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PLoS One - Phytohormone production by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis

PLoS One - Phytohormone production by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis | LRSV Publications | Scoop.it

Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is a mutualistic interaction between most land plants and fungi of the glomeromycotina subphylum. The initiation, development and regulation of this symbiosis involve numerous signalling events between and within the symbiotic partners. Among other signals, phytohormones are known to play important roles at various stages of the interaction. During presymbiotic steps, plant roots exude strigolactones which stimulate fungal spore germination and hyphal branching, and promote the initiation of symbiosis. At later stages, different plant hormone classes can act as positive or negative regulators of the interaction. Although the fungus is known to reciprocally emit regulatory signals, its potential contribution to the phytohormonal pool has received little attention, and has so far only been addressed by indirect assays. In this study, using mass spectrometry, we analyzed phytohormones released into the medium by germinated spores of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis. We detected the presence of a cytokinin (isopentenyl adenosine) and an auxin (indole-acetic acid). In addition, we identified a gibberellin (gibberellin A4) in spore extracts. We also used gas chromatography to show that R. irregularis produces ethylene from methionine and the α-keto γ-methylthio butyric acid pathway. These results highlight the possibility for AM fungi to use phytohormones to interact with their host plants, or to regulate their own development.

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Trends in Plant Sciences - Rhizospheric Plant–Microbe Interactions: miRNAs as a Key Mediator

Trends in Plant Sciences - Rhizospheric Plant–Microbe Interactions: miRNAs as a Key Mediator | LRSV Publications | Scoop.it

The importance of microorganisms in plant development, nutrition, and stress resistance is unquestioned and has led to a more holistic approach of plant–microbe interactions, under the holobiont concept. The structure of the plant microbiota is often described as host driven, especially in the rhizosphere, where microbial communities are shaped by diverse rhizodeposits. Gradually, this anthropogenic vision is fading and being replaced by the idea that plants and microorganisms co-shape the plant microbiota.

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J Exp Bot - The many facets of protein ubiquitination and degradation in plant root iron deficiency responses

Organisms need to deal with the absolute requirement for metals, and their possible toxicity. This is achieved through an intricate network of signaling pathways integrated to ultimately fine tune iron uptake and metabolism. The mechanisms by which plants cope with iron limitation and the associated genomic responses are well characterized. On top of this transcriptional cascade is layered another level of regulation involving the post-translational modification and degradation. The ubiquitination and/or degradation of several transcription factors in the iron deficiency signaling pathways and metal transporters recently came to light. In this review we discuss about the mechanisms and on the possible roles of protein modification and turn over in the regulation of root iron deficiency responses. We also highlight the tight coupling between metal sensing by E3 ubiquitin ligases or bifunctional transporters and protein degradation.

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The Plant Cell - Endocytosis of BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1 is Partly Driven by a Canonical Tyrosine-based Motif

The Plant Cell - Endocytosis of BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1 is Partly Driven by a Canonical Tyrosine-based Motif | LRSV Publications | Scoop.it

Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) and its core endocytic machinery are evolutionarily conserved across all eukaryotes. In mammals, the heterotetrameric adaptor protein complex-2 (AP-2) sorts plasma membrane (PM) cargoes into vesicles through the recognition of motifs based on tyrosine or di-leucine in their cytoplasmic tails. However, in plants, very little is known on how PM proteins are sorted for CME and whether similar motifs are required. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the brassinosteroid (BR) receptor, BR INSENSITIVE1 (BRI1), undergoes endocytosis that depends on clathrin and AP-2. Here we demonstrate that BRI1 binds directly to the medium AP-2 subunit, AP2M. The cytoplasmic domain of BRI1 contains five putative canonical surface-exposed tyrosine-based endocytic motifs. The tyrosine-to-phenylalanine substitution in Y898KAI reduced BRI1 internalization without affecting its kinase activity. Consistently, plants carrying the BRI1Y898F mutation were hypersensitive to BRs. Our study demonstrates that AP-2-dependent internalization of PM proteins via the recognition of functional tyrosine motifs also operates in plants.

