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NIH Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (OBSSR) - A Definition

NIH Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (OBSSR) - A Definition | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

When the United States Congress created the Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (OBSSR) at the National Institutes of Health, it mandated that the Office develop a standard definition of the field to assess and monitor funding in this area. This definition of health-related behavioral and social sciences research was developed in 1996 in consultation with behavioral and social scientists and science organizations, and benefited from the leadership of OBSSR's founding director,
Dr. Norman B. Anderson. This definition divides behavioral and social sciences research into two sections: Core Areas of Research, and Adjunct Areas of Research. The core areas of research are further divided into basic or fundamental research and applied research. Adjunct areas of behavioral and social sciences research include many types of neurological research and some research on pharmacological interventions--areas that have implications for, and are often influenced by, behavioral research.

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Bias cognitivi

Bias cognitivi | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it
I bias cognitivi sono schemi sistematici di deviazione dalla norma o dalla razionalità nel giudizio e sono spesso studiati in psicologia ed economia...
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Toward inverse generative social science using multi-objective genetic programming

Generative mechanism-based models of social systems, such as those represented by agent-based simulations, require that intra-agent equations (or rules) be specified. However there are often many different choices available for specifying these equations, which can still be interpreted as falling within a particular class of mechanisms. Whilst it is important for a generative model to reproduce historically observed dynamics, it is also important for the model to be theoretically enlightening. Genetic programs (our own included) often produce concatenations that are highly predictive but are complex and hard to interpret theoretically. Here, we develop a new method – based on multi-objective genetic programming – for automating the exploration of both objectives simultaneously. We demonstrate the method by evolving the equations for an existing agent-based simulation of alcohol use behaviors based on social norms theory, the initial model structure for which was developed by a team of human modelers. We discover a trade-off between empirical fit and theoretical interpretability that offers insight into the social norms processes that influence the change and stasis in alcohol use behaviors over time.
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A Functional Contextualist Account of Behavioral Economics: Relational Frame Theory Applied to Decision-Making and Choice Behavior | Perspectivas em Análise do Comportamento

A Functional Contextualist Account of Behavioral Economics: Relational Frame Theory Applied to Decision-Making and Choice Behavior | Perspectivas em Análise do Comportamento | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it
Behavioral economics is a discipline that is mainly rooted in cognitivism and that is concerned with the study of decision-making processes and choice behavior. These involve addressing the relations between cognition and overt behavior, which comprise one of the most challenging topics in the domain of behavioral sciences at large and have been approached by different epistemological viewpoints. Within the cognitivist tradition, private events have been often treated as causes of behaviors, adopting a mechanistic view. Conversely, a contextual functional behavioral perspective treats them with the same methodology that is adopted for overt behaviors. Relational frame theory, a post-Skinnerian theory of language and cognition, offers a behavioral perspective on cognition and overt behavior and how they influence human behavior, by keeping a high degree of coherence with basic principles and goals of behavior analysis (i.e., effective action). This conceptual paper represents an attempt to offer a perspective drawn from contextual behavioral science on some constructs described in behavioral economics. Furthermore, it provides a common ground for behavior analysts and researchers in other fields of psychology to further expand our knowledge and respective explanations of decision-making processes. Finally, it draws a line for connecting basic research to applied solutions.
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Bias cognitivi: ecco i 200 principali bias cognitivi

Bias cognitivi: ecco i 200 principali bias cognitivi | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it
Scopri tutti i principali bias cognitivi e impara a gestire il comportamento del tuo cervello in ogni interazione. Ecco i più diffusi 200 bias cognitivi.
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Intelligenza Artificiale: implicazioni etiche in materia di privacy e diritto penale

Intelligenza Artificiale: implicazioni etiche in materia di privacy e diritto penale | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

Intelligenza Artificiale: implicazioni etiche in materia di privacy e diritto penale a cura di Chiara Limiti 1.Definizioni dell’intelligenza artificiale:...

È possibile predire la possibilità che un determinato individuo, avente delle specifiche caratteristiche, commetta un reato o anche reiteri un reato? Dalla domanda sembrerebbe che stiamo tornando alle teorie di Lombroso, tuttavia se un algoritmo fosse in grado di fornire con accuratezza un tale livello di previsione questo avrebbe degli sviluppi di alleggerimento dell’intero sistema giudiziario. Infatti, l’algoritmo consentirebbe di applicare automaticamente delle misure di sicurezza, le misure cautelari e quelle di prevenzione; inoltre potrebbe trovare un’applicazione per concedere la sospensione condizionale di una pena o l’affidamento in prova al servizio sociale. Allo stato attuale il nostro sistema giudiziario affida questo tipo di valutazioni ai giudici, i quali decidono sulla base della loro esperienza o grazie al supporto di perizie di esperti. Tuttavia, una branca dell’intelligenza artificiale si sta adoperando al fine di sviluppare degli algoritmi (risk assessment tools, o algoritmi predittivi) che siano in grado di effettuare tali valutazioni.

