbiosis | Scoop.it
Boreal forest is one of the world's major biomes, dominating the subarctic northern latitudes of Europe, Asia, and America. The soils of boreal forest function as a net sink in the global carbon cycle and, hitherto, it has been thought that organic matter in this sink primarily accumulates in the form of plant remains. Clemmensen et al. (p. [1615][1]; see the Perspective by [Treseder and Holden][2] ) now show that most of the stored carbon in boreal forested islands in Sweden is in fact derived from mycorrhizal mycelium rather than from plant litter. Biochemical and sequencing studies show that carbon sequestration is regulated by functional and phylogenetic shifts in the mycorrhizal fungal community. The results will need to be explicitly considered in models of the role of the boreal forest in the global carbon cycle.

[1]: /lookup/doi/10.1126/science.1231923
[2]: /lookup/volpage/339/1528?iss=6127 | Mycorrhiza: plant-fungus symbiosis
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Effect of vegetation types on soil arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and nitrogen-fixing bacterial communities in a karst region | Plant-Microbe Symbiosis | Mycorrhiza: plant-fungus symbiosis

Effect of vegetation types on soil arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and nitrogen-fixing bacterial communities in a karst region | Plant-Microbe Symbiosis | Mycorrhiza: plant-fungus symbiosis | Mycorrhiza: plant-fungus symbiosis | Scoop.it
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and nitrogen-fixing bacteria play important roles in plant growth and recovery in degraded ecosystems. The desertification in karst regions has become more severe in recent decades. Evaluation of the fungal and bacterial diversity of such regions during vegetation restoration is required for effective protection and restoration in these regions. Therefore, we analyzed relationships among AM fungi and nitrogen-fixing bacteria abundances, plant species diversity, and soil properties in four typical ecosystems of vegetation restoration (tussock (TK), shrub (SB), secondary forest (SF), and primary forest (PF)) in a karst region of southwest China. Abundance of AM fungi and nitrogen-fixing bacteria, plant species diversity, and soil nutrient levels increased from the tussock to the primary forest. The AM fungus, nitrogen-fixing bacterium, and plant community composition differed significantly between vegetation types (p < 0.05). Plant richness and pH were linked to the community composition of fungi and nitrogen-fixing bacteria, respectively. Available phosphorus, total nitrogen, and soil organic carbon levels and plant richness were positively correlated with the abundance of AM fungi and nitrogen-fixing bacteria (p < 0.05). The results suggested that abundance of AM fungi and nitrogen-fixing bacteria increased from the tussock to the primary forest and highlight the essentiality of these communities for vegetation restoration. | Plant-Microbe Symbiosis | Mycorrhiza: plant-fungus symbiosis
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Relationship between soil nutrients and mycorrhizal associations of two Bipinnula species (Orchidaceae) from central Chile | Plant-Microbe Symbiosis

Relationship between soil nutrients and mycorrhizal associations of two Bipinnula species (Orchidaceae) from central Chile | Plant-Microbe Symbiosis | Mycorrhiza: plant-fungus symbiosis | Scoop.it
Background and Aims Mycorrhizal associations are influenced by abiotic and biotic factors, including climate, soil conditions and the identity of host plants. However, the effect of environmental conditions on orchid mycorrhizal associations remains poorly understood. The present study examined how differences in soil nutrient availability are related to the diversity and composition of mycorrhizal fungi associated with two terrestrial orchid species from central Chile.

Methods For 12 populations of Bipinnula fimbriata and B. plumosa, OTU (operational taxonomic unit) richness, phylogenetic diversity and community composition of mycorrhizal fungi in root samples were estimated using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. Then, these mycorrhizal diversity variables were related to soil nutrients and host species using generalized linear models and non-metric multidimensional scaling.

Key Results Variation in OTU composition of mycorrhizal fungi among sites was explained mainly by orchid host species. Fungi in Tulasnellaceae and Ceratobasidiaceae were isolated from both orchid species, but the former were more frequent in B. fimbriata and the latter in B. plumosa. Soil nutrients and orchid host species had significant effects on OTU richness and phylogenetic diversity. Mycorrhizal diversity decreased in habitats with higher N in both species and increased with P availability only in B. fimbriata.