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Nature Review Microbiology: Genomic and fossil windows into the secret lives of the most ancient fungi

Nature Review Microbiology: Genomic and fossil windows into the secret lives of the most ancient fungi | LRSV Publications | Scoop.it

Fungi have crucial roles in modern ecosystems as decomposers and pathogens, and they engage in various mutualistic associations with other organisms, especially plants. They have a lengthy geological history, and there is an emerging understanding of their impact on the evolution of Earth systems on a large scale. In this Review, we focus on the roles of fungi in the establishment and early evolution of land and freshwater ecosystems. Today, questions of evolution over deep time are informed by discoveries of new fossils and evolutionary analysis of new genomes. Inferences can be drawn from evolutionary analysis by comparing the genes and genomes of fungi with the biochemistry and development of their plant and algal hosts. We then contrast this emerging picture against evidence from the fossil record to develop a new, integrated perspective on the origin and early evolution of fungi.

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New Phytologist - Plant‐parasitic nematode secreted peptides hijack a plant secretory pathway

New Phytologist - Plant‐parasitic nematode secreted peptides hijack a plant secretory pathway | LRSV Publications | Scoop.it

Small plant signalling peptides play key roles in plant development and in plant–microbe interactions. The plant CLAVATA3 (CLV3)/ENDOSPERM SURROUNDING REGION (ESR) (CLE) peptides have been shown to orchestrate shoot meristem differentiation and to be involved in root growth and vascular development. CLE peptides have also been implicated in symbiosis and parasitism. Intriguingly, plant‐parasitic nematodes (PPNs), endomycorrhizal fungi, and other fungi and bacteria  have been shown to secrete molecules mimicking plant peptides within plant roots, to promote infection.

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Nature Communications - Lipo-chitooligosaccharides as regulatory signals of fungal growth and development

Nature Communications - Lipo-chitooligosaccharides as regulatory signals of fungal growth and development | LRSV Publications | Scoop.it

Lipo-chitooligosaccharides (LCOs) are signaling molecules produced by rhizobial bacteria that trigger the nodulation process in legumes, and by some fungi that also establish symbiotic relationships with plants, notably the arbuscular and ecto mycorrhizal fungi. Here, we show that many other fungi also produce LCOs. We tested 59 species representing most fungal phyla, and found that 53 species produce LCOs that can be detected by functional assays and/or by mass spectroscopy. LCO treatment affects spore germination, branching of hyphae, pseudohyphal growth, and transcription in non-symbiotic fungi from the Ascomycete and Basidiomycete phyla. Our findings suggest that LCO production is common among fungi, and LCOs may function as signals regulating fungal growth and development. Lipo-chitooligosaccharides (LCOs) are signaling molecules produced by certain bacteria and fungi that establish symbiotic relationships with plants. Here, the authors show that LCOs are produced also by many other, non-symbiotic fungi, and regulate fungal growth and development.

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Methods Mol Biol - Plant Cell Wall Proteomes: Bioinformatics and Cell Biology Tools to Assess the Bona Fide Cell Wall Localization of Proteins

Methods Mol Biol - Plant Cell Wall Proteomes: Bioinformatics and Cell Biology Tools to Assess the Bona Fide Cell Wall Localization of Proteins | LRSV Publications | Scoop.it

The purification of plant cell walls is challenging because they constitute an open compartment which is not limited by a membrane like the cell organelles. Different strategies have been established to limit the contamination by proteins of other compartments in cell wall proteomics studies. Non-destructive methods rely on washing intact cells with various types of solutions without disrupting the plasma membrane in order to elute cell wall proteins. In contrast, destructive protocols involve the purification of cell walls prior to the extraction of proteins with salt solutions. In both cases, proteins known to be intracellular have been identified by mass spectrometry in cell wall proteomes. The aim of this chapter is to provide tools to assess the subcellular localization of the proteins identified in cell wall proteomics studies, including: (1) bioinformatic predictions, (2) immunocytolocalization of proteins of interest on tissue sections and (3) in muro observation of proteins of interest fused to reporter fluorescent proteins by confocal microscopy. Finally, a qualitative assessment of the work can be performed and the strategy used to prepare the samples can be optimized if necessary.

