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Rescooped by Kevin Bellande from Plant & environmental stress
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Cell wall modifications of two Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes, Col and Sha, in response to sub-optimal growth conditions: an integrative study

Cell wall modifications of two Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes, Col and Sha, in response to sub-optimal growth conditions: an integrative study | Root Development | Scoop.it
With the global temperature change, plant adaptations are predicted, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying them. Arabidopsis thaliana is a model plant adapted to various environmental conditions, in particular able to develop along an altitudinal gradient. Two ecotypes, Columbia (Col) growing at low altitude, and Shahdara (Sha) growing at 3,400 m, have been studied at optimal and sub-optimal growth temperature (22 °C vs 15 °C). Macro- and micro-phenotyping, cell wall monosaccharides analyses, cell wall proteomics, and transcriptomics have been performed in order to accomplish an integrative analysis. The analysis has been focused on cell walls (CWs) which are assumed to play roles in response to environmental changes. At 15 °C, both ecotypes presented characteristic morphological traits of low temperature growth acclimation such as reduced rosette diameter, increased number of leaves, modifications of their CW composition and cuticle reinforcement. Altogether, the integrative analysis has allowed identifying several candidate genes/proteins possibly involved in the cell wall modifications observed during the temperature acclimation response.

Via Harold Duruflé
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Phosphosite charge rather than shootward localization determines OCTOPUS activity in root protophloem

Phosphosite charge rather than shootward localization determines OCTOPUS activity in root protophloem | Root Development | Scoop.it

Abstract 


Polar cellular localization of proteins is often associated with their function and activity. In plants, relatively few polar-localized factors have been described. Among them, the plasma membrane-associated Arabidopsis proteins OCTOPUS (OPS) and BREVIS RADIX (BRX) display shootward and rootward polar localization, respectively, in developing root protophloem cells. Both ops and brx null mutants exhibit defects in protophloem differentiation. Here we show that OPS and BRX act genetically in parallel in this process, although OPS dosage increase mends defects caused by brx loss-of-function. OPS protein function is ancient and conserved in the most basal angiosperms; however, many highly conserved structural OPS features are not strictly required for OPS function. They include a BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 2 (BIN2) interaction domain, which supposedly mediates gain-of-function effects obtained through ectopic OPS overexpression. However, engineering an increasingly positive charge in a critical phosphorylation site, S318, progressively amplifies OPS activity. Such hyperactive OPS versions can even complement the severe phenotype of brx ops double mutants, and the most active variants eventually trigger gain-of-function phenotypes. Finally, BRX-OPS as well as OPS-BRX fusion proteins localize to the rootward end of developing protophloem cells, but complement ops mutants as efficiently as shootward localized OPS. Thus, our results suggest that S318 phosphorylation status, rather than a predominantly shootward polar localization, is a primary determinant of OPS activity.

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Carbohydrate microarrays and their use for the identification of molecular markers for plant cell wall composition

Carbohydrate microarrays and their use for the identification of molecular markers for plant cell wall composition | Root Development | Scoop.it
Abstract

 Genetic improvement of the plant cell wall has enormous potential to increase the quality of food, fibers, and fuels. However, the identification and characterization of genes involved in plant cell wall synthesis is far from complete. Association mapping is one of the few techniques that can help identify candidate genes without relying on our currently incomplete knowledge of cell wall synthesis. However, few cell wall phenotyping methodologies have proven sufficiently precise, robust, or scalable for association mapping to be conducted for specific cell wall polymers. Here, we created high-density carbohydrate microarrays containing chemically extracted cell wall polysaccharides collected from 331 genetically diverse Brassica napus cultivars and used them to obtain detailed, quantitative information describing the relative abundance of selected noncellulosic polysaccharide linkages and primary structures. We undertook genome-wide association analysis of data collected from 57 carbohydrate microarrays and identified molecular markers reflecting a diversity of specific xylan, xyloglucan, pectin, and arabinogalactan moieties. These datasets provide a detailed insight into the natural variations in cell wall carbohydrate moieties between B. napus genotypes and identify associated markers that could be exploited by marker-assisted breeding. The identified markers also have value beyond B. napus for functional genomics, facilitated by the close genetic relatedness to the model plant Arabidopsis. Together, our findings provide a unique dissection of the genetic architecture that underpins plant cell wall biosynthesis and restructuring.
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Auxin steers root cell expansion via apoplastic pH regulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

