Geography 400 Articles
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A Discussion of a Queered Geography of the American West ...

A Discussion of a Queered Geography of the American West ... | Geography 400 Articles |
A discussion of a queered geography of the American West asks us to understand these two places as necessary components of the same natural and cultural landscape, entwined in the history of the West and our own place in nature.
Catherine Shabo's comment, February 7, 2013 5:48 PM
I found this article to be very interesting and very true. This teacher took her students on a field trip to the Cedar Mountains. While the scenery where they set up camp was beautiful even though very blank and described as almost being on the moon, the geography just below them was completely different. This was an incineration plant that was giving off lights and noises that reminded them that just below them was a city and that they were not on the moon. This is where the title of "queered geography" is coming from. This shows how in the west there are areas of natural earth, but they have to be tampered with in order to run a city. Is it possible to preserve these mountains AND their surroundings?
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Thailand flood reaches Bangkok

Thailand flood reaches Bangkok | Geography 400 Articles |
Flood waters inundating Thailand north of Bangkok since July have made the journey south and reached the capital. The disaster is responsible for 400 deaths in Thailand and neighboring Cambodia and Vietnam.


Too much of a good thing (water) can literally be disastrous. 

Catherine Shabos insight:

This goes to show how this problem happens to many regions across Earth. What Thailand is experiencing in these photos is something that is happening in many places. Flooding and rising of water leves is increasingly becoming a problem and it becomes even more of a problem when it is ruining their rice crops that take a long time to mend and take care of.

Jake Red Dorman's curator insight, November 20, 2014 9:15 PM

The flooding that has been going on since July, has now reached Bangkok. It is the cause to over about 400 deaths. The flooding has flooded over a quarter of Thailand's rice crops, and rice is their biggest exporter. The government has given the people a 5 day period to evacuate the area. These damages are sought to cost about 6 billion dollars. I looked at all of the pictures presented in the article and a couple of them really stood out to me. One thing that caught my eye was the animals. Along with the flood and the destruction, also comes the animals that live in the water. there are pictures of snakes and crocodiles or alligators that the people in Thailand have caught. Another picture that caught my eye was the pictures of the streets and roads. I looks like Venice out there! The streets are completely flooded and all the people have their own little rafts that they now have to call home now since their homes are destroyed from the flooding. the last photo i liked was the kid (assuming from arm size that it's a kid) carrying money in one hand while his head was fully submerged in the water. This shows to me how flooded some places were that people couldn't even touch the ground to walk, but he had to swim under water to keep the money dry for whatever he was going to purchase. Its terrible what these people are going through over in Thailand.

Lena Minassian's curator insight, April 9, 2015 10:14 PM

Many of us have experienced some small type of a flood but I can't imagine having a flood wipe out my home, especially if it came from another area. The flood in  northern Thailand has reached Bangkok damaging numerous things in it's way, even killing 400 people. This flood has reached many borders and those countries should be concerned and prepared if it does reach them so they know how to respond. Thailand is the world's biggest rice exporter and this flood has wiped everything out, which effect multiple countries. Damages from this flood could cost six billion dollars which has become their worst flood in 50 years. The pictures from this flood are devastating and these people are allowed to evacuate but many don't have a place to go. 

Benjamin Jackson's curator insight, December 14, 2015 12:10 PM

flooding is common in Bangkok, but people dying is hardly a common result, proving that this is a flood of unusual proportions, and something which requires swift action.

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Koala rescued from deforestation in Australia - big picture

Koala rescued from deforestation in Australia - big picture | Geography 400 Articles |
Workers from a pine plantation helped the animal group Wires to relocate several koalas into new habitat after logging activities displaced them (RT @adamvaughan_uk: The saddest photo you'll see this May, guaranteed: a disorientated koala sitting ...

Via Whats New In The WORLD
Catherine Shabos insight:

The poor Koalas are facing threats against climate change and deforestation.. I wonder what other animals in Australia are facing this problem? Kangaroos and other outback animals?