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IJMS - Implementing the CRISPR/Cas9 Technology in Eucalyptus Hairy Roots Using Wood-Related Genes

IJMS - Implementing the CRISPR/Cas9 Technology in Eucalyptus Hairy Roots Using Wood-Related Genes | LRSV Publications | Scoop.it
Eucalypts are the most planted hardwoods worldwide. The availability of the Eucalyptus grandis genome highlighted many genes awaiting functional characterization, lagging behind because of the lack of efficient genetic transformation protocols. In order to efficiently generate knock-out mutants to study the function of eucalypts genes, we implemented the powerful CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology with the hairy roots transformation system. As proofs-of-concept, we targeted two wood-related genes: Cinnamoyl-CoA Reductase1 (CCR1), a key lignin biosynthetic gene and IAA9A an auxin dependent transcription factor of Aux/IAA family. Almost all transgenic hairy roots were edited but the allele-editing rates and spectra varied greatly depending on the gene targeted. Most edition events generated truncated proteins, the prevalent edition types were small deletions but large deletions were also quite frequent. By using a combination of FT-IR spectroscopy and multivariate analysis (partial least square analysis (PLS-DA)), we showed that the CCR1-edited lines, which were clearly separated from the controls. The most discriminant wave-numbers were attributed to lignin. Histochemical analyses further confirmed the decreased lignification and the presence of collapsed vessels in CCR1-edited lines, which are characteristics of CCR1 deficiency. Although the efficiency of editing could be improved, the method described here is already a powerful tool to functionally characterize eucalypts genes for both basic research and industry purposes.
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Plant Science - Coordination of five class III peroxidase-encoding genes for early germination events of Arabidopsis thaliana

Plant Science - Coordination of five class III peroxidase-encoding genes for early germination events of Arabidopsis thaliana | LRSV Publications | Scoop.it

The Class III peroxidases (CIII Prxs) belong to a plant-specific multigene family. Thanks to their double catalytic cycle they can oxidize compounds or release reactive oxygen species (ROS). They are either involved in different cell wall stiffening processes such as lignification and suberization, in cell wall loosening or defense mechanisms. Germination is an important developmental stage requiring specific peroxidase activity. However, little is known about which isoforms are involved. Five CIII Prx encoding genes: AtPrx04AtPrx16AtPrx62AtPrx69, and AtPrx71 were identified from published microarray data mining. Delayed or induced testa and endosperm rupture were observed for the corresponding CIII Prx mutant lines indicating either a gene-specific inducing or repressing role during germination, respectively. Via in situ hybridization AtPrx16AtPrx62AtPrx69 and AtPrx71 transcripts were exclusively localized to the micropylar endosperm facing the radicle, and transcriptomic data analysis enabled positioning the five CIII Prxs in a co-expression network enriched in germination, cell wall, cell wall proteins and xyloglucan hits. Evidence were produced showing that the five CIII Prxs were cell wall-targeted proteins and that the micropylar endosperm displayed a complex cell wall domain topochemistry. Finally, we drew a spatio-temporal model highlighting the fine sequential gene expression and the possible involvement of micropylar endosperm cell wall domains to explain the non-redundant cell wall stiffening and loosening functions of the CIII Prxs in a single cell type. We also highlighted the necessity of a peroxidase homeostasis to accurately control the micropylar endosperm cell wall dynamics during Arabidopsis germination events.

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Current Biology - Plant Evolution: When Arabidopsis Is More Ancestral Than Marchantia

Current Biology - Plant Evolution: When Arabidopsis Is More Ancestral Than Marchantia | LRSV Publications | Scoop.it

The quest for determining how the plants that first lived on land 450 million years ago looked is among the most exciting challenges in evolutionary biology. Recent work indicates that they displayed angiosperm-like stomata.

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Current Biology - Evolution of Plant Metabolism: A (Bio)synthesis

Current Biology - Evolution of Plant Metabolism: A (Bio)synthesis | LRSV Publications | Scoop.it

Studying the evolution of metabolism is technically challenging. A new study combining in silico metabolic maps and phylogenomics allows reconstructing the diversification of plant metabolism across one billion years of evolution.

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Current Biology - Plant Cell Signaling: SUMO Is under the Influence of Steroids and Salt

Current Biology - Plant Cell Signaling: SUMO Is under the Influence of Steroids and Salt | LRSV Publications | Scoop.it
How do plants reduce growth when they experience high salinity? A new study provides
insight into how salt stress impinges on a plant steroid hormone signaling pathway
to dampen plant growth.
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Nature Communications - Large-scale genome sequencing of mycorrhizal fungi provides insights into the early evolution of symbiotic traits

Nature Communications - Large-scale genome sequencing of mycorrhizal fungi provides insights into the early evolution of symbiotic traits | LRSV Publications | Scoop.it