Auxin steers root cell expansion via apoplastic pH regulation in Arabidopsis thaliana | Root Development | Scoop.it
Abstract

 Plant cells are embedded within cell walls, which provide structural integrity, but also spatially constrain cells, and must therefore be modified to allow cellular expansion. The long-standing acid growth theory postulates that auxin triggers apoplast acidification, thereby activating cell wall-loosening enzymes that enable cell expansion in shoots. Interestingly, this model remains heavily debated in roots, because of both the complex role of auxin in plant development as well as technical limitations in investigating apoplastic pH at cellular resolution. Here, we introduce 8-hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid trisodium salt (HPTS) as a suitable fluorescent pH indicator for assessing apoplastic pH, and thus acid growth, at a cellular resolution in Arabidopsis thaliana roots. Using HPTS, we demonstrate that cell wall acidification triggers cellular expansion, which is correlated with a preceding increase of auxin signaling. Reduction in auxin levels, perception, or signaling abolishes both the extracellular acidification and cellular expansion. These findings jointly suggest that endogenous auxin controls apoplastic acidification and the onset of cellular elongation in roots. In contrast, an endogenous or exogenous increase in auxin levels induces a transient alkalinization of the extracellular matrix, reducing cellular elongation. The receptor-like kinase FERONIA is required for this physiological process, which affects cellular root expansion during the gravitropic response. These findings pinpoint a complex, presumably concentration-dependent role for auxin in apoplastic pH regulation, steering the rate of root cell expansion and gravitropic response.
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Gene Mining for Proline Based Signaling Proteins in Cell Wall of Arabidopsis thaliana

Gene Mining for Proline Based Signaling Proteins in Cell Wall of Arabidopsis thaliana | Root Development | Scoop.it
The cell wall (CW) as a first line of defense against biotic and abiotic stresses is of primary importance in plant biology. The proteins associated with cell walls play a significant role in determining a plant's sustainability to adverse environmental conditions. In this work, the genes encoding cell wall proteins (CWPs) in Arabidopsis were identified and functionally classified using geneMANIA and GENEVESTIGATOR with published microarrays data. This yielded 1605 genes, out of which 58 genes encoded proline-rich proteins (PRPs) and glycine-rich proteins (GRPs). Here, we have focused on the cellular compartmentalization, biological processes, and molecular functioning of proline-rich CWPs along with their expression at different plant developmental stages. The mined genes were categorized into five classes on the basis of the type of PRPs encoded in the cell wall of A. thaliana. We review the domain structure and function of each class of protein, many with respect to the developmental stages of the plant. We have then used networks, hierarchical clustering and correlations to analyze co-expression, co-localization, genetic and physical interactions and shared protein domains of these PRPs. This has given us further insight into these functionally important CWPs and identified a number of potentially new cell-wall related proteins in A. thaliana.
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Molecular link between auxin and ROS-mediated polar growth

Molecular link between auxin and ROS-mediated polar growth | Root Development | Scoop.it
Abstract 

Root hair polar growth is endogenously controlled by auxin and sustained by oscillating levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These cells extend several hundred-fold their original size toward signals important for plant survival. Although their final cell size is of fundamental importance, the molecular mechanisms that control it remain largely unknown. Here we show that ROS production is controlled by the transcription factor RSL4, which in turn is transcriptionally regulated by auxin through several auxin response factors (ARFs). In this manner, auxin controls ROS-mediated polar growth by activating RSL4, which then up-regulates the expression of genes encoding NADPH oxidases (also known as RESPIRATORY BURST OXIDASE HOMOLOG proteins) and class III peroxidases, which catalyze ROS production. Chemical or genetic interference with ROS balance or peroxidase activity affects root hair final cell size. Overall, our findings establish a molecular link between auxin and ROS-mediated polar root hair growth.
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Nanoscale movements of cellulose microfibrils in primary cell walls

