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The Future Of Education (Thomas Frey)

The Future Of Education (Thomas Frey) | Pedagogía & TIC |
The pace of change is mandating that we produce a faster, smarter, better grade of human being. Current systems are preventing that from happening. Future education system will be unleashed with the advent of a standardized rapid courseware-builder and a single point global distribution system.

"Education is now the number one economic priority
in today's global economy." - John Naisbitt, Author of Megatrends

The following is the result of a collaborative research study conducted by the DaVinci Institute, its members and associated research teams.




Within two years a radical shift will begin to occur in the world of education.

While many people are making predictions about the direction that education systems are headed, we have found the best predictors to be hidden in the participative viral systems springing to life in the online world, such as iTunes and Amazon. These bottom-up approaches are quick to develop, participant-driven systems that are closely aligned to the demands of the marketplace.

In this paper we will focus on the key missing elements that will cause the disruptive next generation education systems to emerge. These missing pieces will likely be created within the next two years through private funding and will cause a dramatic educational shift in less than five years.

The primary missing pieces are a standard architecture for an organic courseware module and the software necessary to build this courseware. The solution to these missing pieces will be a participative courseware-builder that allows the general public to create courses on any conceivable topic. We expect many companies will attempt to solve this problem, but the market will quickly gravitate towards the one it likes best.

Once the market begins to gravitate towards a favorite courseware-builder, a number of new systems will be developed to grow the courseware library, build integrity, make it universally distributed, archive results, and add functionality.

Lessons from the Ancient World

During the time of the ancient Greek civilization, several mathematicians became famous for their work. People like Archimedes, Pythagoras, Euclid, Hipparchus, Posidonius and Ptolemy all brought new elements of thinking to society, furthering the field of math, building on the earlier work of Babylonian and Egyptian mathematicians.

A few generations later the Romans became the dominant society on earth, and the one aspect of Roman society that was remarkably absent was the lack of Roman mathematicians. Rest assured, the scholarly members of Roman society came from a good gene pool and they were every bit as gifted and talented as the Greeks. But Roman society was being held hostage by its own systems. One of the primary culprits for the lack of Roman mathematicians was their numbering system - Roman numerals and its lack of numeric positioning.

While it's easy for us today to look at Roman numerals and say that it was a pretty stupid numbering system, it was just one of many inferior numbering systems in ancient times. But the feature that made Roman numerals so bad was the fact that each number lacked specific numeric positioning and was in fact an equation, and this extra layer of complexity prevented people from doing higher math.

Roman numerals were a system problem, and a huge one at that. They prevented an entire civilization from furthering the field of math and science.

Romans were so immersed in their numbering system that they had no clue that it was preventing them from doing even rudimentary math such as adding a column of numbers or simple multiplication or division, a feat still handled by abacus. It also prevented them from creating some of the more sophisticated banking and accounting systems and restricted academia from moving forward in areas of science, astronomy, and medicine.

Ratchet forward to today. We live in a society where virtually everything is different from the days of the Roman Empire. But what seems so counterintuitive to most is that we are even more dependent today on our systems than the Romans ever were. Most of these systems we take for granted - systems for weights and measurement, accounting, banking, procurement, traffic management, and food labeling. With each of these systems we are much like the Romans, immersed in the use of these systems to a point where we seldom step back and question the reasoning and logic behind them.

Our systems govern virtually every aspect of our lives. They determine how we live and where we live, what we eat and where we work, where and when we travel, how much money we will make, the job we do, the friends we have, who we marry, and even how long we will live. But much like fish not understanding what water is, we seldom step back to fully understand the context of our existence.

As a starting point, one question we should be asking is, "What systems do we employ today that are the equivalent of Roman numerals, preventing us from doing great things?"

This simple question is very revealing. It has a way of opening a Pandora's box full of friction points, inefficiencies, and flow restrictors that we contend with every day. Our systems are what control the flow of commerce, govern our effectiveness as members of society, and create much of the stress we face on a daily basis.

After studying American systems and applying this "equivalency to Roman numerals" test, it is easy to conclude that we, as a society, are operating at somewhere just between 5-10 percent efficiency, maybe less. The upside is huge.