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nice
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Perchè anche le persone intelligenti, spesso, non sono razionali?

Perchè anche le persone intelligenti, spesso, non sono razionali? | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it
Descrive le ragioni, di natura evoluzionistica, per cui talvolta anche persone molto intelligenti prendono decisioni irrazionali o addirittura stupide...
EarpieceHub's comment, June 7, 8:10 AM
super
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Il tutto è più della somma delle parti - Alessandro Cerboni, Pierluigi Sabatini - Libro - Mondadori Store

Il tutto è più della somma delle parti - Alessandro Cerboni, Pierluigi Sabatini - Libro - Mondadori Store | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

Oggi è necessario un approccio concettuale diverso e innovativo alla Compliance, occorre aprire una visione nuova sulla disciplina della Compliance ed il Sistema della Compliance. Lo scopo del libro è più di fornire gli strumenti per sviluppare il Mindset necessario a comprendere cosa sia la Compliance che di riportare una serie di rituali o formule fatte. Data la vastità della materia che spazia dai quattro codici a le varie leggi, norme e regolamenti che riguardano una organizzazione, si preferito fornire gli strumenti per elaborarle e sviluppare il Sistema della Compliance. Si è anche indicata l'integrazione con la Governance e l'Intelligence spiegando perché rappresentino ormai un aggregato inscindibile per qualsiasi organizzazione. Il testo vuole fornire una comprensione e le basi del modello mentale utile a quanti si avvicinano alla professione di Compliance Manager ma che al contempo vogliono uscire dalle semplicistiche regole di applicazione, formule e rituali per passare ad una comprensione quasi filosofica della Compliance. Ciò che si descrive è come acquisire il giusto approccio mentale o mindset per una disciplina giovane ancora in continua evoluzione. Partita dall'applicazione e verifica formale dell'applicazione di alcune leggi, oggi la Compliance ha assunto la dimensione di una disciplina autonoma che deve plasmare il governo di una organizzazione o di una azienda. Come cita il motto del GDPR "By design by default" così deve agire il sistema della Compliance perché l'intera organizzazione possa e sappia far emergere un comportamento acquiescente (compliant) all'insieme delle leggi, norme e regolamenti che la riguardano. Nel testo anche una introduzione alle norme internazionali ISO 19600 sulla compliance e la nuova ISO 37301 oltre al tema del D.Lgs. 231/2001 il tutto è visto alla luce del nuovo approccio che vede la scienza dei sistemi complessi, il System Thinking e neurologia comportamentale quali nuovi capisaldi metodologici della disciplina.

https://www.youcanprint.it/il-tutto-e-piu-della-somma-delle-parti/b/16950d67-7a02-5db7-a081-8b0d62983d59

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A Brilliant Sign That Your IQ Is High

A Brilliant Sign That Your IQ Is High | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

This sign of intelligence is what makes society work.

Intelligent people are better at cooperating with others, new research finds. While personality traits like being generous and conscientious have an effect on cooperation, higher IQ is the main factor that encourages people to work well together. That is why people with high IQs are so essential: without them society would not work. People with lower intelligence tend not to use a consistent strategy and fail to consider the consequences of their actions, the researchers also found.

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Inderscience Publishers - linking academia, business and industry through research

IAbstract: Virtual community was designed to organise different communities and getting people involved in creating and sharing knowledge. It was also called e-information exchange system. Bock et al. argued that the research perspectives of knowledge sharing should be classified into economics, social psychology and sociology perspectives. We present a conceptual framework based on economic, social psychology and social ecology perspective and propose a set of propositions for knowledge sharing in virtual community. Finally, we introduce punctuated equilibrium as third theoretical perspective to understand whether the factors affecting knowledge sharing may change with time.

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Corporate Surveillance in Everyday Life

Corporate Surveillance in Everyday Life | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it
How Thousands of Companies Monitor, Analyze, and Influence the Lives of Billions. Report + Web Publication.

Via Constantin Ionel Milos / Milos Constantin
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12 Ways to Get Smarter in One Infographic

12 Ways to Get Smarter in One Infographic | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

Highlighting and breaking down the 12 most useful and universal mental models that will make you smarter and more productive.