Nanoscale movements of cellulose microfibrils in primary cell walls | Root Development | Scoop.it
Abstract 

The growing plant cell wall is commonly considered to be a fibre-reinforced structure whose strength, extensibility and anisotropy depend on the orientation of crystalline cellulose microfibrils, their bonding to the polysaccharide matrix and matrix viscoelasticity. Structural reinforcement of the wall by stiff cellulose microfibrils is central to contemporary models of plant growth, mechanics and meristem dynamics. Although passive microfibril reorientation during wall extension has been inferred from theory and from bulk measurements, nanometre-scale movements of individual microfibrils have not been directly observed. Here we combined nanometre-scale imaging of wet cell walls by atomic force microscopy (AFM) with a stretching device and endoglucanase treatment that induces wall stress relaxation and creep, mimicking wall behaviours during cell growth. Microfibril movements during forced mechanical extensions differ from those during creep of the enzymatically loosened wall. In addition to passive angular reorientation, we observed a diverse repertoire of microfibril movements that reveal the spatial scale of molecular connections between microfibrils. Our results show that wall loosening alters microfibril connectivity, enabling microfibril dynamics not seen during mechanical stretch. These insights into microfibril movements and connectivities need to be incorporated into refined models of plant cell wall structure, growth and morphogenesis.

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Transient cell-specific EXO70A1 activity in the CASP domain and Casparian strip localization

Transient cell-specific EXO70A1 activity in the CASP domain and Casparian strip localization | Root Development | Scoop.it

Abstract


 In a striking case of evolutionary convergence, polarized cell layers with ring-like diffusion barriers have evolved in both plant and animal lineages independently. In plants, ring-like Casparian strips become localized by the CASPARIAN STRIP MEMBRANE DOMAIN PROTEINS (CASPs). The mechanism of this striking localization, however, has remained enigmatic. Here we present a genetic screen aimed at isolating determinants of CASP localization. One of the mutants, lord of the rings 2 (lotr2)/exo70a1, displays dramatic de-localization of CASPs into randomly localized microdomains. EXO70A1 is a subunit of the exocyst complex, a central component of secretion in eukaryotes. Irradiation of EXO70 subunit genes in plants has suggested specialization of this conserved complex. Intriguingly, lotr2/exo70a1 does neither affect secretion of the CASPs, nor that of other membrane proteins in the endodermis, thus separating exocyst activity in localization from a general defect in secretion. Our results establish EXO70A1 as a central player in Casparian strip formation, generating a transient positional information that will be translated into a precisely localized cell wall modification

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Simultaneous knock-down of six β-galactosidase genes in petunia petals prevents loss of pectic galactan but decreases petal strength

Simultaneous knock-down of six β-galactosidase genes in petunia petals prevents loss of pectic galactan but decreases petal strength | Root Development | Scoop.it
Abstract 

Galactose (Gal) is incorporated into cell wall polysaccharides as flowers open, but then is lost because of β-galactosidase activity as flowers mature and wilt. The significance of this for flower physiology resides in the role of galactan-containing polysaccharides in the cell wall, which is still largely unresolved. To investigate this, transcript accumulation of six cell wall-associated β-galactosidases was simultaneously knocked down in ‘Mitchell’ petunia (Petunia axillaris x (P. axillaris x P. hybrida)) flower petals. The multi-PhBGAL RNAi construct targeted three bud- and three senescence-associated β-galactosidase genes. The petals of the most down-regulated line (GA19) were significantly disrupted in galactose turnover during flower opening, and at the onset of senescence had retained 86% of their galactose compared with 20% in the controls. The Gal content of Na2CO3-soluble cell wall extracts and the highly insoluble polysaccharides associated with cellulose were particularly affected. Immunodetection with the antibody LM5 showed that much of the cell wall Gal in GA19 was retained as galactan, presumably the side-chains of rhamnogalacturonan-I. The flowers of GA19, despite having retained substantially more galactan, were no different from controls in their internal cell arrangement, dimensions, weight or timing of opening and senescence. However, the GA19 petals had less petal integrity (as judged by force required to cause petal fracture) after opening and showed a greater decline in this integrity with time than controls, raising the possibility that galactan loss is a mechanism for helping to maintain petal tissue cohesion after flower opening.
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The Arabidopsis homolog of Scc4/MAU2 is essential for embryogenesis