Conclusions The results suggest that soil nutrient availability modulates orchid mycorrhizal associations and provide support for the hypothesis that specialization is favoured by higher soil nutrient availability. Inter-specific differences in mycorrhizal composition can arise due to a geographical pattern of distribution of orchid mycorrhizal fungi, host preferences for fungal partners or differential performance of mycorrhizal fungi under different nutrient availabilities. Further experiments are needed to evaluate these hypotheses. | Plant-Microbe Symbiosis
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GintAMT3 – a Low-Affinity Ammonium Transporter of the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Rhizophagus irregularis

GintAMT3 – a Low-Affinity Ammonium Transporter of the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Rhizophagus irregularis | Mycorrhiza: plant-fungus symbiosis | Scoop.it
“Nutrient acquisition and transfer are essential steps in the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, which is formed by the majority of land plants. Mineral nutrients are taken up by AM fungi from the soil and transferred to the plant partner. Within the cortical plant root cells the fungal hyphae form tree-like structures (arbuscules) where the nutrients are released to the plant-fungal interface, i.e., to the periarbuscular space, before being taken up by the plant. In exchange, the AM fungi receive carbohydrates from the plant host. Besides the well-studied uptake of phosphorus (P), the uptake and transfer of nitrogen (N) plays a crucial role in this mutualistic interaction. In the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis (formerly called Glomus intraradices), two ammonium transporters (AMT) were previously described, namely GintAMT1 and GintAMT2. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a newly identified R. irregularis AMT, GintAMT3. Phylogenetic analyses revealed high sequence similarity to previously identified AM fungal AMTs and a clear separation from other fungal AMTs. Topological analysis indicated GintAMT3 to be a membrane bound pore forming protein, and GFP tagging showed it to be highly expressed in the intraradical mycelium of a fully established AM symbiosis. Expression of GintAMT3 in yeast successfully complemented the yeast AMT triple deletion mutant (MATa ura3 mep1Δ mep2Δ::LEU2 mep3Δ::KanMX2). GintAMT3 is characterized as a low affinity transport system with an apparent Km of 1.8 mM and a Vmax of 240 nmol-1 min-1 108 cells-1, which is regulated by substrate concentration and carbon supply.”
Via Jean-Michel Ané
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Impact of rhizobial inoculum and inorganic fertilizers on nutrients (NPK) availability and uptake in wheat crop | Plant-Microbe Symbiosis

Impact of rhizobial inoculum and inorganic fertilizers on nutrients (NPK) availability and uptake in wheat crop | Plant-Microbe Symbiosis | Mycorrhiza: plant-fungus symbiosis | Scoop.it
Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of rhizobial inoculums and inorganic fertilizers on NP availability, soil microbial activity, wheat NPK concentration and uptake. These experiments were consisted of two factors, four inoculums (no, lentil, peas, and chickpeas) and two NPK doses (120:90:60 and 96:72:48 kg ha−1). Inoculums significantly increased plant total NPK concentration by 39, 57, and 37%, and their uptake by 66, 86, and 56%, respectively. Peas inoculum was most efficient in wheat NPK concentration and uptake. The interactive effect of inoculums and NPK demonstrated that peas and lentil inoculums with 20% less NPK had statistically better role than full NPK without inoculation. AB-DTPA extractible P and mineral N were progressively increased with incubation periods and exhibited significant differences between inoculated and uninoculated treatments during all incubation intervals for NP except at day 7 for N. Peas inoculum showed maximum mean net NP availability of 131.5 and 3.48 mg kg−1 over 56 d of incubation, respectively. Significantly higher cumulative CO2 of 1429 mg kg−1 with a net increase of 866 mg kg−1 was recorded for pea’s inoculums during 12 d of incubation interval. It is concluded that peas rhizobium could be used as a plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria for wheat and other cereal crops. | Plant-Microbe Symbiosis
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Wiley: Molecular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis - Francis Martin

Wiley: Molecular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis - Francis Martin | Mycorrhiza: plant-fungus symbiosis | Scoop.it
Recent years have seen extensive research in the molecular underpinnings of symbiotic plant-fungal interactions. Molecular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis is a timely collection of work that will bridge the gap between molecular biology, fungal genomics, and ecology. A more profound understanding of mycorrhizal symbiosis will have broad-ranging impacts on the fields of plant biology, mycology, crop science, and ecology. Molecular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis will open with introductory chapters on the biology, structure and phylogeny of the major types of mycorrhizal symbioses. Chapters then review different molecular mechanisms driving the development and functioning of mycorrhizal systems and molecular analysis of mycorrhizal populations and communities. The book closes with chapters that provide an overall synthesis of field and provide perspectives for future research. Authoritative and timely, Molecular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis, will be an essential reference from those working in plant and fungal biology.
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Study finds that plant growth responses to high carbon dioxide depend on symbiotic fungi