12 Ways to Get Smarter in One Infographic View the high resolution version of today’s graphic by clicking here. The level of a person’s raw intelligence, as measured by aptitude tests such as IQ scores, is generally pretty stable for most people during adulthood. While it’s true that there are things you can do to fine tune your natural capabilities, such as doing brain exercises, puzzle solving, and getting optimal sleep – the amount of raw brainpower you have is difficult to increase in any meaningful or permanent way. For those of us who constantly strive to be high-performers in our fields, this seems like bad news. If we can’t increase our processing power, then how can we solve life’s bigger problems as we move up the ladder? THE KEY IS MENTAL MODELS The good news is that while raw cognitive abilities matter, it’s how you use and harness those abilities that really makes the difference. The world’s most successful people, from Ray Dalio to Warren Buffett, are not necessarily leagues above the rest of us in raw intelligence – they have simply developed and applied better mental models of how the world works, and they use these principles to filter their thoughts, decisions, strategies, and execution. Today’s infographic comes from best-selling author and entrepreneur Michael Simmons, who has collected over 650 mental models through his work. The infographic, in a similar style to one we previously published on cognitive biases, synthesizes these models down to the most useful and universal mental models that people should learn to master first.

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Every Single Cognitive Bias in One Infographic

Every Single Cognitive Bias in One Infographic | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

Here's all 188 cognitive biases in existence, grouped by how they impact our thoughts and actions. We also give some specific cognitive bias examples.

Every Single Cognitive Bias in One Infographic View the high resolution version of today’s graphic by clicking here. The human brain is capable of incredible things, but it’s also extremely flawed at times. Science has shown that we tend to make all sorts of mental mistakes, called “cognitive biases”, that can affect both our thinking and actions. These biases can lead to us extrapolating information from the wrong sources, seeking to confirm existing beliefs, or failing to remember events the way they actually happened! To be sure, this is all part of being human – but such cognitive biases can also have a profound effect on our endeavors, investments, and life in general. For this reason, today’s infographic from DesignHacks.co is particularly handy. It shows and groups each of the 188 known confirmation biases in existence.

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Conflict and convention in dynamic networks

Conflict and convention in dynamic networks | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it
An important way to resolve games of conflict (snowdrift, hawk–dove, chicken) involves adopting a convention: a correlated equilibrium that avoids any conflict between aggressive strategies. Dynamic networks allow individuals to resolve conflict via their network connections rather than changing their strategy. Exploring how behavioural strategies coevolve with social networks reveals new dynamics that can help explain the origins and robustness of conventions. Here, we model the emergence of conventions as correlated equilibria in dynamic networks. Our results show that networks have the tendency to break the symmetry between the two conventional solutions in a strongly biased way. Rather than the correlated equilibrium associated with ownership norms (play aggressive at home, not away), we usually see the opposite host–guest norm (play aggressive away, not at home) evolve on dynamic networks, a phenomenon common to human interaction. We also show that learning to avoid conflict can produce realistic network structures in a way different than preferential attachment models.
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City Center - TAU Research Center for Cities and Urbanism | Tel Aviv University

City Center - TAU Research Center for Cities and Urbanism | Tel Aviv University | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it
City Center
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Tel Aviv University's City Center is proud to invite you to the Crisis of Democracy in the Age of Cities, ​an international online conference. The conference will last 3 consecutive days, from August 31st to September 2nd. The Aim of the conference is to examine the links between the crisis of democracy with its tension between “non-democratic liberalism’ vs “non-liberal democracy’ and, the 21st century as the age of cities, in which the various properties of cities and urbanism dominate life. This, at the background of Industry 4.0, the Anthropocene, globalization and the COVID-19 pandemic. Details at: en-urban.tau.ac.il
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Management: agire d'istinto fa prendere decisioni migliori che affidarsi a metodologie e statistiche | BusinessCommunity.it

Management: agire d'istinto fa prendere decisioni migliori che affidarsi a metodologie e statistiche | BusinessCommunity.it | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it
Oguz A.Acar (Business School): il semplice buonsenso sviluppato nel corso degli anni in cui sono divenuti leader può essere più efficace di uno strumento analitico...
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I manager che agiscono di pancia insieme a semplici strategie decisionali possono prendere decisioni altrettanto buone, ma più rapide, di quelli si basano semplicemente su dati e statistiche per ottenere un risultato, secondo un nuovo studio. Il rapporto, co-realizzato da ricercatori della Business School (ex-Cass), della King's Business School e dell'Università di Malta, trova che la dipendenza dall'analisi dei dati, nel processo decisionale, potrebbe essere controproducente perché riduce la rapidità della decisione senza garantire automaticamente una maggiore precisione nel risultato.
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Intelligenza Artificiale, euristica e bias cognitivi applicati agli algoritmi