The Arabidopsis homolog of Scc4/MAU2 is essential for embryogenesis | Root Development | Scoop.it

ABSTRACT 


AFactors regulating dynamics of chromatin structure have direct impact on expression of genetic information. Cohesin is a multi-subunit protein complex that is crucial for pairing sister chromatids during cell division, DNA repair and regulation of gene transcription and silencing. In non-plant species, cohesin is loaded on chromatin by the Scc2–Scc4 complex (also known as the NIBPL–MAU2 complex). Here, we identify the Arabidopsis homolog of Scc4, which we denote Arabidopsis thaliana (At)SCC4, and show that it forms a functional complex with AtSCC2, the homolog of Scc2. We demonstrate that AtSCC2 and AtSCC4 act in the same pathway, and that both proteins are indispensable for cell fate determination during early stages of embryo development. Mutant embryos lacking either of these proteins develop only up to the globular stage, and show the suspensor overproliferation phenotype preceded by ectopic auxin maxima distribution. We further establish a new assay to reveal the AtSCC4-dependent dynamics of cohesin loading on chromatin in vivo . Our findings define the Scc2–Scc4 complex as an evolutionary conserved machinery controlling cohesin loading and chromatin structure maintenance, and provide new insight into the plant-specific role of this complex in controlling cell fate during embryogenesis.

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European Plant Science Retreat 2017-Toulouse (FRANCE)

European Plant Science Retreat 2017-Toulouse (FRANCE) | Root Development | Scoop.it
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European Plant Science Retreat 2017-Toulouse (FRANCE)

European Plant Science Retreat 2017-Toulouse (FRANCE) | Root Development | Scoop.it
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Structural insights into alternative splicing-mediated desensitization of jasmonate signaling

Structural insights into alternative splicing-mediated desensitization of jasmonate signaling | Root Development | Scoop.it

Abstract 


Jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) transcriptional repressors play a key role in regulating jasmonate (JA) signaling in plants. Below a threshold concentration of jasmonoyl isoleucine (JA-Ile), the active form of JA, the C-terminal Jas motif of JAZ proteins binds MYC transcription factors to repress JA signaling. With increasing JA-Ile concentration, the Jas motif binds to JA-Ile and the COI1 subunit of the SCFCOI1 E3 ligase, which mediates ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of JAZ repressors, resulting in derepression of MYC transcription factors. JA signaling subsequently becomes desensitized, in part by feedback induction of JAZ splice variants that lack the C-terminal Jas motif but include an N-terminal cryptic MYC-interaction domain (CMID). The CMID sequence is dissimilar to the Jas motif and is incapable of recruiting SCFCOI1, allowing CMID-containing JAZ splice variants to accumulate in the presence of JA and to re-repress MYC transcription factors as an integral part of reestablishing signal homeostasis. The mechanism by which the CMID represses MYC transcription factors remains elusive. Here we describe the crystal structure of the MYC3–CMIDJAZ10 complex. In contrast to the Jas motif, which forms a single continuous helix when bound to MYC3, the CMID adopts a loop–helix–loop–helix architecture with modular interactions with both the Jas-binding groove and the backside of the Jas-interaction domain of MYC3. This clamp-like interaction allows the CMID to bind MYC3 tightly and block access of MED25 (a subunit of the Mediator coactivator complex) to the MYC3 transcriptional activation domain, shedding light on the enigmatic mechanism by which JAZ splice variants desensitize JA signaling.

