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MED-Amin network
(Mediterranean Agricultural Information Network) Fostering cooperation and experience sharing among the national information systems on agricultural (cereals) markets in the Mediterranean. The network of 13 countries is coordinated by CIHEAM, and more specifically by its Mediterranean Agronomic Institute (MAI) of Montpellier.
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Researchers Working On GMO Wheat That Can Be Safely Consumed By Individuals With Celiac Illness

Researchers Working On GMO Wheat That Can Be Safely Consumed By Individuals With Celiac Illness | MED-Amin network | Scoop.it

Infosurhoy, 28/02/2019 - Having celiac disease meant fewer food options for people with the condition. However, scientists have created a variety of wheat that will not only be safe to eat, but also pave the way for the development of new treatments.

In the United States, more than 2 million people have celiac disease... And there is currently no treatment for celiac disease... People who have the condition can only avoid food that triggers their symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, constipation, weight loss, fatigue, and depression/anxiety. Some take an enzyme supplement before every meal to avoid feeling sick.

However, researchers might have made a major leap forward for people who have celiac disease. A study published in the January issue of Functional and Integrative Genomics detailed a new genotype of wheat that has built-in enzymes that could break down the proteins that cause adverse effects on the body.

The researchers were able to create a new variety of wheat by introducing a new DNA into the grain. The new variety, they stated, contains enzymes from barley and a bacteria called Flavobacterium meningosepticum. These enzymes have the capacity to break down gluten in the digestive system without triggering an immune response in the small intestine.

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Canada to invest USD 39.3 millionin crop research

UkrAgroConsulting, 17/01/2019 - Canada government, with the aim to drive innovation and discovery in wheat, barley, varied field crops and soybeans over the next 5 years, has announced funding of C$39.3 million.
The financial support for the 4 science clusters is part of the Canadian Agricultural Partnership and comprises industry contributions worth C$28.4 million for a total of C$67.7 million.
Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food, Lawrence MacAulay said, “Demand for our field crops continues to grow and these investments in innovation and research will help in positioning the cultivators to grow top quality products sustainably, while meeting customer demands at home as well as abroad for years to come”.

The Barley Cluster (C$6.3 million) intends to improve output in the science and technology of using barley for food and boost disease resistance. The Barley Council of Canada will lead the cluster.

Brian Otto of Barley Council of Canada said, “Ongoing investment in barley research and innovation to improve varieties, production practices and utilization is very important to the continued sustainability and productivity of the barley value chain”.
On the other hand, the Diverse Field Crop Cluster (C$13.7 million) emphasizes upon - variety development, production agronomy, crop protection and value-added practices to maintain diverse crop growth.

The Ag-West Bio Inc will lead the cluster. Ag-West Bio director of corporate initiatives, Mike Cey said, “Crop diversity is important for keeping Canada’s agricultural ecosystem fit and productive”. He said “The Diverse Field Crops Cluster research will develop these high-potential crops and the markets to go with them. Growers will have more high-value crops to pick from. The Cluster will also deliver economic and environmental benefits for Canada.”
The Wheat Cluster (C$13.9 million) plans to provide higher-yielding wheat varieties to the producers and to build up the next generation of Fusarium Head Blight resistant varieties. Canadian Wheat Research Coalition will lead it.

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Protecting the World’s Largest Rice Collection 

Protecting the World’s Largest Rice Collection  | MED-Amin network | Scoop.it

Two organizations, Crop Trust and The International Rice Research Institute, announce funding in perpetuity of the world’s largest rice collection.


Via Système de veille
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Using local agroecological knowledge in climate change adaptation: a Study of tree-based options in northern Morocco

Using local agroecological knowledge in climate change adaptation: a Study of tree-based options in northern Morocco | MED-Amin network | Scoop.it
Communities in northern Morocco are vulnerable to increasing water scarcity and food insecurity. Context specific adaptation options thus need to be identified to sustain livelihoods and agroecosystems in this region, and increase the resilience of vulnerable smallholders, and their farming systems, to undesired effects of social-ecological change. This study took a knowledge-based systems approach to explore whether and how tree-based (i.e., agroforestry) options could contribute to meeting these adaptation needs. We analysed local agroecological knowledge of smallholders from the Mèknes–Tafilalet region, to (i) characterise existing farming systems at local landscape scale; (ii) identify possible niches for farm-trees within these systems; and (iii) explore locally perceived barriers to tree-based diversification. An iterative cycle of qualitative interviews, with a purposefully selected sample of 32 farmers, revealed that socio-economic constraints and agroecological conditions in the area differed markedly along a relatively short altitudinal gradient. Agroforestry practices were already integral to all farming systems. Yet, many were at risk of degradation, as water scarcity, low profitability of production systems and uncontrolled grazing constituted critical barriers to the maintenance and diversification of farm-trees. We demonstrate the discriminatory power of local knowledge, to characterise farming conditions at the local landscape scale; and unveil adoption barriers and options for tree-based diversification in northern Morocco.
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Un mécanisme génétique permet à une espèce de riz de s’adapter aux inondations

Un mécanisme génétique permet à une espèce de riz de s’adapter aux inondations | MED-Amin network | Scoop.it

France Diplomatie, 19/07/2018 - Des chercheurs japonais et américains viennent de décrire un mécanisme génétique qui confère à l'espèce de riz Oryza sativa, une capacité d'adaptation à une augmentation importante (plusieurs mètres) et prolongée d’eau suite à des pluies abondantes. Ils ont également mis en évidence le mécanisme moléculaire en cause.