Mycorrhizal fungi are mutualists that play crucial roles in nutrient acquisition in terrestrial ecosystems. Mycorrhizal symbioses arose repeatedly across multiple lineages of Mucoromycotina, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota. Considerable variation exists in the capacity of mycorrhizal fungi to acquire carbon from soil organic matter. Here, we present a combined analysis of 135 fungal genomes from 73 saprotrophic, endophytic and pathogenic species, and 62 mycorrhizal species, including 29 new mycorrhizal genomes. This study samples ecologically dominant fungal guilds for which there were previously no symbiotic genomes available, including ectomycorrhizal Russulales, Thelephorales and Cantharellales. Our analyses show that transitions from saprotrophy to symbiosis involve (1) widespread losses of degrading enzymes acting on lignin and cellulose, (2) co-option of genes present in saprotrophic ancestors to fulfill new symbiotic functions, (3) diversification of novel, lineage-specific symbiosis-induced genes, (4) proliferation of transposable elements and (5) divergent genetic innovations underlying the convergent origins of the ectomycorrhizal guild. Mycorrhizal symbioses have evolved repeatedly in diverse fungal lineages. A large phylogenomic analysis sheds light on genomic changes associated with transitions from saprotrophy to symbiosis, including divergent genetic innovations underlying the convergent origins of the ectomycorrhizal guild.

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Cells - An integrative Study Showing the Adaptation to Sub-Optimal Growth Conditions of Natural Populations of Arabidopsis thaliana: A Focus on Cell Wall Changes

Cells - An integrative Study Showing the Adaptation to Sub-Optimal Growth Conditions of Natural Populations of Arabidopsis thaliana: A Focus on Cell Wall Changes | LRSV Publications | Scoop.it

In the global warming context, plant adaptation occurs, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly described. Studying natural variation of the model plant Arabidopsisthaliana adapted to various environments along an altitudinal gradient should contribute to the identification of new traits related to adaptation to contrasted growth conditions. The study was focused on the cell wall (CW) which plays major roles in the response to environmental changes. Rosettes and floral stems of four newly-described populations collected at different altitudinal levels in the Pyrenees Mountains were studied in laboratory conditions at two growth temperatures (22 vs. 15 °C) and compared to the well-described Col ecotype. Multi-omic analyses combining phenomics, metabolomics, CW proteomics, and transcriptomics were carried out to perform an integrative study to understand the mechanisms of plant adaptation to contrasted growth temperature. Different developmental responses of rosettes and floral stems were observed, especially at the CW level. In addition, specific population responses are shown in relation with their environment and their genetics. Candidate genes or proteins playing roles in the CW dynamics were identified and will deserve functional validation. Using a powerful framework of data integration has led to conclusions that could not have been reached using standard statistical approaches.

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IJMS - The Class III Peroxidase Encoding Gene AtPrx62 Positively and Spatiotemporally Regulates the Low pH-Induced Cell Death in Arabidopsis thaliana Roots

IJMS - The Class III Peroxidase Encoding Gene AtPrx62 Positively and Spatiotemporally Regulates the Low pH-Induced Cell Death in Arabidopsis thaliana Roots | LRSV Publications | Scoop.it

Exogenous low pH stress causes cell death in root cells, limiting root development, and agricultural production. Different lines of evidence suggested a relationship with cell wall (CW) remodeling players. We investigated whether class III peroxidase (CIII Prx) total activity, CIII Prx candidate gene expression, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) could modify CW structure during low pH-induced cell death in Arabidopsis thaliana roots. Wild-type roots displayed a good spatio-temporal correlation between the low pH-induced cell death and total CIII Prx activity in the early elongation (EZs), transition (TZs), and meristematic (MZs) zones. In situ mRNA hybridization showed that AtPrx62 transcripts accumulated only in roots treated at pH 4.6 in the same zones where cell death was induced. Furthermore, roots of the atprx62-1 knockout mutant showed decreased cell mortality under low pH compared to wild-type roots. Among the ROS, there was a drastic decrease in O2·- levels in the MZs of wild-type and atprx62-1 roots upon low pH stress. Together, our data demonstrate that AtPrx62 expression is induced by low pH and that the produced protein could positively regulate cell death. Whether the decrease in O2·- level is related to cell death induced upon low pH treatment remains to be elucidated.