Study finds that plant growth responses to high carbon dioxide depend on symbiotic fungi | Mycorrhiza: plant-fungus symbiosis | Scoop.it
Research by an international team of environmental scientists from the United Kingdom, Belgium and United States, including Indiana University, has found that plants that associate with one type of symbiotic fungi grow bigger in response to high levels of carbon dioxide, or CO2, in the atmosphere, but plants that associate with the other major type of symbiotic fungi do not.
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Isolating a functionally relevant guild of fungi from the root microbiome of Populus | MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions

Isolating a functionally relevant guild of fungi from the root microbiome of Populus | MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions | Mycorrhiza: plant-fungus symbiosis | Scoop.it
Plant roots interact with a bewilderingly complex community of microbes, including root-associated fungi that are essential for maintaining plant health. To improve understanding of the diversity of fungi in the rhizobiome of Populus deltoides, Populus trichocarpa and co-occurring plant hosts Quercus alba and Pinus taeda, we conducted field and greenhouse studies and sampled, isolated, and characterized the diversity of culturable root-associated fungi on these hosts. Using both general and selective isolation media we obtained more than 1800 fungal isolates from individual surface sterilized root tips. Sequences from the ITS and/or D1– D2 regions of the LSU rDNA were obtained from 1042 of the >1800 pure culture isolates and were compared to accessions in the NCBI nucleotide database and analyzed through phylogenetics for preliminary taxonomic identification. Sequences from these isolates were also compared to 454 sequence datasets obtained directly from the Populus rhizosphere and endosphere. Although most of the ectomycorrhizal taxa known to associate with Populus evaded isolation, many of the abundant sequence types from rhizosphere and endosphere 454 datasets were isolated, including novel species belonging to the Atractiellales. Isolation and identification of key endorrhizal fungi will enable more targeted study of plant-fungal interactions. Genome sequencing is currently underway for a subset of our culture library with the aim of understanding the mechanisms involved in host-endophyte establishment and function. This diverse culture library of fungal root associates will be a valuable resource for metagenomic research, experimentation and further studies on plant-fungal interactions. | MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions
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GintAMT3 – a Low-Affinity Ammonium Transporter of the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Rhizophagus irregularis | MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions

GintAMT3 – a Low-Affinity Ammonium Transporter of the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Rhizophagus irregularis | MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions | Mycorrhiza: plant-fungus symbiosis | Scoop.it
Nutrient acquisition and transfer are essential steps in the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, which is formed by the majority of land plants. Mineral nutrients are taken up by AM fungi from the soil and transferred to the plant partner. Within the cortical plant root cells the fungal hyphae form tree-like structures (arbuscules) where the nutrients are released to the plant-fungal interface, i.e., to the periarbuscular space, before being taken up by the plant. In exchange, the AM fungi receive carbohydrates from the plant host. Besides the well-studied uptake of phosphorus (P), the uptake and transfer of nitrogen (N) plays a crucial role in this mutualistic interaction. In the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis (formerly called Glomus intraradices), two ammonium transporters (AMT) were previously described, namely GintAMT1 and GintAMT2. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a newly identified R. irregularis AMT, GintAMT3. Phylogenetic analyses revealed high sequence similarity to previously identified AM fungal AMTs and a clear separation from other fungal AMTs. Topological analysis indicated GintAMT3 to be a membrane bound pore forming protein, and GFP tagging showed it to be highly expressed in the intraradical mycelium of a fully established AM symbiosis. Expression of GintAMT3 in yeast successfully complemented the yeast AMT triple deletion mutant (MATa ura3 mep1Δ mep2Δ::LEU2 mep3Δ::KanMX2). GintAMT3 is characterized as a low affinity transport system with an apparent Km of 1.8 mM and a Vmax of 240 nmol-1 min-1 108 cells-1, which is regulated by substrate concentration and carbon supply. | MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions
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High-resolution community profiling of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi | MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions

High-resolution community profiling of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi | MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions | Mycorrhiza: plant-fungus symbiosis | Scoop.it
Community analyses of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) using ribosomal small subunit (SSU) or internal transcribed spacer (ITS) DNA sequences often suffer from low resolution or coverage. We developed a novel sequencing based approach for a highly resolving and specific profiling of AMF communities. We took advantage of previously established AMF-specific PCR primers that amplify a c. 1.5-kb long fragment covering parts of SSU, ITS and parts of the large ribosomal subunit (LSU), and we sequenced the resulting amplicons with single molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing. The method was applicable to soil and root samples, detected all major AMF families and successfully discriminated closely related AMF species, which would not be discernible using SSU sequences. In inoculation tests we could trace the introduced AMF inoculum at the molecular level. One of the introduced strains almost replaced the local strain(s), revealing that AMF inoculation can have a profound impact on the native community. The methodology presented offers researchers a powerful new tool for AMF community analysis because it unifies improved specificity and enhanced resolution, whereas the drawback of medium sequencing throughput appears of lesser importance for low-diversity groups such as AMF. | MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions
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Soil immune responses | plant microbe interaction genomics

Soil immune responses | plant microbe interaction genomics | Mycorrhiza: plant-fungus symbiosis | Scoop.it
Soil microorganisms are central to the provision of food, feed, fiber, and medicine. Engineering of soil microbiomes may promote plant growth and plant health, thus contributing to food security and agricultural sustainability ( 1 , 2 ). However, little is known about most soil microorganisms and their impact on plant health. Disease-suppressive soils offer microbiome-mediated protection of crop plants against infections by soil-borne pathogens. Understanding of the microbial consortia and mechanisms involved in disease suppression may help to better manage plants while reducing fertilizer and pesticide inputs. | plant microbe interaction genomics
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RNA ‘Information Warfare’ in Pathogenic and Mutualistic Interactions | Plant-Microbe Interactions

RNA ‘Information Warfare’ in Pathogenic and Mutualistic Interactions | Plant-Microbe Interactions | Mycorrhiza: plant-fungus symbiosis | Scoop.it
Empty description | Plant-Microbe Interactions
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Arbuscular mycorrhiza improves yield and nutritional properties of onion (Allium cepa)

Arbuscular mycorrhiza improves yield and nutritional properties of onion (Allium cepa) | Mycorrhiza: plant-fungus symbiosis | Scoop.it
Publication date: October 2016
Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 107
Author(s): Piotr Rozpądek, Maria Rąpała-Kozik, Katarzyna Wężowicz, Anna Grandin, Stefan Karlsson, Rafał Ważny, Teresa Anielska, Katarzyna Turnau
Improving the nutritional value of commonly cultivated crops is one of the most pending problems for modern agriculture. In natural environments plants associate with a multitude of fungal microorganisms that improve plant fitness. The best described group are arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). These fungi have been previously shown to improve the quality and yield of several common crops. In this study we tested the potential utilization of Rhizophagus irregularis in accelerating growth and increasing the content of important dietary phytochemicals in onion (Allium cepa). Our results clearly indicate that biomass production, the abundance of vitamin B1 and its analogues and organic acid concentration can be improved by inoculating the plant with AM fungi. We have shown that improved growth is accompanied with up-regulated electron transport in PSII and antioxidant enzyme activity.
Graphical abstract
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A Transcriptome Atlas of Physcomitrella patens Provides Insights into the Evolution and Development of Land Plants | Plant-Microbe Symbiosis

A Transcriptome Atlas of Physcomitrella patens Provides Insights into the Evolution and Development of Land Plants | Plant-Microbe Symbiosis | Mycorrhiza: plant-fungus symbiosis | Scoop.it
Identifying the genetic mechanisms that underpin the evolution of new organ and tissue systems is an aim of evolutionary developmental biology. Comparative functional genetic studies between angiosperms and bryophytes can define those genetic changes that were responsible for developmental innovations. Here, we report the generation of a transcriptome atlas covering most phases in the life cycle of the model bryophyte Physcomitrella patens, including detailed sporophyte developmental progression. We identified a comprehensive set of sporophyte-specific transcription factors, and found that many of these genes have homologs in angiosperms that function in developmental processes such as flowering and shoot branching. Deletion of the PpTCP5 transcription factor results in development of supernumerary sporangia attached to a single seta, suggesting that it negatively regulates branching in the moss sporophyte. Given that TCP genes repress branching in angiosperms, we suggest that this activity is ancient. Finally, comparison of P. patens and Arabidopsis thaliana transcriptomes led us to the identification of a conserved core of transcription factors expressed in tip-growing cells. We identified modifications in the expression patterns of these genes that could account for developmental differences between P. patens tip-growing cells and A. thaliana pollen tubes and root hairs. | Plant-Microbe Symbiosis
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Seeing is believing: cell biology at the plant–microbe interface | Plant-Microbe Symbiosis

