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MNO, MVNO, MVNA, and MVNE: What’s the Difference?

MNO, MVNO, MVNA, and MVNE: What’s the Difference? | Online Charging System | Scoop.it
The modern-day telecom industry is going through transitions faster than ever before. Addressing the demands of finicky customers, fighting off the competition at every step of the way and countering the threat of OTT platforms is proving too much to handle for even seasoned telecom operators. This is the main reason why they are trying to maximize their outreach in every way possible. As a result of their efforts, new platforms for telecom service delivery have being created in the form of: MNO, MVNO, MVNA, and MVNE. 


Why MVNOs Have Become so Popular?

While an MNO (Mobile Network Operator) builds his operation from the scratch and make investments in creating network infrastructure, radio frequency spectrum, HLR, VLR, BSC, MSC, OSS etc., an MVNO (Mobile Virtual Network Operator) receives frequency spectrum and network resources at a cheaper rate from MNOs (Mobile Network Operators). This allows it to sell its telecom services at a lower rate and attract new customers.

An MVNO does not have its own network but uses a network from a carrier or MNO. An MVNO can be a full MVNO with its own HLR. Such MVNOs only use an MNO’s radio base stations for providing 3G, 4G or 5G services. On the other hand, a light MVNO mainly focuses on relations with customers along with marketing and billing. It does not have its own HLR.

Whether full or light, to become MVNO you need good marketing skills and a unique idea that differentiates you from other players in the market. You can either specialize in mobile data and become a data MVNO or earn your stripes in providing voice call services. But whatever you do, make sure that you are excellent in the niche that you have chosen. Good customer relations and the ability to attract new customers are essential for any MVNO to succeed.

The Importance of MVNE/MVNA Partnership for Overcoming Challenges

As MVNOs are considerably smaller than a full-fledged MNO (Mobile Network Operator), they need support from MVNEs (Mobile Virtual Network Enablers) to get their job done. A capable MVNE with a comprehensive MVNO software solution like Telgoo5 can provide the following benefits to an MVNO:

1. Better billing – Billing is probably the toughest task for an MVNO to undertake all by itself. Any mistake or inefficiency in billing tasks can have a major bearing on MVNO subscribers. But when you partner with an MVNE like Vcare, you get access to a cutting-edge MVNO billing software solution. With a convergent billing solution by your side, you can create itemized bills with details of all types of services used by your subscribers.

2. Profitable deals with MNOs – Partnership with a competent MVNE/MVNA can help you get better-priced deals with an MNO. This will allow you to deliver the services at a lower rate to your MVNO subscribers while still making a profit. 3. Avoid red tape – Running a successful MVNO operation requires you to get into contracts with different carriers and vendors. By partnering with a competent MVNE like Vcare (who already has fully-licensed platforms and contracts with vendors), you are able to bypass the process of signing new deals, thereby saving considerable time and effort.
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5 Signs Of A Great OCS – Online Charging System – online Charging System

5 Signs Of A Great OCS – Online Charging System – online Charging System | Online Charging System | Scoop.it
If your MNVO wants to have any chance of success, you need to have an excellent OCS to charge your customers accurately and regularly.


One of the biggest hurdles that MNVO’s face is the fact that they are constantly having to prove their worth. People are still used to working with bigger telecom companies and might be suspicious of MNVOs. Those of us who operate in the space understand that MNVOs are the wave of the future, but some of your customers are still skeptical. That’s why it’s so important to make sure that your billing is on point. Otherwise, you’ll look like an amateur and run the risk of losing customers!

Keep Your Customers Loyal with These 4 Tips :


1. Ensure consistency in billing: Any inaccuracy or delay in billing can cause your customers to lose faith in you. By ensuring consistency in billing, you can enhance customer trust in your services.


2. Keep customer information safe: The information provided by customer is critical as it has their personal credentials. Invest in an OCS and billing solution that has safety measures in place to protect customer info.


3. Offer Cross-product discounts: By offering innovative discounts like cross-product discounts, you can keep your customers interested in your subscription. Cross-product discounts can also be useful in promoting a new product that customers are not accustomed to.


4. Allow for customer self-service: With millenials seeking more control over their subscriptions, it is best to invest in a billing solution that allows customers to create their own customized plans.

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What are the differences between a MVNO, MVNA, and MVNE?

What are the differences between a MVNO, MVNA, and MVNE? | Online Charging System | Scoop.it
MVNO, MVNA, and MVNE are fairly new entities in the telecom world with each having their own role in imparting telecom services. These new entities were created to address the demands of customers whose requirements were not fulfilled by MNO (Mobile Network Operator).
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Why Misinterpretation of 3GPP Standards Can Lead to a Faltering OCS?

Why Misinterpretation of 3GPP Standards Can Lead to a Faltering OCS? | Online Charging System | Scoop.it
The increased competition in the telecom industry has left operators with absolutely no breathing room. The margin of error – no matter how small it is – can derail a budding project, which is why; it has become essential for telcos to understand the importance of standards like 3GPP (Third-Generation Partnership Project).

3GPP and Prepaid Billing

It is a well-known fact that prepaid mobile connection is preferred by most subscribers over a postpaid connection. Due to the immense popularity of prepaid plans, it becomes all the more important for telecom operators to invest in an OCS (Online Charging System) that offers real-time charging facility. Also, for an OCS to be effective and work according to expectations, it needs to the meet the requirements set by 3GPP. For those who don’t know, 3GPP was initially formulated to address the scope of 3G mobile networks, however, it has now evolved to cover all the past, present and future mobile networks e.g. 2G, 3G, 4G, 5G etc.
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All You Would Ever Need to Know about MNO, MVNO, MVNA, and MVNE – online Charging System

All You Would Ever Need to Know about MNO, MVNO, MVNA, and MVNE – online Charging System | Online Charging System | Scoop.it
The modern-day telecom industry is going through transitions faster than ever before. Addressing the demands of finicky customers, fighting off the competition at every step of the way and countering the threat of OTT platforms is proving too much to handle for even seasoned telecom operators.
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What are the differences between a MVNO, MVNA, and MVNE?