Intelligenza Artificiale, euristica e bias cognitivi applicati agli algoritmi | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it
Modalità di funzionamento delle decisioni assunte da una Intelligenza Artificiale rapportate ai rischi di fallacia del ragionamento umano.
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Anche se ritengo che sia più corretto l'approccio non negativo di Gerd Gigerenzer riguardo ai Bias cognitivi, di fatto in molte situazioni si possono presentare effetti che possiamo giudicare negativi in un certo contesto. I bias cognitivi sono fondati su percezioni errate o deformate, su pregiudizi e ideologie. Si tratta di errori cognitivi che impattano nella vita di tutti i giorni, non solo su decisioni e comportamenti, ma anche sui processi di pensiero. Ma la ricerca di Kahneman è andata anche oltre: dimostrando il fatto che la maggior parte delle persone, quelle dotate di poco spirito di autocritica, non riconosceranno con una certa facilità il fatto di poter compiere degli errori, e rimarranno ingannate dalla loro stessa presunzione a causa del fatto che tutte le informazioni che tendono a ridurre l’autostima, scrive lo studioso, "la mente non le digerisce".[2] E’ difficile che qualcuno riconosca di essersi sbagliato, ma gli errori sono inevitabili: tutti, ogni tanto, sbagliamo.
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How AI Will Soon Change Special Operations - Nextgov

How AI Will Soon Change Special Operations - Nextgov | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

Quando il Gen. Richard D. Clarke guidava le forze per le operazioni speciali in Afghanistan anni fa, passava il 90% del suo tempo a pensare a muoversi e sparare: "il raid, la missione, la missione kill-capture, la distruzione delle forze nemiche", Clarke ha detto la scorsa settimana alla conferenza annuale SOFIC. Ma quando è tornato in Afghanistan l'anno scorso come comandante del Comando delle operazioni speciali degli Stati Uniti, ha scoperto che i leader statunitensi stavano concentrando la maggior parte della loro energia mentale sull'informazione. I comandanti ora trascorrono circa il 60 percento del loro tempo a rimuginare su ciò che pensano i talebani e la popolazione afgana e su come le azioni degli Stati Uniti potrebbero influenzarlo, ha detto Clarke. "Mentre guardiamo allo spazio delle informazioni e nella nostra lotta per la concorrenza... lavorare nello spazio delle informazioni può avere il maggiore impatto nei prossimi anni". Clarke ha affermato che l'intelligenza artificiale svolgerà un ruolo importante nei futuri sforzi di guerra delle informazioni di SOCOM. Quest'estate, il comando istituirà un nuovo ufficio per sfruttare l'intelligenza artificiale per la traduzione linguistica, la scansione di laptop e telefoni cellulari catturati, la raccolta e il contrasto dei messaggi dei talebani e altro ancora.A new SOCOM office is pursuing tools to understand and influence populations, clear rooms with robots, and spot new forms of jamming. 

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[Recensione] La fabbrica delle scelte. 25 bias comportamentali che influenzano i nostri acquisti –

[Recensione] La fabbrica delle scelte. 25 bias comportamentali che influenzano i nostri acquisti – | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

Non tutti i Bias cognitivi sono negativi specie quando sotto ci sono delle euristiche che ci hanno consentito di decidere in condizioni di incertezza. "Un bias cognitivo in psicologia è uno schema di deviazione del giudizio che si verifica in presenza di certi presupposti. In particolare sono molto studiati nella psicologia sociale e la loro applicazione alle logiche di persuasione e vendita è stato oggetto di approfondimento già in passato, specie da Robert Cialdini, che nel libro è spesso citato. I bias cognitivi sono forme di comportamento mentale evoluto, perché rappresentano delle scorciatoie e degli automatismi che permettono al nostro cervello di prendere decisioni più velocemente e con minore sforzo."

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Alessandro Cerboni on LinkedIn: Bias cognitivi e fallacie logiche nella politica italiana.