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Mol Plant Pathol - A complex network of additive and epistatic quantitative trait loci underlies natural variation of Arabidopsis thaliana quantitative disease resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum ...

Mol Plant Pathol - A complex network of additive and epistatic quantitative trait loci underlies natural variation of Arabidopsis thaliana quantitative disease resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum ... | LRSV Publications | Scoop.it

Plant immunity is often negatively impacted by heat stress. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly characterized. Based on a genome‐wide association mapping approach, this study aims to identify in Arabidopsis thaliana the genetic bases of robust resistance mechanisms to the devastating pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum under heat stress. A local mapping population was phenotyped against the R. solanacearum GMI1000 strain at 27 and 30 °C. To obtain a precise description of the genetic architecture underlying natural variation of quantitative disease resistance (QDR), we applied a genome‐wide local score analysis. Alongside an extensive genetic variation found in this local population at both temperatures, we observed a playful dynamics of quantitative trait loci along the infection stages. In addition, a complex genetic network of interacting loci could be detected at 30 °C. As a first step to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms, the atypical meiotic cyclin SOLO DANCERS gene was validated by a reverse genetic approach as involved in QDR to R. solanacearum at 30 °C. In the context of climate change, the complex genetic architecture underlying QDR under heat stress in a local mapping population revealed candidate genes with diverse molecular functions.

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Plant Physiology - Dynamic control of the high-affinity iron uptake complex in root epidermal cells

In plants, iron uptake from the soil is tightly regulated to ensure optimal growth and development. Iron absorption in Arabidopsis root epidermal cells requires the IRT1 transporter that also allows the entry of certain non-iron metals, such as Zn, Mn, and Co. Recent work demonstrated that IRT1 endocytosis and degradation are controlled by IRT1 non-iron metal substrates in an ubiquitin-dependent manner. To better understand how metal uptake is regulated, we identified IRT1-interacting proteins in Arabidopsis roots by mass spectrometry and established an interactome of IRT1. Interestingly, the AHA2 proton pump and the FRO2 reductase, both of which work in concert with IRT1 in the acidification-reduction-transport strategy of iron uptake, were part of this interactome. We confirmed that IRT1, FRO2, and AHA2 associate through co-immunopurification and split-ubiquitin analyses, and uncovered that they form tripartite direct interactions. We characterized the dynamics of the iron uptake complex and showed that FRO2 and AHA2 ubiquitination is independent of the non-iron metal substrates transported by IRT1. In addition, FRO2 and AHA2 are not largely endocytosed in response to non-iron metal excess, unlike IRT1. Indeed, we provide evidence that the phosphorylation of IRT1 in response to high levels of non-iron metals likely triggers dissociation of the complex. Overall, we propose that a dedicated iron-acquisition protein complex exists at the cell surface of Arabidopsis root epidermal cells to optimize iron uptake.

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Briefings in Bioinformatics - Powerful framework for an integrative study with heterogeneous omics data: from univariate statistics to multi-block analysis

High-throughput data generated by new biotechnologies require specific and adapted statistical treatment in order to be efficiently used in biological studies. In this article, we propose a powerful framework to manage and analyse multi-omics heterogeneous data to carry out an integrative analysis. We have illustrated this using the mixOmics package for R software as it specifically addresses data integration issues. Our work also aims at applying the most recent functionalities of mixOmics to real datasets. Although multi-block integrative methodologies exist, we hope to encourage a more widespread use of such approaches in an operational framework by biologists. We have used natural populations of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana in this work, but the framework proposed is not limited to this plant and can be deployed whatever the organisms of interest and the biological question may be. Four omics datasets (phenomics, metabolomics, cell wall proteomics and transcriptomics) were collected, analysed and integrated to study the cell wall plasticity of plants exposed to sub-optimal temperature growth conditions. The methodologies presented here start from basic univariate statistics leading to multi-block integration analysis. We have also highlighted the fact that each method, either unsupervised or supervised, is associated with one biological issue. Using this powerful framework enabled us to arrive at novel conclusions on the biological system, which would not have been possible using standard statistical approaches.