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Accelerating root system phenotyping of seedlings through a computer-assisted processing pipeline

Accelerating root system phenotyping of seedlings through a computer-assisted processing pipeline | Root Development | Scoop.it

Abstract


 Background 

There are numerous systems and techniques to measure the growth of plant roots. However, phenotyping large numbers of plant roots for breeding and genetic analyses remains challenging. One major difficulty is to achieve high throughput and resolution at a reasonable cost per plant sample. Here we describe a cost-effective root phenotyping pipeline, on which we perform time and accuracy benchmarking to identify bottlenecks in such pipelines and strategies for their acceleration. 


 Results 

Our root phenotyping pipeline was assembled with custom software and low cost material and equipment. Results show that sample preparation and handling of samples during screening are the most time consuming task in root phenotyping. Algorithms can be used to speed up the extraction of root traits from image data, but when applied to large numbers of images, there is a trade-off between time of processing the data and errors contained in the database. 


Conclusions

Scaling-up root phenotyping to large numbers of genotypes will require not only automation of sample preparation and sample handling, but also efficient algorithms for error detection for more reliable replacement of manual interventions.

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OpenSimRoot: widening the scope and application of root architectural models

OpenSimRoot: widening the scope and application of root architectural models | Root Development | Scoop.it
Summary 

 OpenSimRoot is an open-source, functional–structural plant model and mathematical description of root growth and function. We describe OpenSimRoot and its functionality to broaden the benefits of root modeling to the plant science community. 

OpenSimRoot is an extended version of SimRoot, established to simulate root system architecture, nutrient acquisition and plant growth. OpenSimRoot has a plugin, modular infrastructure, coupling single plant and crop stands to soil nutrient and water transport models. It estimates the value of root traits for water and nutrient acquisition in environments and plant species.

 The flexible OpenSimRoot design allows upscaling from root anatomy to plant community to estimate the following: resource costs of developmental and anatomical traits; trait synergisms; and (interspecies) root competition. OpenSimRoot can model three-dimensional images from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and X-ray computed tomography (CT) of roots in soil. New modules include: soil water-dependent water uptake and xylem flow; tiller formation; evapotranspiration; simultaneous simulation of mobile solutes; mesh refinement; and root growth plasticity. 

OpenSimRoot integrates plant phenotypic data with environmental metadata to support experimental designs and to gain a mechanistic understanding at system scales.
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Expression atlas and comparative coexpression network analyses reveal important genes involved in the formation of lignified cell wall in Brachypodium distachyon

Expression atlas and comparative coexpression network analyses reveal important genes involved in the formation of lignified cell wall in Brachypodium distachyon | Root Development | Scoop.it
Summary 

 While Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium) is an emerging model for grasses, no expression atlas or gene coexpression network is available. Such tools are of high importance to provide insights into the function of Brachypodium genes. 

We present a detailed Brachypodium expression atlas, capturing gene expression in its major organs at different developmental stages. The data were integrated into a large-scale coexpression database ( www.gene2function.de), enabling identification of duplicated pathways and conserved processes across 10 plant species, thus allowing genome-wide inference of gene function. 

We highlight the importance of the atlas and the platform through the identification of duplicated cell wall modules, and show that a lignin biosynthesis module is conserved across angiosperms. We identified and functionally characterised a putative ferulate 5-hydroxylase gene through overexpression of it in Brachypodium, which resulted in an increase in lignin syringyl units and reduced lignin content of mature stems, and led to improved saccharification of the stem biomass. 

Our Brachypodium expression atlas thus provides a powerful resource to reveal functionally related genes, which may advance our understanding of important biological processes in grasses.
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Rescooped by Kevin Bellande from LRSV Publications
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Int. J. Mol. Sci. - Plant Lectins and Lectin Receptor-Like Kinases: How Do They Sense the Outside?