So what are some examples of restrictive systems that are preventing us from doing great things? Here are just a few examples:

Income Tax System - The income tax system is currently the mother of all boat anchors, slowing commerce and the pace of business to a crawl. Currently somewhere in the neighborhood of 64,000 pages in length, the United States tax code in use today will stand as a shining example throughout history as one of the world's most incomprehensible systems.
Half-Implemented Metric System - We are using a half-implemented metric system where we are purchasing cars with 3.2 liter engines and filling them with quarts of oil.
Keyboards - We use keyboards that were designed to slow the speed of typing by placing the most frequently used keys randomly across the face of the keyboard. Keyboards in any configuration are an extremely inefficient way to transfer knowledge from one person to another.
Laws - We now have more laws on the books in the United States than any country at any time in history. There aren't even any good estimates as to the number of laws on the books in the United States. With each city, county, state, federal agency, and taxing district able to issue their own regulations, mandates, ordinances, rules, and law, we have created a legal snake pit of intertwined and overlapping rules that we are expected to live by.
Lest you think the United States is the only country with system problems, consider some of the major issues plaguing other countries:

Chinese Alphabet - The number of Chinese characters contained in the Kangxi dictionary is approximately 47,035, although a large number of these are rarely-used variants accumulated throughout history. Studies carried out in China have shown that full literacy requires knowledge of between three and four thousand characters.
So as you can see, we are a long way from optimizing the systems that govern our lives. The freedom that we value so highly in the United States is only a fraction of what it can be if we begin to seriously reinvent society one system at a time. And the system that we see as the highest leverage point for improving society is our education system.

Eight Driving Forces


The following are eight key trends that are driving change in the world of education. These trends will eventually define the size, scope, and speed of the emerging new system along with the characteristics needed for a global-scale adoption.
As you read through the following trends, it is our hope that you will begin to feel the forces at play, gain a sense of the undercurrent of influencers, and begin to understand the dramatic changes that will be happening only a few short years ahead.

1.) Transition from Teaching to Learning

Education has traditionally consisted of the two fundamental elements of teaching and learning, with a heavy emphasis on teaching.

Throughout history, the transfer of information from the teacher to the learner has been done on a person-to-person basis. A teacher stands in front of a room and imparts the information for a student to learn. Because this approach requires the teacher to be an expert on every topic that they teach, this is referred to as the "sage on stage" form of education.

While lecture-style teaching has been used for centuries to build today's literate and competent society, it ends up being a highly inefficient system, in many respects, the "equivalent of using Roman numerals." For any new topic to be taught, a new expert needs to be created, and this universal need for more and more experts has become a serious chokepoint for learning.

To illustrate this point, let's look at the example of a new topic that cannot be taught because the expert on this topic lives on the other side of the world. A teacher-dependent education system is also time-dependent, location-dependent, and situation-dependent. The teachers act as a control valve, turning on or off the flow of information.

The education system of the future will undergo a transition from a heavy emphasis on teaching to a heavy emphasis on learning. Experts will create the courseware and the students will learn anytime or anywhere at a pace that is comfortable for them, learning about topics that they are interested in.

In the future, teachers will transition from topic experts to a role in which they act more as guides and coaches.

2.) Exponential Growth of Information

During the time of Gutenberg, people tended to live and die within 20 miles of where they were born, not because they were afraid to travel, but because they had no reliable maps. People during this era had a very limited understanding of the world around them. The flow of information was controlled by just a few elite members of society, and they understood well the concept of knowledge equaling power.

We have gone from that time, just 500 years ago, where information was precious and few, to today, a time where information is so plentiful that we feel like we are drowning in it - information overload.

However, we still see many of the same "information control" issues permeating society today. Elite members of society still control the flow of information, perpetuating the notion that only doctors can understand medicine, only physicists can understand how the universe works, and only teachers know how to prepare us for the world to come.

There are many ways to talk about the rapid growth of information that we have experienced over the past few years. But it is important to pay attention to the changing dimensions of information as well as the sheer volume of it. Information is no longer just text-based, but graphical, musical, audio and visual.