Carina Mackie's curator insight, May 26, 2013 8:24 AM

Yr 10 - Follow the links to investigate a specific example of a ramification of the greenhouse effect. This will give you an idea of the scope of the problem, especially to threatened species.

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Pellets argentina, mineria San Juan, Biodiesel Argentina

Pellets argentina, mineria San Juan, Biodiesel Argentina | Geography 400 Articles |
Biocombustible, Mineria en Argentina y energía renovable, creamos proyectos sustentables.

Via José Carmelo Duarte
Catherine Shabos insight:

For my presentation in Geography 400 I discussed the city of San Juan in Argentina and the significance of the city and the growth of it's modern infrastructure. The great significance of the city stems from it being in a good balanced distance from the Suan Juan river that irrigates through canals and supplies their reservoirs and hydroelectric power. The river is of great benefit to them, as is any river or water source to a city. The infrastructure is becoming more and more modern ever since the great earthquake destroyed the ciry, and they were forced to rebuild. It is now the most visited city in Argentina and does well in tourism because of it's economic profit of wine and olive oil as well as popular attractions such as museums full of Inca and paleontology artifacts. While this page is in Spanish, based on the map and pictures I can see the point this is saying. It is showing how mining and other natural resources are growing near the areas of San Juan and other South American cities all in that same area. It is comparing it other countries in Europe and showing how mining is a significant resource for San Juan. Based on these photos and maps and the research I did I learned more about San Juan than I would ever know before.

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PAKISTAN: Facts about illegal Indian fishing activity inside Pakistan EEZ

PAKISTAN: Facts about illegal Indian fishing activity inside Pakistan EEZ | Geography 400 Articles |

Pakistan’s Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of 200-nautical miles, designated by the United Nations, is overwhelmingly enriched in both living and non-living marine resources - especially the Indus Delta region has abundance of prime quality fish that entice the neighbouring Indian fishermen, who deliberately violate the international boundaries and indulge in illegal fishing activities in Pakistan’s EEZ.


Despite the best monitoring efforts of the Pakistan Maritime Security Agency (PMSA), deliberate violation of Pakistani EEZ by Indian fishermen continues causing huge losses to Pakistan’s fisheries resources. Emotional stories regarding the plight of Indian fishermen facing persecution in Pakistani jails are published. Some of the convicted fisherman, when interviewed by the media, projected the predetermined theme in a parrot-like manner. NGOs, humanitarian organisations, respectable members of the society, etc, in innocence adopt the same stance and project the fishermen as victims of the circumstances beyond their control. Arrests are blamed on the insensitivity and highhandedness of the PMSA and other Pakistani law enforcement agencies.


The PMSA, being the sole maritime law enforcement agency, undertakes concerted operational efforts to prevent the poaching activities by Indian fishermen. In this regard, besides regular deployment of ships and surveillance by aircraft, a series of focused anti-poaching operations are also conducted in the Eastern Maritime Region.


To curb this tendency, Indian boats close to the EEZ boundary (10-15 NM) are cleared from the Pakistani limits towards India.


Even among those Indian fishing boats, which intrude deeper into our EEZ, only a few boats are apprehended and majority are cleared off. Moreover, children/elderly are invariably released/let go, purely on humanitarian grounds. The extent of the illegal activity is an indication of the lure despite the peril of apprehension.


However, regular patrolling and clearing of these fishermen by the PMSA ships has progressively resulted in substantial decrease in the presence of Indian boats. During the recent past (September 2012 onwards), 131 boats and 484 crewmembers have been apprehended, which is but a mere drop in the ocean. During the trials of Indian fishermen, the Pakistani courts adopt a humanitarian view and award light sentences from one to three years for this deliberate illegal activity. Frequently, as a goodwill gesture, the government of Pakistan releases them before the end of their sentence. On the contrary, the Indian law enforcement agencies mete out very harsh punishment to the Pakistani fishermen and they are kept away from the judicial process for a long time.