Int. J. Mol. Sci. - Plant Lectins and Lectin Receptor-Like Kinases: How Do They Sense the Outside? | Root Development | Scoop.it
Lectins are fundamental to plant life and have important roles in cell-to-cell communication; development and defence strategies. At the cell surface; lectins are present both as soluble proteins (LecPs) and as chimeric proteins: lectins are then the extracellular domains of receptor-like kinases (LecRLKs) and receptor-like proteins (LecRLPs). In this review; we first describe the domain architectures of proteins harbouring G-type; L-type; LysM and malectin carbohydrate-binding domains. We then focus on the functions of LecPs; LecRLKs and LecRLPs referring to the biological processes they are involved in and to the ligands they recognize. Together; LecPs; LecRLKs and LecRLPs constitute versatile recognition systems at the cell surface contributing to the detection of symbionts and pathogens; and/or involved in monitoring of the cell wall structure and cell growth.

Via LRSV
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Frontiers | Brassinosteroid Mediated Cell Wall Remodeling in Grasses under Abiotic Stress | Plant Science

Frontiers | Brassinosteroid Mediated Cell Wall Remodeling in Grasses under Abiotic Stress | Plant Science | Root Development | Scoop.it
Unlike animals, plants, being sessile, cannot escape from exposure to severe abiotic stresses such as extreme temperature and water deficit. The dynamic structure of plant cell wall enables them to undergo compensatory changes, as well as maintain physical strength, with changing environments. Plant hormones known as brassinosteroids (BRs) play a key role in determining cell wall expansion during stress responses. Cell wall deposition differs between grasses (Poaceae) and dicots. Grass species include many important food, fiber and biofuel crops. In this article, we focus on recent advances in BR-regulated cell wall biosynthesis and remodeling in response to stresses, comparing our understanding of the mechanisms in grass species with those in the more studied dicots. A more comprehensive understanding of BR-mediated changes in cell wall integrity in grass species will benefit the development of genetic tools to improve crop productivity, fiber quality and plant biomass recalcitrance.
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Arabidopsis thaliana EPOXIDE HYDROLASE1 (AtEH1) is a cytosolic epoxide hydrolase involved in the synthesis of poly‐hydroxylated cutin monomers

Arabidopsis thaliana EPOXIDE HYDROLASE1 (AtEH1) is a cytosolic epoxide hydrolase involved in the synthesis of poly‐hydroxylated cutin monomers | Root Development | Scoop.it

Summary 

 Epoxide hydrolases (EHs) are present in all living organisms. They have been extensively characterized in mammals; however, their biological functions in plants have not been demonstrated. Based on in silico analysis, we identified AtEH1 (At3g05600), a putative Arabidopsis thaliana epoxide hydrolase possibly involved in cutin monomer synthesis. We expressed AtEH1 in yeast and studied its localization in vivo. We also analyzed the composition of cutin from A. thaliana lines in which this gene was knocked out. Incubation of recombinant AtEH1 with epoxy fatty acids confirmed its capacity to hydrolyze epoxides of C18 fatty acids into vicinal diols. Transfection of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves with constructs expressing AtEH1 fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) indicated that AtEH1 is localized in the cytosol. Analysis of cutin monomers in loss-of-function Ateh1-1 and Ateh1-2 mutants showed an accumulation of 18-hydroxy-9,10-epoxyoctadecenoic acid and a concomitant decrease in corresponding vicinal diols in leaf and seed cutin. Compared with wild-type seeds, Ateh1 seeds showed delayed germination under osmotic stress conditions and increased seed coat permeability to tetrazolium red. This work reports a physiological role for a plant EH and identifies AtEH1 as a new member of the complex machinery involved in cutin synthesis.