Consider the following statistics

The number of songs available on iTunes - over 3.5 million.
The number of books on Amazon - over 4 million.
The number of blogs available online - over 60 million.
The number of entries on Wikipedia - over 4 million.
The number of user accounts on MySpace - over 100 million
The number of videos on YouTube - over 6.1 million
3.) Courseware Vacuum

After viewing the data above and thinking about the size and shape of information around the world, now consider the number of courses available, either online or in a classroom.

Information is exploding around us in every possible form. Yet, we do not have an easy way to translate these blocks of information into courseware. While some attempts are currently being made to unleash the public on this problem, we remain a long ways from solving the problem.

Open Education Movement - The open-education movement was inspired by the open-source software movement (i.e. Linux). It mixes in the powerful communication abilities of the Internet and applies the result to teaching and learning materials, such as course notes and textbooks. Open educational materials include text, images, audio, video, interactive simulations, and games that are free to be used and also re-used in new ways by anyone around the world.

It is estimated that more than 150 well-intentioned initiatives have been launched in this area. Over time, the increasing levels of attention and activity will cause one initiative to stand out and become the "industry leader." This leader will, by default, set the standards for everyone that follows.

Some open-education projects are already attracting a large number of users per month. Some, like the MIT OpenCourseWare project and its OCW Consortium, are top-down organized institutional repositories that showcase their institutions' courses. Others, like Rice University's Connexions, Wikiversity, and Moodle are grassroot efforts that encourage contributions from all comers.

MIT OpenCourseWare makes the course materials that are used in the teaching of almost all MIT's 1,400 undergraduate and graduate subjects available on the Web, free of charge, to any user anywhere in the world. MIT now claims 1.4 million visits per month from learners "in every single country on the planet."
The OpenCourseWare Consortium is an extension of what MIT began. Students don't have to register for classes but need only to log on to more than 1,800 potential courses at 12 universities that provide the course materials such as syllabi, video or audio lectures, notes, homework assignments, and illustrations.
Connexions claims more than one million people from 194 countries are tapping into its 3,768 modules and 199 courses developed by a worldwide community of authors.
Wikiversity is a division of Wikipedia serving as a community for the creation and use of free learning materials and activities. Wikiversity is a multidimensional social organization dedicated to learning, teaching, research and service. Its primary goals are to create and host free content, multimedia learning materials, resources, and curricula for all age groups in all languages.
Moodle is a course management system using a free, Open Source software package designed to help educators create effective online learning communities. Moodle claims over 20,000 participating sites listing over 820,000 courses. is an education development resource with over 3,000 members and 450 courses in development.
While we applaud these efforts, there are some critical elements missing. The learning system of the future will have a single access point for all of its courses. Moodle is claiming over 820,000 courses but they are spread over 20,000 sites and many courses are duplicates. We estimate the number of unique and different courses to be less than 50,000, not in the millions like the number of available books and songs.

Using books as a close analogy, it can be argued that every available book has the potential of being translated into courseware and, most often, multiple courses. There are currently far more topics discussed in books than there are courses to teach the material. This leaves an obvious courseware vacuum waiting to be filled, and the key to unlocking this vacuum is the participative courseware-builder described below.

4.) Expanding Gulf Between Literates and Super-Literates

According to the New York Times, there are an additional 20,000 new words added to the English language every year. The primary driver behind this ever-expanding dimension of vocabulary is the ongoing development of science and technology.

Along with the creation of new science and technology comes the need to explain its attributes, its function in technical terms, and its overall purpose. New words and their associated colloquialisms help create meaning and structure around the emerging new concepts as they attract more research and come into focus.

Young students can learn new words quickly: on average, 3,000 new words each year, which works out to 8 words a day. This, of course varies significantly from one student to the next.

In the English language, the 2,000 most frequently used words account for 80-85 percent of the words used in non-specialized written texts and about 90-95 percent in conversational speech.

However, the total number of words in the English language tops out around one million words, and the vocabulary of some of our most gifted scientist and engineers tops out around 200,000 words.

The distance between the functionally literate and the super literate is growing. Some people who have become expert on a specific topic have pushed the envelope of understanding far beyond the comprehension of the rest of the world. And in doing so, have created whole new vocabularies to describe the concepts and phenomenon they encountered. These super experts often live in a research community where they are often the only living person who truly understands the topic of their research.