Seeing is believing: cell biology at the plant–microbe interface | Plant-Microbe Symbiosis | Mycorrhiza: plant-fungus symbiosis | Scoop.it
The advances made during the twentieth century in understanding the genetics of host–pathogen interactions transformed crop breeding; however the field of plant pathology was founded from the earliest cell biology of Hooke and his contemporaries. During the twenty-first century phytopathologists have refocused their attention to the microscopic world to identify the molecular mechanisms responsible for inherited disease resistance, mutualistic interactions and virulence. For the first time a symposium was organized to specifically discuss the latest insights into plant–microbe interactions gained by merging rediscovered techniques, such as electron-microscopy, with new tools that allow in vivo high-resolution tracking of cellular dynamics. These methods, together with the implementation of state-of-the-art proteomic and chemical biology approaches, are helping to elucidate the intricate mechanism of the interaction between two organisms. In this report we highlight emergent themes from the meeting and some of the cognate fundamental biological questions driving the contemporary study of phytopathology and mutualism. | Plant-Microbe Symbiosis
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Editorial: Transport in Plant Microbe Interactions

“Plant–microbe interactions are omnipresent in terrestrial ecosystems and central to understand processes of individual growth, community assembly, and biogeochemical cycling. Plants and microbes interact above and below ground, and such interactions could theoretically include all combinations of positive (i.e., mycorrhizal and legume-rhizobia), negative (i.e., pathogenic interactions), or neutral effects. Many plant pathogenic and symbiotic microbes produce specialized structures that invade plant cells, but remain enveloped by plant-derived membranes. These intimate contacts between plant and microbial structures drive either bidirectional flows of nutrients as symbiotic (mycorrhizal or legume-rhizobia) or unidirectional flows as in pathogenic interactions. Whatever the biotrophic context (symbiotic vs. pathogenic), nutrients must pass several membrane barriers and the apoplastic interface before their assimilation by plant or microbial cells. Plant and microbial cells must be “re-programmed,” which includes differentiation and polarization of membrane transport functions to take up, to transfer or to exchange nutrients between partners of the biotrophic interaction. However, the mechanisms underlying the functioning and the dynamics of the transportome (the range of genes of an organism that encode proteins contributing to transport molecules across cellular membranes: membrane transporters, ions exchangers, and ion channels) at the biotrophic interface are still poorly understood. The transportome is a key player in nutrient uptake and exchange mechanisms and its regulation pattern is essential in determining the outcome of plant fungal interactions and in adapting to environmental changes.”
Via Jean-Michel Ané
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The interconnected rhizosphere: High network complexity dominates rhizosphere assemblages - Shi - 2016 - Ecology Letters - Wiley Online Library | Plant-Microbe Symbiosis

The interconnected rhizosphere: High network complexity dominates rhizosphere assemblages - Shi - 2016 - Ecology Letters - Wiley Online Library | Plant-Microbe Symbiosis | Mycorrhiza: plant-fungus symbiosis | Scoop.it
While interactions between roots and microorganisms have been intensively studied, we know little about interactions among root-associated microbes. We used random matrix theory-based network analysis of 16S rRNA genes to identify bacterial networks associated with wild oat (Avena fatua) over two seasons in greenhouse microcosms. Rhizosphere networks were substantially more complex than those in surrounding soils, indicating the rhizosphere has a greater potential for interactions and niche-sharing. Network complexity increased as plants grew, even as diversity decreased, highlighting that community organisation is not captured by univariate diversity. Covariations were predominantly positive (> 80%), suggesting that extensive mutualistic interactions may occur among rhizosphere bacteria; we identified quorum-based signalling as one potential strategy. Putative keystone taxa often had low relative abundances, suggesting low-abundance taxa may significantly contribute to rhizosphere function. Network complexity, a previously undescribed property of the rhizosphere microbiome, appears to be a defining characteristic of this habitat. | Plant-Microbe Symbiosis
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