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Malate-dependent Fe accumulation is a critical checkpoint in the root developmental response to low phosphate

Malate-dependent Fe accumulation is a critical checkpoint in the root developmental response to low phosphate | Root Development | Scoop.it
Abstract


 Low phosphate (Pi) availability constrains plant development and seed production in both natural and agricultural ecosystems. When Pi is scarce, modifications of root system architecture (RSA) enhance the soil exploration ability of the plant and lead to an increase in Pi uptake. In Arabidopsis, an iron-dependent mechanism reprograms primary root growth in response to low Pi availability. This program is activated upon contact of the root tip with low-Pi media and induces premature cell differentiation and the arrest of mitotic activity in the root apical meristem, resulting in a short-root phenotype. However, the mechanisms that regulate the primary root response to Pi-limiting conditions remain largely unknown. Here we report on the isolation and characterization of two low-Pi insensitive mutants (lpi5 and lpi6), which have a long-root phenotype when grown in low-Pi media. Cellular, genomic, and transcriptomic analysis of low-Pi insensitive mutants revealed that the genes previously shown to underlie Arabidopsis Al tolerance via root malate exudation, known as SENSITIVE TO PROTON RHIZOTOXICITY (STOP1) and ALUMINUM ACTIVATED MALATE TRANSPORTER 1 (ALMT1), represent a critical checkpoint in the root developmental response to Pi starvation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results also show that exogenous malate can rescue the long-root phenotype of lpi5 and lpi6. Malate exudation is required for the accumulation of Fe in the apoplast of meristematic cells, triggering the differentiation of meristematic cells in response to Pi deprivation.
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The elaborate route for UDP-arabinose delivery into the Golgi of plants

The elaborate route for UDP-arabinose delivery into the Golgi of plants | Root Development | Scoop.it

Abstract 


In plants, L-arabinose (Ara) is a key component of cell wall polymers, glycoproteins, as well as flavonoids, and signaling peptides. Whereas the majority of Ara found in plant glycans occurs as a furanose ring (Araf), the activated precursor has a pyranose ring configuration (UDP-Arap). The biosynthesis of UDP-Arap mainly occurs via the epimerization of UDP-xylose (UDP-Xyl) in the Golgi lumen. Given that the predominant Ara form found in plants is Araf, UDP-Arap must exit the Golgi to be interconverted into UDP-Araf by UDP-Ara mutases that are located outside on the cytosolic surface of the Golgi. Subsequently, UDP-Araf must be transported back into the lumen. This step is vital because glycosyltransferases, the enzymes mediating the glycosylation reactions, are located within the Golgi lumen, and UDP-Arap, synthesized within the Golgi, is not their preferred substrate. Thus, the transport of UDP-Araf into the Golgi is a prerequisite. Although this step is critical for cell wall biosynthesis and the glycosylation of proteins and signaling peptides, the identification of these transporters has remained elusive. In this study, we present data demonstrating the identification and characterization of a family of Golgi-localized UDP-Araf transporters in Arabidopsis. The application of a proteoliposome-based transport assay revealed that four members of the nucleotide sugar transporter (NST) family can efficiently transport UDP-Araf in vitro. Subsequent analysis of mutant lines affected in the function of these NSTs confirmed their role as UDP-Araf transporters in vivo.

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BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE2 negatively regulates cellulose synthesis in Arabidopsis by phosphorylating cellulose synthase 1

BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE2 negatively regulates cellulose synthesis in Arabidopsis by phosphorylating cellulose synthase 1 | Root Development | Scoop.it
Abstract 

The deposition of cellulose is a defining aspect of plant growth and development, but regulation of this process is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the protein kinase BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE2 (BIN2), a key negative regulator of brassinosteroid (BR) signaling, can phosphorylate Arabidopsis cellulose synthase A1 (CESA1), a subunit of the primary cell wall cellulose synthase complex, and thereby negatively regulate cellulose biosynthesis. Accordingly, point mutations of the BIN2-mediated CESA1 phosphorylation site abolished BIN2-dependent regulation of cellulose synthase activity. Hence, we have uncovered a mechanism for how BR signaling can modulate cellulose synthesis in plants.
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Autocrine regulation of stomatal differentiation potential by EPF1 and ERECTA-LIKE1 ligand-receptor signaling

Autocrine regulation of stomatal differentiation potential by EPF1 and ERECTA-LIKE1 ligand-receptor signaling | Root Development | Scoop.it