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Heredity - A linkage disequilibrium-based statistical test for Genome-Wide Epistatic Selection Scans in structured populations

Heredity - A linkage disequilibrium-based statistical test for Genome-Wide Epistatic Selection Scans in structured populations | LRSV Publications | Scoop.it

The quest for signatures of selection using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data has proven efficient to uncover genes involved in conserved and/or adaptive molecular functions, but none of the statistical methods were designed to identify interacting alleles as targets of selective processes. Here, we propose a statistical test aimed at detecting epistatic selection, based on a linkage disequilibrium (LD) measure accounting for population structure and heterogeneous relatedness between individuals. SNP-based ($$T_{r_v}$$) and window-based ($$T_{corPC1_v}$$) statistics fit a Student distribution, allowing to test the significance of correlation coefficients. As a proof of concept, we use SNP data from the Medicago truncatula symbiotic legume plant and uncover a previously unknown gene coadaptation between the MtSUNN (Super Numeric Nodule) receptor and the MtCLE02 (CLAVATA3-Like) signaling peptide. We also provide experimental evidence supporting a MtSUNN-dependent negative role of MtCLE02 in symbiotic root nodulation. Using human HGDP-CEPH SNP data, our new statistical test uncovers strong LD between SLC24A5 (skin pigmentation) and EDAR (hairs, teeth, sweat glands development) world-wide, which persists after correction for population structure and relatedness in Central South Asian populations. This result suggests that epistatic selection or coselection could have contributed to the phenotypic make-up in some human populations. Applying this approach to genome-wide SNP data will facilitate the identification of coadapted gene networks in model or non-model organisms.

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Analytical Chemistry - MS-CleanR: A feature-filtering workflow for untargeted LC-MS based metabolomics 

Analytical Chemistry - MS-CleanR: A feature-filtering workflow for untargeted LC-MS based metabolomics  | LRSV Publications | Scoop.it
Untargeted metabolomics using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is currently the gold-standard technique to determine the full chemical diversity in biological samples. However, this approach still has many limitations; notably, the difficulty of accurately estimating the number of unique metabolites profiled among the thousands of MS ion signals arising from chromatograms. Here, we describe a new workflow, MS-CleanR, based on the MS-DIAL/MS-FINDER suite, which tackles feature degeneracy and improves annotation rates. We show that implementation of MS-CleanR reduces the number of signals by nearly 80% while retaining 95% of unique metabolite features. Moreover, the annotation results from MS-FINDER can be ranked according to the database chosen by the user, which enhance identification accuracy. Application of MS-CleanR to the analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana grown in three different conditions fostered class separation resulting from multivariate data analysis and led to annotation of 75% of the final features. The full workflow was applied to metabolomic profiles from three strains of the leguminous plant Medicago truncatula that have different susceptibilities to the oomycete pathogen Aphanomyces euteiches. A group of glycosylated triterpenoids overrepresented in resistant lines were identified as candidate compounds conferring pathogen resistance. MS-CleanR is implemented through a Shiny interface for intuitive use by end-users (available at: https://github.com/eMetaboHUB/MS-CleanR).
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IJMS - Wood Architecture and Composition Are Deeply Remodeled in Frost Sensitive Eucalyptus Overexpressing CBF/DREB1 Transcription Factors

IJMS - Wood Architecture and Composition Are Deeply Remodeled in Frost Sensitive Eucalyptus Overexpressing CBF/DREB1 Transcription Factors | LRSV Publications | Scoop.it
Eucalypts are the most planted trees worldwide, but most of them are frost sensitive. Overexpressing transcription factors for CRT-repeat binding factors (CBFs) in transgenic Eucalyptus confer cold resistance both in leaves and stems. While wood plays crucial roles in trees and is affected by environmental cues, its potential role in adaptation to cold stress has been neglected. Here, we addressed this question by investigating the changes occurring in wood in response to the overexpression of two CBFs, taking advantage of available transgenic Eucalyptus lines. We performed histological, biochemical, and transcriptomic analyses on xylem samples. CBF ectopic expression led to a reduction of both primary and secondary growth, and triggered changes in xylem architecture with smaller and more frequent vessels and fibers exhibiting reduced lumens. In addition, lignin content and syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G) ratio increased. Consistently, many genes of the phenylpropanoid and lignin branch pathway were upregulated. Most of the features of xylem remodeling induced by CBF overexpression are reminiscent of those observed after long exposure of Eucalyptus trees to chilling temperatures. Altogether, these results suggest that CBF plays a central role in the cross-talk between response to cold and wood formation and that the remodeling of wood is part of the adaptive strategies to face cold stress.
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Plant Cell Environment - Seed mucilage evolution: diverse molecular mechanisms generate versatile ecological functions for particular environments