According to marine experts, quality fish is available in abundance in Pakistani creeks. The Indian fishermen deliberately take risks to fish in Pakistani territorial limits. Such poaching activities not only deplete the highly priced marine species, it also inflicts a loss of Rs8.1 billion per annum to the government exchequer. During January 2012 to March 2013, 184 boats, along with 606 Indian fisher-folks, who were fishing more than 25-100 NMs inside our EEZ, were apprehended. It clearly reflects the deliberate intrusion marked by mala fide intent, especially when all the Indian boats have Global Positioning System (GPS) installed in their boats that tells the exact position of the boat. These fishermen mainly sail from Okha or Porbandar in India, which are around 115 NM (148 km) and 135 NM (250 km) (I nautical mile = 1.85 km) respectively from our EEZ.


The boats travel even further ahead of the EEZ and their deliberate acts of intrusion are done well within Pakistan’s waters. Most regrettably, some violators are apprehended even 100 nautical miles inside our waters. These incursions are not restricted to a few ‘innocent inadvertent crossers’ but at occasions number over 300 boats. The lure of the rich fish catch is extremely attractive and worth taking a calculated risk vis-à-vis the expected return. Moreover, the nets used by them are internationally banned, due to their very small mesh size.


On the contrary, any crossing by Pakistani fishermen into the Indian EEZ is indeed inadvertent as there is no fishing attraction in Indian waters. From January 2012 till end March 2013, numerous incursions of massive quantity (totalling thousands) were regularly reported in Pakistani EEZ. However, during the same period, only 12 Pakistani fishing boats were apprehended by the Indian Coast Guard units and that too in close proximity of the EEZ demarcation.


A hotline was earlier established in November 2006 for exchange of information and coordination between the two director generals. The intrusions are regularly conveyed to the Indian Coast Guards. Regrettably, the response has at best been lukewarm and no effective action to curb the ingress has been taken, indicating tacit state approval of this criminal activity.


Catherine Shabos insight:

This article goes to show borders and claims of land are so important to countries and geography. It is not right nor legal for these Indian fisherman to invade what belongs to Pakistan. The marine life resources provided causes this to become a fragile and frustrating issue to the security. It goes to show how if land is invaded it could lead to violence. The Indian fishermen should get charged for breaking the law, but obviously not hurt. It becomes a tricky situation when resources are involved and are being stolen away. Pakistan will not handle this lightly and both neighboring regions need to come up with an agreement to settle the dispute that does not involve it getting violent.

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South Asian creators using the medium for social and gender justice | The Forbidden Planet International Blog

South Asian creators using the medium for social and gender justice | The Forbidden Planet International Blog | Geography 400 Articles |

This is pretty interesting video from World Comics Network – a growing network of mostly female creators who are utilising the comics medium and comics workshops to empower women and address social issues pertaining to gender in their part of the world, and also build on those strips to use them for other social commentary and discussion (such as creating comics addressing widespread issues of official corruption). Always great to see people making their own comics and using the medium for something with positive social influences. As the video shows most of the women here are creating work in Pakistan, but they also pick up on some unusual uses of comics in India (and if the medium helps any cross border co-operation between those two countries that can surely only be a good thing) and goes on to talk about how they would like to create a network across Asia of comics creators using the medium to highlight social concerns and develop comics journalism. Interesting stuff and more power to them:


Via Ladies Making Comics
Catherine Shabos insight:

I think things like this are great. It really shows how a group of people, in this case females, can get their tepoint across in a way that is firm but not violent. I would like to see them create this network to advertise the social concerns in South Asia. History does repeat itself and it seems every part of the world has had/or is having the struggle to gain more women independence and acknoldgement. Something as simple as these comics and journalism could start a feminist movement.

Marissa Roy's curator insight, December 4, 2013 12:33 PM

Really great video. Women in South Asia are using comics and the internet to get their message out. Whether it be for gender equality or to inform the world of events that have occured in places such as Pakistan and India, there message is being heard by internet users around the globe. What an interesting use of technology and creativity to advocate for human rights!

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Libyan Arab Spring: Making Wine from Dead Bodies

Libyan Arab Spring: Making Wine from Dead Bodies | Geography 400 Articles |

After the devil’s Arab Spring has succeeded in turning Libya into a totally failed state, the west’s mainstream media dropped it from its interests and concentrating on Syria, the country that stands an obstacle in their queue of countries to be ‘democratized’ into failed states.