Abstract


 Development of stomata, valves on the plant epidermis for optimal gas exchange and water control, is fine-tuned by multiple signaling peptides with unique, overlapping, or antagonistic activities. EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR1 (EPF1) is a founding member of the secreted peptide ligands enforcing stomatal patterning. Yet, its exact role remains unclear. Here, we report that EPF1 and its primary receptor ERECTA-LIKE1 (ERL1) target MUTE, a transcription factor specifying the proliferation-to-differentiation switch within the stomatal cell lineages. In turn, MUTE directly induces ERL1. The absolute co-expression of ERL1 and MUTE, with the co-presence of EPF1, triggers autocrine inhibition of stomatal fate. During normal stomatal development, this autocrine inhibition prevents extra symmetric divisions of stomatal precursors likely owing to excessive MUTE activity. Our study reveals the unexpected role of self-inhibition as a mechanism for ensuring proper stomatal development and suggests an intricate signal buffering mechanism underlying plant tissue patterning.

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Frontiers | The Arabidopsis Lipid Transfer Protein 2 (AtLTP2) Is Involved in Cuticle-Cell Wall Interface Integrity and in Etiolated Hypocotyl Permeability | Plant Cell Biology

Plant non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs) belong to a complex multigenic family implicated in diverse physiological processes. However, their function and mode of action remain unclear probably because of functional redundancy. Among the different roles proposed for nsLTPs, it has long been suggested that they could transport cuticular precursor across the cell wall during the formation of the cuticle, which constitutes the first physical barrier for plant interactions with their aerial environment. Here, we took advantage of the Arabidopsis thaliana etiolated hypocotyl model in which AtLTP2 was previously identified as the unique and abundant nsLTP member in the cell wall proteome, to investigate its function. AtLTP2 expression was restricted to epidermal cells of aerial organs, in agreement with the place of cuticle deposition. Furthermore, transient AtLTP2-TagRFP over-expression in Nicotiana benthamania leaf epidermal cells resulted in its localization to the cell wall, as expected, but surprisingly also to the plastids, indicating an original dual trafficking for a nsLTP. Remarkably, in etiolated hypocotyls, the atltp2-1 mutant displayed modifications in cuticle permeability together with a disorganized ultra-structure at the cuticle-cell wall interface completely recovered in complemented lines, whereas only slight differences in cuticular composition were observed. Thus, AtLTP2 may not play the historical purported nsLTP shuttling role across the cell wall, but we rather hypothesize that AtLTP2 could play a major structural role by maintaining the integrity of the adhesion between the mainly hydrophobic cuticle and the hydrophilic underlying cell wall. Altogether, these results gave new insights into nsLTP functions.
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Sticking to cellulose: exploiting Arabidopsis seed coat mucilage to understand cellulose biosynthesis and cell wall polysaccharide interactions

Sticking to cellulose: exploiting Arabidopsis seed coat mucilage to understand cellulose biosynthesis and cell wall polysaccharide interactions | Root Development | Scoop.it

Summary 


 The cell wall defines the shape of cells and ultimately plant architecture. It provides mechanical resistance to osmotic pressure while still being malleable and allowing cells to grow and divide. These properties are determined by the different components of the wall and the interactions between them. The major components of the cell wall are the polysaccharides cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin. Cellulose biosynthesis has been extensively studied in Arabidopsis hypocotyls, and more recently in the mucilage-producing epidermal cells of the seed coat. The latter has emerged as an excellent system to study cellulose biosynthesis and the interactions between cellulose and other cell wall polymers. Here we review some of the major advances in our understanding of cellulose biosynthesis in the seed coat, and how mucilage has aided our understanding of the interactions between cellulose and other cell wall components required for wall cohesion. Recently, 10 genes involved in cellulose or hemicellulose biosynthesis in mucilage have been identified. These discoveries have helped to demonstrate that xylan side-chains on rhamnogalacturonan I act to link this pectin directly to cellulose. We also examine other factors that, either directly or indirectly, influence cellulose organization or crystallization in mucilage.

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