What are the differences between a MVNO, MVNA, and MVNE? | Online Charging System | Scoop.it
MVNO, MVNA, and MVNE are fairly new entities in the telecom world with each having their own role in imparting telecom services. These new entities were created to address the demands of customers whose requirements were not fulfilled by MNO (Mobile Network Operator).


 The establishment of MVNO addresses the requirements of specific customer bases and at the same time allows MNOs to make revenue from subscribers who are not using their services directly.


1. MVNO – An MVNO is a player in the telecom market who does not have its own radio access network. It either buys access to the network services at a bulk wholesale price or gets into a direct reseller agreement with an MNO.


After procuring the services, the MVNO sells them to its own subscriber base. As an MVNO has obtained the services at a reduced price, it has the luxury of selling them at a price that is lower than the market price.


By packaging his services innovatively, an MVNO is able to attract certain specific customer bases, which were unreachable for its partnering MNO.


For example, it has been seen that the economical services offered by MVNOs are extremely popular amongst people in lower income groups (who cannot afford pricier MNO services). MVNOs are divided into three categories based on the resources available to them:


a) Skinny MVNOs: Have their own content applications, SMSC, voice mail, Prepaid and VAS.
b) Thin MVNOs: Apart from the above mentioned services, they also have EIR, share or own HLR, AUC and IN.
c) Thick MVNOs: Apart from the above mentioned services, they have VLR and MSC.


2. MVNE: Mobile Virtual Network Enabler (MVNE) as the name suggests is responsible for enabling a network, so that an MVNO can provide its own services.


It provides the necessary infrastructural tools to the MVNO along with charging rating and billing for a wide variety of telecom-related services. It helps an MVNO accomplish tasks like provisioning, administration along with offering essential OSS/BSS services.


It also offers capital expenditure deferral to MVNOs and allows them to focus on customer service and brand awareness, loyalty, product enhancement, and marketing. With an MVNE partnership, an MVNO no longer has to keep on worrying about how his backend services are managed. Running an MVNE service is a complex task, which comprises COTS (commercial off-the-shelf applications) along with multitenant business model conversions.


3. MVNA: MVNA (Mobile Virtual Network Aggregator) is a business model that comprises wholesale of an operator's airtime and routing of traffic over the MVNE's own switches. While an MVNA has individual contractual relationships with its MVNOs, an MNO has a contractual obligation towards its MVNAs. So, it won’t be wrong to say that an MVNA forms a link between MVNOs and MNOs.


As an MVNA represents many different MVNOs and buys large amount of telecom services from an MNO, it is able to receive telecom services at a considerably reduced price point. Hence, an MVNA partnership allows an MVNO to receive radio access network for far less that it would have been possible during a direct purchase.


Inference of These Telecom Entities in Modern Times

These new partnerships between MNOs, MVNOs, MVNEs and MVNAs are designed to share the burden of serving a wide customer base. These new business models ensure that basic telecom services are enjoyed by maximum number of subscribers. In this age of increased competition, the quality and coverage of telecom network is maximized with the inception of these new entities.
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What to Look for in an BSS/OSS Solution for Your MNVO – online Charging System

What to Look for in an BSS/OSS Solution for Your MNVO – online Charging System | Online Charging System | Scoop.it
It’s expected that by the year 2020, the worldwide MNVO market’s going to be worth $73 billion, and the subscriber number will exceed 300 million, with its CAGR at 10%. One of the things that gives the MNVOs an edge over the MNOs is things like: Agile infrastructure Can offer innovative and niche products
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What is charging in telecom?

What is charging in telecom? | Online Charging System | Scoop.it
In layman’s terms, charging in telecom is the process of applying charges on customers’ account based on their usage of services provided by a telecom operator. However, when we talk about ‘charging in telecom’ technically, it has a vast scope and many aspects. 

 Technical Explanation 

 Fundamentally, charging in telecom is implemented by a versatile system known as OCS (Online Charging System). OCS charges customers in two different ways as mentioned below: 

 Event Based Charging – Event based charging is utilized for charging events based on the number of times they take place rather than the duration of the events or volume of commodities consumed during these events. Examples of events that are charged on the basis of their occurrences are: 

 1. Purchase of apps via phone 
 2. SMS 
 3. MMS 

 Session Based Charging – As the name implies, session based charging charges sessions based on their duration. This type of charging is done on the basis of customers’ network utilization. Some common examples are listed below: 1. Voice calls 2. IP CAN sessions (In layman’s term, these are the sessions that are created for 2G/3G/4G internet access) To make sure that a subscriber’s balance is managed after a charge has been applied, Account and Balance Management Function (ABMF) is provided in the OCS. 

 In telecom, charging can be implemented in two ways: 

 1. Real-time charging – Real-time charging is primarily used for prepaid customers. It deducts the rated amount from customers’ account balance based on their network utilization. During real-time charging, the balance is deducted simultaneously with the use of a particular service. 

 2. Off-line charging – Offline charging is mostly carried out by telecom operators who find real-time charging expensive. After the use of a particular service by a subscriber, the balance deduction takes place after some delay. Off-line charging provides a convenient way to charge postpaid customers.
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