Here’s a shocking side of the ‘democracy’ the Arab Spring brought to Libya, remember where Libya is? It’s an oil rich country north of Africa that the west intervened by itself to ‘protect’ its people from themselves, now they’re so protected with the Public Leashing of sinners and to further ‘respect’ humanity in this country they’re making use of the living and the dead as well.

Via Pulp Ark
Paul Ruskaup's comment, March 29, 2013 1:12 AM
Remember Zbigniew Brzezinski, Jimmy Carters National Security Adviser, who brought UN Ayatollah Khomeini, Iraq war, Russian invasion of afghanistan, is/was also Barack Obama's National Security Adviser. Did he bring us the Arab spring to round out his plan to destabilize the Middle East. of course at the cost of Christian bodies!!!
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Egypt, Short of Money, Sees Crisis on Food and Gas

Egypt, Short of Money, Sees Crisis on Food and Gas | Geography 400 Articles |
The cash shortage is raising questions about Egypt’s ability to keep importing wheat that is essential to the food supply, stirring fears of an economic catastrophe.

Via Frank Kusters
Catherine Shabos insight:

This, to me, catches my attention as to something that can and will affect many other nations. No matter how far apart, nations are connected by oil. Whether it is who they get it from, who supplies who, or where the higher demands are, when there is a demand for fuel, I think it can have a domino affect.  In Egypt it is causing many problems other than fueling their cars and trucks. It leads to violence and a shortage of food because farmers do not have the fuel to run their farms properly. We take for granted how easily we as citizens access oil, and do not realize what would happen if all of a sudden we couldn't get it.

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Is Islam Incompatible with Western Values? - Diplomatic Courier

Is Islam Incompatible with Western Values? - Diplomatic Courier | Geography 400 Articles |
Is Islam Incompatible with Western Values?
Diplomatic Courier
Actually Islam has existed for about 1400 years, covering a geography that includes the Middle East, Central Asia, Northern Africa, and most parts of Southeast Asia.

Via Allison Anthony
Catherine Shabos insight:

I think history makes it pretty clear that Islamic faith is not compatible with western values. Whether that is sensible or not is another question. However, it is shown everyday that they are not compatible and there is little hope given to say they ever will be. The western opinion though can be somewhat contradictive. We say the burqua takes away the human rights of a woman, which I agree it does, but then the west bans them. This is just also taking away a right to religions to have their own rules and for women to have the right to express their religion. Things like this can be looked at in different points of view, and I am sure not everything in Islamic faith can be considered negative by westerners if they really studied it.

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Sephora Opens Largest Store in Asia

Sephora Opens Largest Store in Asia | Geography 400 Articles |

" SHANGHAI — The length of Nanjing Road, one of this city’s two premier shopping streets, was festooned this week with red banners on every power pole proclaiming a single word — Sephora. "

Via retail watch
Catherine Shabos insight:

This caught my eye being one of my favorite stores. Opening one in Shanghai is quite impressive. I did not realize that Sephora was that popular of a retail store to expand globally. This will obviously be good for the economy of Asia if more stores are created. After all, women love makeup no matter what country you are in. Based on some articles I am reading, Asia seems to be at its peak recently with expanding its retail market. How about bringing some Asia stores to America? I would like to shop at those!

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With a Mall Boom in Russia, Property Investors Go Shopping | Southmoore AP Human Geography

With a Mall Boom in Russia, Property Investors Go Shopping | Southmoore AP Human Geography | Geography 400 Articles |
While malls appear to be past their peak in the United States, in Russia they are luring shoppers with money to spend and investors like Morgan Stanley.

Via Mike Busarello's Digital Storybooks
Catherine Shabos insight:

These malls seem to be working out well for Moscow and Russia's income. I was surprised to read that the number of customers exceeded the amount of people who visitied the Mall of America. If they can afford to keep expanding and bringing in revenue then why not?