Alessandro Cerboni on LinkedIn: Bias cognitivi e fallacie logiche nella politica italiana. | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it
I #bias #cognitivi e le #euristiche sono #scorciatoie #mentali, basati su ideologie e pregiudizi, che possono portarci ad agire e a pensare irrazionalmente...
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Community Resilience and Social Memory: Ingenta Connect

Community Resilience and Social Memory: Ingenta Connect | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it
Abstract: The notion of 'resilience' is rapidly emerging as a research topic in its own right, with the notion of 'social resilience' rapidly gaining importance. Yet, due to the relative novelty of the research field, discussions about processes of social resilience are not yet fully developed, especially with regard to how the inbuilt 'memory' of a local community helps shape resilience pathways (social memory). Interlinkages between social memory and community resilience are the focus of this study, with emphasis on analysis of the importance of rites, traditions and social learning processes for shaping community resilience/vulnerability.
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Psychology, Behavioral Economics, and Public Policy

Psychology, Behavioral Economics, and Public Policy | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

Economics has typically been the social science of choice to inform public policy and policymakers. In the current paper we contemplate the role behavioral science can play i

On Amir (oamir@ucsd.edu), Dan Ariely, Alan Cooke, David Dunning, Nicholas Epley, Uri Gneezy, Botond Koszegi, Donald Lichtenstein, Nina Mazar, Sendhil Mullainathan (mullain@fas.harvard.edu), Drazen Prelec, Eldar Shafir and Jose Silva Marketing Letters, 2005, vol. 16, issue 3, 443-454 Abstract: Economics has typically been the social science of choice to inform public policy and policymakers. In the current paper we contemplate the role behavioral science can play in enlightening policymakers. In particular, we provide some examples of research that has and can be used to inform policy, reflect on the kind of behavioral science that is important for policy, and approaches for convincing policy-makers to listen to behavioral scientists. We suggest that policymakers are unlikely to invest the time translating behavioral research into its policy implications, and researchers interested in influencing public policy must therefore invest substantial effort, and direct that effort differently than in standard research practices. Copyright Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

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Teaching Behavioral Economics in Psychology

Abstract: Our contemporary local and global communities face various forms of social issues. As a community psychologist, the author teaches college students in South Korea about the importance of context that shapes people's behaviors, under the title of Behavioral Economics in Our Community. In this presentation, the author wants to share what she learned from the students when they tried to apply the Behavioral Economics principles in the real communities. Students were required to identify one social issue per each to challenge in their communities and to propose an intervention program that nudges people to the desired direction. By paying attention to the social issues that need to be tackled to improve the individual and community well-being, students reflected on the Community Psychology principles. At the same time, by developing a feasible intervention program that borrows the Behavioral Economics principles, students learned how to make real changes in people?s behaviors. Specific examples of the students? successful projects will be shared in the presentation, including holding door for others, Korean spelling-check application for smartphones, and clean dumping of toilette paper. More importantly, the focus will be made on the process of each project as the students were also required to make a real contact with the person in charge, the person who can make decisions, the person who can influence the implementation of the project. In the presentation, therefore, the audience will learn about the contemporary South Korean socio-cultural environment as the context of Behavioral Economics application.
https://econpapers.repec.org/scripts/redir.pf?u=http%3A%2F%2Fiises.net%2Fproceedings%2F34th-international-academic-conference-florence%2Ftable-of-content%2Fdetail%3Fcid%3D59%26iid%3D022%26rid%3D8099;h=repec:sek:iacpro:5908099
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Nudging People Towards Better Credit in Peru

Nudging People Towards Better Credit in Peru | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it
According to statisticbrain.com, one of the most popular new year’s resolution for 2017 was to make better financial decisions. However, in Peru, nearly 1.2 million (16 percent of all the financial consumers that hold a debt in the regulated financial system), people who have debt are reported to be late on their payments. This could have negative implications for their financial future making borrowing harder or more expensive. This raises the question: can debtors be nudged towards better financial well-being?

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The first thing we do is nudge the lawyers

The first thing we do is nudge the lawyers | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it
The US adversarial legal system and constitutional right to lobby Congress were designed with the assumption that citizens should have equal access to courts and legislators. Whatever one thinks of the legal profession, lawyers are the main powerbrokers to these systems. If we care about political equality, we have to care about which citizens and interests most lawyers are serving.

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Combating fake news may force big changes at Facebook, Twitter

Combating fake news may force big changes at Facebook, Twitter | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it
"As social media giants and Google face pressure to counter manipulation of their political content, the task is to temper a data-driven emphasis on customer engagement with social responsibility.
The day after the 2016 presidential election, Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg was asked whether social media had contributed to Donald Trump’s win. “A pretty crazy idea,” he responded at the time. But after months of internal sleuthing by media organizations, congressional investigations, and Facebook itself, the idea doesn’t look so far-fetched. “Calling that crazy was dismissive and I regret it,” Mr. Zuckerberg wrote in a Facebook post last week. “We will do our part to defend against nation states attempting to spread misinformation and subvert elections. We'll keep working to ensure the integrity of free and fair elections around the world, and to ensure our community is a platform for all ideas and force for good in democracy.” "

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