Plant Cell Environment - Seed mucilage evolution: diverse molecular mechanisms generate versatile ecological functions for particular environments | LRSV Publications | Scoop.it

Plant myxodiasporous species have the ability to release a polysaccharidic mucilage upon imbibition of the seed (myxospermy) or the fruit (myxocarpy). This is a widespread capacity in angiosperms providing multiple ecological functions including higher germination efficiency under environmental stresses. It is unclear whether myxodiaspory has one or multiple evolutionary origins and why it was supposedly lost in several species. Here, we summarize recent advances on three main aspects of myxodiaspory. (i) It represents a combination of highly diverse traits at different levels of observation, ranging from the dual tissular origin of mucilage secretory cells to diverse mucilage polysaccharidic composition and ultrastructural organization. (ii) An asymmetrical selection pressure is exerted on myxospermy‐related genes that was first identified in Arabidopsis thaliana . The A. thaliana and the flax intra‐species mucilage variants show that myxospermy is a fast‐evolving trait due to high polymorphism in a few genes directly acting on mucilage establishment. In A. thaliana , these actors are downstream of a master regulatory complex and an original phylogenetic overview provided here illustrates that this complex has sequentially evolved after the common ancestor of seed plants and was fully established in the common ancestor of the rosid clade. (iii) Newly identified myxodiaspory ecological functions indicate new perspectives such as soil micro‐organism control and plant establishment support.

The ability to secrete mucilage around seeds is widespread among angiosperms. This feature is highly diverse and provides numerous ecological roles. In natural variability, the involved genes show a conservation for master regulators but also a great variability for few direct actors.

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Mycorrhiza - Initiation of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis involves a novel pathway independent from hyphal branching

Mycorrhiza - Initiation of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis involves a novel pathway independent from hyphal branching | LRSV Publications | Scoop.it

The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is a very common association between plant roots and soil fungi, which greatly contributes to plant nutrition. Root-exuded compounds known as strigolactones act as symbiotic signals stimulating the fungus prior to root colonization. Strigolactones also play an endogenous role in planta as phytohormones and contribute to the regulation of various developmental traits. Structure-activity relationship studies have revealed both similarities and differences between the structural features required for bioactivity in plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. In the latter case, bioassays usually measured a stimulation of hyphal branching on isolated fungi of the Gigaspora genus, grown in vitro. Here, we extended these investigations with a bioassay that evaluates the bioactivity of strigolactone analogs in a symbiotic situation and the use of the model mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis. Some general structural requirements for bioactivity reported previously for Gigaspora were confirmed. We also tested additional strigolactone analogs bearing modifications on the conserved methylbutenolide ring, a key element of strigolactone perception by plants. A strigolactone analog with an unmethylated butenolide ring could enhance the ability of R. irregularis to colonize host roots. Surprisingly, when applied to the isolated fungus in vitro, this compound stimulated germ tube elongation but inhibited hyphal branching. Therefore, this compound was able to act on the fungal and/or plant partner to facilitate initiation of the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, independently from hyphal branching and possibly from the strigolactone pathway.

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Development - VAPYRIN-like is required for development of the moss Physcomitrella patens

Development - VAPYRIN-like is required for development of the moss Physcomitrella patens | LRSV Publications | Scoop.it

The VAPYRIN (VPY) gene in Medicago truncatula and Petunia hybrida is required for arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis. The moss Physcomitrella patens has a close homologue (VPY-likeVPYL), although it does not form AM. Here, we explore the phylogeny of VPY and VPYL in land plants, and we study the expression and developmental function of VPYL in P. patens. We show that PpVPYL is expressed primarily in the protonema, the early filamentous stage of moss development, and later in rhizoids arising from the leafy gametophores and in adult phyllids. Knockout mutants have specific phenotypes in branching of the protonema and in cell division of the leaves (phyllids) in gametophores. The mutants are responsive to auxin and strigolactone, which are involved in the regulation of protonemal branching, indicating that the mutants are not affected in hormonal signaling. Taken together, these results suggest that PpVPYL exerts negative regulation of protonemal branching and of cell division in phyllids. We discuss VPY and VPYL phylogeny and function in land plants in the context of AM symbiosis in angiosperms, and of development in the moss.

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