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Russian streetfights Russians VS Muslims Muslims getting a good hiding

Russians VS muslims

Via Infidel Patriot
Catherine Shabos insight:

Wow, this is almost hard to watch because it is a disturbing concept. There is a lot of questions about this video that I have. For example, who sets up these "street fights" and how did they start? How long have they been going on for and what part of Russia is it? I am in shock that people act this way against each other just because of their religion or culture. Goes to show how geography can affect the ego centric view of one type of culture against another. Something should be done about this is in Russia.

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Mexico enacts major education reform

Mexico enacts major education reform | Geography 400 Articles |
Mexican President Enrique Pena Nieto enacts a major shake-up of the education system, amid a nationwide strike by teachers.

Via Alejandro Restrepo
Catherine Shabos insight:

Progess and reform especially in education is always a good thing. The wishful thinking to this matter is that it would cause a domino effect and some of South America's smaller countries could form something also.

Alejandro Restrepo's curator insight, February 25, 2013 11:11 PM

Congratulations to Mexico on its new education reform. Now, is this reform going to bring in immigrants from neighboring countries such as Belize and Guatemala? With good education comes a prosperous future, which entices citizens of other countries without these kind of education reforms.

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Syria’s war spills into Lebanon

Syria’s war spills into Lebanon | Geography 400 Articles |
Dictator Bashar al-Assad, he told us, still had a chance to outlast the rebellion against him, though “it will take a couple of years and more than 100,000 killed.”


BD: This is an interesting article from The Washington Post; it outlines the spread of the Arab Spring with a key quote from Assad seen above. Possibly most important is the Post's statement on the actions of the President of the United States and his administration. I have stated before, world leaders need to step in and take action to counter act the total warfare. The Obama administration continues to take a “soft-line” approach to the issues in Syria, “(Obama administration) is pursuing the shortsighted policy of seeking to restrain anti-Assad forces. That strategy has had no effect in either country other than to empower U.S. enemies and jihadist groups.”

Via Benjamin DeRita, Seth Dixon
Catherine Shabos insight:

With my heritage from the Middle East, specifically Syria, I found this to be a very interesting and sad situation. Many people know of the violence that goes on in the Middle East, but not what causes it or how it affects its neighboring countries, causing the widespread of violence in this part of the world. Lebanon is catching a carry over of rebellion from the Syrian civil war and acts of violece. This is a perfect example of how Geography plays an important role on the act of civilians or the peace in an area.

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Storm Surges, Rising Seas Could Doom Pacific Islands This Century: Scientific American

Storm Surges, Rising Seas Could Doom Pacific Islands This Century: Scientific American | Geography 400 Articles |
Atolls and other low-lying islands in the Pacific Ocean may not slip under the waves but they will likely become uninhabitable due to overwashing waves

Via SustainOurEarth
Catherine Shabos insight:

It is crazy to read that this could happen as soon as 50 years from now. Global warming is causing for these islands to start the process in becoming like underwater cities of Atlantis which always fascinated me. I think it is safe to say that scientist in the next century will have these islands to study..underwater.

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A revealing map of who wants to move to the U.S.

A revealing map of who wants to move to the U.S. | Geography 400 Articles |
The world's countries, color-coded by the share of the population that would like to migrate to the U.S.

Via Seth Dixon
Catherine Shabos insight:

Interesting to see how the main part of the world that wants to move to the United States is in Africa. But what is even more interesting is how West Africa has a higher percentage. Why is this? My answer would be that South Africa is more modernized and developed than West Africa. There is less disease and death rates. This is what may attract them to the American Dream.

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East Asia's maritime disputes

East Asia's maritime disputes | Geography 400 Articles |
A race for energy resources makes unresolved territorial disputes more dangerous in both North-East and South-East Asia

Tags: borders, political, conflict, water, China, Japan, East Asia.

Catherine Shabos insight:

There is a big lesson to be learned from this map and what it means. No territory on this earth is completely not valuable. Specifically ones with long coast lines and natural resources. This shows how Geography comes into play with economic profit. Now, if this division is not working for the East Pacific then the ideal thing would be to divide it equally. But, that never works does it..