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Culture du blé et changement climatique, les variétés sahariennes sont la solution

Culture du blé et changement climatique, les variétés sahariennes sont la solution | MED-Amin network | Scoop.it

WikiAgri, 25/02/2019 - Isolées, les caractéristiques des variétés sahariennes pourraient être transposées dans les variétés cultivées dans les grands bassins céréaliers de l’hémisphère nord pour les rendre plus résistantes au changement climatique.

Les populations de blé oasiennes (terme préféré à celui de variété car leurs critères ne sont pas spécifiquement définis) possèdent déjà les caractéristiques, dont les prochaines variétés de céréales cultivées dans les grands bassins céréaliers devront être dotées, pour que les agriculteurs des grands bassins de l’hémisphère nord poursuivent leurs cultures avec l’assurance d’obtenir de bons rendements. De nos jours, les conditions climatiques de plus en plus rudes, caractérisées entre autres par des pics de chaleur et des déficits hydriques importants, génèrent des baisses de production en quantité et en qualité.

Les céréales oasiennes cultivées depuis 5 000 ans résultent de sélections inter et intra-spécifiques, opérées entre populations d’origines différentes (inde, Moyen-Orient, etc.). Or comme « l’échange de semences avec d’autres régions du monde est resté limité jusqu’au siècle dernier, les populations de blé sahariennes ayant subi de fortes pressions de sélection naturelle liée aux contraintes particulières des oasis (chocs thermiques, sécheresse et salinité) ont alors développé une tolérance notable à ces stress abiotiques », écrivent Alain P. Bonjean, Philippe Monneveux et Maria Zaharieva, contributeurs de la 25e édition du Déméter (1). Autrement dit, la nature a sélectionné en quelques sortes ses propres modifications génétiques pour disposer de plantes résistantes à des conditions extrêmes !

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Stagnation des rendements de plusieurs céréales en France depuis la fin des années 1990

Stagnation des rendements de plusieurs céréales en France depuis la fin des années 1990 | MED-Amin network | Scoop.it

Dans les Scientific Reports de Nature de novembre 2018, une équipe internationale analyse sur le long terme les rendements des principales cultures en France, mettant en évidence une stagnation depuis la fin de la décennie 1990.

De précédents travaux avaient fait ressortir une stagnation des rendements de blé depuis 1996. Ici, les chercheurs se sont intéressés à la fois aux céréales (blé, maïs, orge, avoine), aux oléagineux (tournesol, colza), aux betteraves sucrières, aux pommes de terre et à la vigne. Pour chacune des cultures étudiées, ils ont eu recours aux données de la Statistique agricole annuelle, au niveau départemental, sur plus d'un siècle (1900 à 2016). Pour suivre les rendements de ces cultures, sur chaque département et au niveau national, les chercheurs ont développé un modèle linéaire dynamique (DLM), qui permet d'estimer la tendance d'évolution des rendements sans avoir à établir d'hypothèses fortes au préalable. À l'échelle de la France, les évolutions ainsi identifiées sont illustrées ci-dessous.

CIHEAM Newss insight:

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-35351-1

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Egypt about to fail on wheat self-sufficiency?

Egypt about to fail on wheat self-sufficiency? | MED-Amin network | Scoop.it

By PhysicsWorld, 29/10/2018

A plan by the Egyptian government to make the country self-sufficient in wheat will likely fail by the 2040s, according to a study by researchers in Egypt and the US.

The plan involves intensifying farming methods and the near-doubling of irrigated land for wheat production by 2035, from 3.9 to 7.7 million hectares. According to the study, however, even a modest growth in population will swiftly consume the extra yield from this expansion.

“As about 30% of wheat is irrigated globally, the challenges Egypt is facing are similar to other countries trying to increase agricultural production,” says Senthold Asseng of the University of Florida, US. “What we learn from our study in Egypt will also apply to other parts of the world.”

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Research looks for solution to wheat, barley rust desease

Research looks for solution to wheat, barley rust desease | MED-Amin network | Scoop.it

by Annabelle Hutson, Evergreen contributor, 11 October 2018.

Few know that rust does not only develop on metals, but also develops on plants in the form of disease. Stripe rust affects wheat and barley crops causing serious financial loss for farmers. The disease also affects farmers in other parts of the world as well, said Xianming Chen, the head researcher in plant pathology research in the U.S. Department of Agriculture and WSU. Stripe rust is the most important disease in wheat throughout the country and worldwide.

Chen said breeders are working toward creating a wheat that is resistant to the disease, resulting in a higher yield of the crop while maintaining the quality of the grain.

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