Jess Deady's curator insight, May 4, 2014 9:48 PM

I couldn't view this content. Its "cookies" were unable to read my computer.

Kaitlin Young's curator insight, December 12, 2014 1:04 PM

Oil resources in the South China Sea are fueling territorial disputes over small islands and territorial waters. China, in order to claim these oil plays for itself, is claiming islands all over the sea. Extending its EEZ will ensure these oil plays. Many of these islands are no more than coral atolls, but China is arguing that they belong to it because of its measures to develop some of these islands. One resort islands and weather stations are being constructed in order to provide some sort of legitimate claim to these places. Also, by claiming these islands and expanding the EEZ, China is trying to claim other countries' EEZs as its own. While China is the powerhouse of the region, many fear that land grabs may turn into military action. 


As long as the world is reliant on fossil fuels, territorial disputes will continue and possibly grow in number. Dependency on a non-renewable resource will eventually lead to more regional and global arguments. 

Edgar Manasseh Jr.'s curator insight, April 12, 2015 3:26 PM

The dispute between The north and South of asia are evident. in a global perspective this territorial battle in somewhat may affect global development as far as trading with the United states. It will affect global interests, and this is why the senator kerry as i recall has made countless trips to help resolve the issues between the two North east and the South to come into an agreement to help because they dont want to loose energy resources and disturb the security that has been provided its a very tough situation.

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South Asia's smog 'getting worse'

South Asia's smog 'getting worse' | Geography 400 Articles |
A rapid rise in air pollution from fossil fuels and biomass burnings worsens winter smog and extends its duration in many parts of South Asia.


The confluence of population growth, rapid urbanization and global economic restructuring combine with other geographic factors to adversely impact the environmental conditions in South Asia.  

Catherine Shabos insight:

With the pollution increasing in South Asia, I strongly believe that this is a cause for respiratory deaths. Especially if the citizens of this regions are inhaling it every single day. The article even says that some days in a row the temperature drops because no sunlight is getting through the smog. If this is the case, then that is very dangerous to inhale because no air is circulating and there is no fresh sunlight coming in. This could also cause long term respiratory illnesses for the children living here. Solutions to this problem can be tricky but cutting back on the amount of fuel being used is a good place to start. The pictures even say enough because it is clear that the air is not clear. I would not want to breathe that in. There has to be alternatives.

Nicole Kearsch's curator insight, November 20, 2014 2:36 PM

This seems to be a dangerous circle that potentially has south Asia in a lot of trouble in the foreseeable future.  There is smog in the air from everything that is burned, causing the sun to be blocked and temperatures to drop, which in turn causes people to become cold and burn more wood, hay and cow pies.  This vicious circle needs to be fixed.  However right now is going to be the hardest time to do that.  In the winter it is harder for the smog to go up into the atmosphere leaving the blanket of smog.  It is also colder in the winter months leading to people to burn products to keep themselves warm.  This has however has already created problems especially with the elderly and young children.  With all the smog in the air it has caused respiratory infections leading to the deaths of people.  Not seeing this as a major issue is wrong.  Something needs to be done, it could be the government regulating what people burn to make sure that the smog is not getting to be too out of hand.  People's well being is not the only thing that this smog is hurting.  Cities literally have to shut down because people can't go anywhere, the smog creates a zero or very little visibility stopping traffic, trains, and planes.  Without people being able to get anywhere there is no way of people going to work causing places to have to close down either early or entirely for the day.  The smog is shedding a negative light not only on the environment but the economy and well being of the people around.

Michael Mazo's curator insight, December 15, 2014 2:17 PM

South Asia's extremely massive population comes at the expense of heavy energy consumption. In turn it leads to pollution cause by the burning of fossil fuels in the area, and this pollution has been getting worse and worse to a point where its affecting the daily lives of those in South Asia. This pollution has been causing smog to become more prevalent as the days go on. The burning of fossil fuels through motor vehicles and manufacturing plants has taken its toll on the environment in an extremely negative way. A switch to green energy would help fight this issue, although no plans have yet been set in stone to remove the consumption of oil

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If you’re going to have a line in the sand there’s no better place to draw it than in the desert, and no desert comes bigger than the Sahara. North Africa has emerged as one of the most interesting...
Catherine Shabos insight:

I agree with Peter Bells's opinion on the Arab Spring issue in the middle east and north Africa. At the end of this he says, "If we can offer the right support these new nations can and will play a constructive part in the world community." This is completely accurate. If the Arab Spring causes more arab and north african nations to emerge in the world, then western countries will have to learn to play as a team with them. He discusses how we see the islamic views as completely bizzar, but we do not always look at everything. Most judge by the small things, or just what they hear. Right now, Syria needs support. Whether the western nations will supply this support is unknown but eventually, one thing or another is going to happen. We can either make it good or bad.

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Chinese technology turns grass into mushrooms

Chinese technology turns grass into mushrooms | Geography 400 Articles |

JUNCAO Technology turns grass into mushrooms

In 1983, professor Lin Zhanxi of FujianAgriculturalUniversity recognized the rapid decline of forests in China as wood logs were much in demand for shiitake and other exotic mushrooms. He started to work with wild grasses, bagasse, rice and corn straw as basic materials for the mushroom substrate. In 1987 he decided to name the technique JUNCAO: ‘Jun’ from fungi, and ‘Cao’ being the Chinese word for grass(-es). Now, 21 years later, the technique has led to a comprehensive growing system for more than 40 types of mushrooms, using some 33 kinds of leguminous plants as basic substrate material. The grasses are dried after harvest, grinded and stored until used. For each mushroom, specific substrate recipes have been developed. E.g. a patented process has been developed to use protein of fermentative bacteria instead of the commonly used wheat bran. Heat treatments and substrate containers also vary between species.

This systematic set of technique has spread to at least 50 countries and helped to alleviate poverty while making sustainable use of resources which are readily available. The JUNCAO Institute now employs over 200 people, of which 30 at the University Campus of Fujian Agricultural University and the remaining on bases all over the world.

One of its daughters is the Green Valley Institute of Biopharmaceutical Technology. In 2003, it managed to get the first official medicine approved, based on the spores of Ganoderma.

Via palkarlsen, Frank Kusters
Catherine Shabos insight:

The technology that goes into this is amazing and what it can lead to is amazing. The fact that this can lead to useful medicines shows that it should be looked into even further. Maybe China can get more out of this or try other bacterias and share it with the rest of the world. That is a positive look on something like this. I can see how some would critique it though. They would maybe say it is not natural in terms of consuming the mushrooms.

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#Russia #warships head for #Syria

#Russia #warships head for #Syria | Geography 400 Articles |


"Moscow is deploying warships at its base in the Syrian port of Tartus. The long-planned mission comes, providentially, at the very moment when it could help prevent a potential conflict in the strategically important Middle Eastern country."

Via Ben-Perrusi Martins
Catherine Shabos insight:

This being almost two years ago, it shows how the tension between these nations has been present for so much long and does not ever seem to fade in the slightest. While this article makes it so that the Russians did not have a violent motive behind this, which two years later proved to be true, it will still always rasie a question in everyone's minds and keep nations on their toes. Russia is an intimidating nation and I can see how this would cause an uproar.

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Obama's Real Reason For Visiting Israel - Al-Monitor: the Pulse of the Middle East

Obama's Real Reason For Visiting Israel - Al-Monitor: the Pulse of the Middle East | Geography 400 Articles |
President Barack Obama’s visit to Israel is not motivated by a desire to win over the Israeli public, writes Akiva Eldar, but rather by the need to salvage the standing of the United States as an influential power in the region.

Via Juan Carlos Hernandez
Catherine Shabos insight:

I completely agree with the statement about Obama's real motive for visiting Israel. The United States is seen as and is indeed a world power. It is true to say what is a world power that just ignores the conflict. This article is saying that other theories are false. Theories such as visiting to basically kiss up for oil, or to kiss up to a middle eastern country. A world power does not need to kiss up rather keep peace with foreign policy and show that they are paying attention. If Israel were to feel forgotten then what kind of ally would they turn out to be? Many are quick to assume but do not realize that Obama is already in his second turn, he does not need to convince people to like him anymore. He can just do his job as President. 

Juan Carlos Hernandez's curator insight, March 21, 2013 8:58 AM

Already in his first speech upon landing in Israel, US President Barack Obama did not limit himself to polite niceties, as expected from an American president on a first visit to Israel. The important visitor stressed the winds of change blowing through the Middle East and pointed to the opportunities and hopes that they carry for the pragmatic forces in the region. But he was careful to warn of the heavy price of missing these opportunities for positive change, and of the dangers posed by that loss.

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Rescooped by Catherine Shabo from The Asian Food Gazette.!

The Surprising Reason Why Your Coffee Soon Cost More

The Surprising Reason Why Your Coffee Soon Cost More | Geography 400 Articles |
You might soon be paying more for your morning pick-me-up thanks to recent coffee converts on the other side of the world.

Via Frank Kusters
Catherine Shabos insight:

Well, this makes me sad! Although, I never knew that coffee was not as common in India and China as it was here. I think if Starbucks were to extend it's profit into countries like India and China then yes, prices would rise here. However, I think that would only happen at first. I think once it was settled the prices would become steady again because they would get used to the higher demand. We shall see.

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Rescooped by Catherine Shabo from Space & Time!

Russia plans giant solar power station to orbit Earth

Russia plans giant solar power station to orbit Earth | Geography 400 Articles |

Russia is thinking of building a giant solar power station capable of collecting energy and beaming it to Earth. This idea was put forward by Central Scientific Research institute for Engineering, a subsidiary of the Russian Space Agency, Roskosmos.

Via Michele Diodati
Catherine Shabos insight:

I agree that this is an idea that should be studied further to see what we can learn from it, but it does seem not too well thought out as of right now. I do believe that Russia and the other countries have the right idea of starting to think about how we will get energy in the future, since that is an environmental issue already becoming something scientist worry about. If they were to do this in the future, they would need to make sure it is completely safe and the smartest way to aquire energy for the earth. However, I am sure by then Russia and other nations will have many other advanced ideas of collecting energy and this may be pushed aside. Who knows right?

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Rescooped by Catherine Shabo from Reforming Europe's Common Agricultural Policy!

British farming in crisis - or is it?

British farming in crisis - or is it? | Geography 400 Articles |

This scary story in the Guardian says that many farmers are quitting an industry hit by rain, disease and cheap imports – just as food security becomes a worldwide issue. And indeed many UK farmers have suffered greatly from the poor weather in 2012, as demonstrated by the story of Stephen Watkins who farms in Worcestershire, UK.

Via Alan Matthews
Catherine Shabos insight:

This is an unfortunate situation that is hard to solve because there is no stopping mother nature. I guess it is the risk taken being a farmer but if they are supplying corportate super markets, how come they can't have some form of a crop insurance? Seems only fair because as I said, mother nature will take iher course no matter what. The farmers should not be punished if their crops get flooded and ruined. The bright side is that rain does not last forever so farming can always be done, it is just a matter of getting through this hurdle of mass precipitation during a short period of time.

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Rescooped by Catherine Shabo from The Indigenous Uprising of the British Isles!

ENAR urges to stop racism - New Europe

ENAR urges to stop racism - New Europe | Geography 400 Articles |
New Europe ENAR urges to stop racism New Europe The European Network Against Racism (ENAR) today called on EU leaders to take action in order to stop racism and discrimination in Europe and promoteequality by ensuring access to quality employment...

Via Infidel Patriot
Catherine Shabos insight:

My comment on this issue is that if Europe is really discriminating to keep a strong "native population" then something should be changed. Nowhere in this world is there still such a thing as a "strong native population" because over the decades, countries have become diverse and minorities have become major populations. It is time for every country in this nation, and Europe to realize that this is what it is and will keep happening and that it is time to stop job discriminating because that is not going to change anything. It is only creating harships for the people or "minorities" or "not natives" living in the same country as you.