Until now the primary tool for these super literates to pass along their understanding of research to future generations has been through papers that are published in technical journals. Because of the rigid requirements for publication, these papers often take months to compose, and are written in a vocabulary few can comprehend.

An alternative to publishing papers will soon be the creation of courseware. While developing courseware in the past has been laborious and poorly utilized, the new courseware builder described below has the potential to change all that. Courseware will become an alternative to publishing papers or writing books, and will serve as an additional channel for the super literates to disseminate their understanding of the world.

5.) Our "Touch Points" for Interfacing with Society are Changing

"Touch points" are the places where we come in contact with the rest of the world.

As an example, the average person comes in contact with the physical world through three primary physical touch points or interfaces - the shoes that we walk in, the bed that we sleep in, and the chairs that we sit in. These are the primary touch points for our physical body.

While it is important to study the touch points for our physical body, it is even more important to understand the touch points for our mind. How does our mind interface with the rest of the world, and how can we improve the touch points to improve our abilities and capabilities?

The Classroom Touch Point: There has long been the pervasive notion that learning can take place only in a classroom. Even though schools use field trips and outdoor experiences to enhance education, the classroom remains the dominant central fixture of today's educational systems.

Classrooms are designed to focus attention, close off the rest of the world, and create a controllable environment where learning can take place. Architects refer to schools as a "place," and over the years place-makers have attempted to create the ultimate classroom - a place where learning can be optimized and students can excel.

Most educators will argue that the real learning takes place inside the classroom. Even though external activities such as doing homework, reading assignments, or writing papers happen outside the bounds of the school, the primary education interface remains the classroom.

Using classrooms as the primary "touch point" for learning creates many problems. The person or education system that controls the classroom also controls the time when learning can take place, the students who will participate, the lighting, the sounds, the media used, the tools, the pace, the subject matter, and in many cases, the results.

However, classroom-centric education is not necessary for learning.

Learning takes place from the moment a person wakes up in the morning until they fall asleep at night. In fact, learning continues even while a person is sleeping. We may not be learning about math and science while we watch a movie, but we learn about the characters in the movie, the plot, the setting, the drama, the resolution of the problem, the kind of popcorn a theater serves, and how comfortable the seats are.

Indeed some topics like math and science require a more structured form of learning for most students to grasp the information being imparted, but learning is not dependent upon the classroom. In some cases the classroom may be the optimal environment for learning to take place, but most often it is not.

Important new touch points for our mind include our computers, electronic newspapers, video magazines, handheld televisions, cellphones, MP3 payers, video games, artwork, and much more.

6.) Learning Drivers

Why do people need to learn? Why do people want to learn? What are their motivations? What are the drivers that control a person's desire to fill their minds with knowledge and information?

Maslow's Hierarchy of Human Needs is a theory in psychology that Abraham Maslow proposed in his 1943 paper A Theory of Human Motivation. His theory contends that as humans meet 'basic needs', they seek to satisfy successively 'higher needs' that occupy a set hierarchy.

Maslow's initial hierarchy was based on two groupings: deficiency needs and growth needs. Within the deficiency needs, each lower need must be met before moving to the next higher level. Once each of these needs has been satisfied, if at some future time a deficiency is detected, the individual will act to remove the deficiency. The first four levels were:

1.) Physiological: hunger, thirst, bodily comforts, etc.;
2.) Safety/security: out of danger;
3.) Belonginess and Love: affiliate with others, be accepted; and
4.) Esteem: to achieve, be competent, gain approval and recognition.

According to Maslow, an individual is ready to act upon the growth needs if and only if the deficiency needs are met. Maslow's early thinking included only one growth need - self-actualization. Self-actualized people were characterized by: 1) being problem-focused; 2) incorporating an ongoing freshness of appreciation of life; 3) a concern about personal growth; and 4) the ability to have peak experiences.

Maslow later add a new dimension to the growth need of self-actualization, defining two lower-level growth needs below self-actualization and one above that level. They were:

5.) Cognitive: to know, to understand, and explore;
6.) Aesthetic: patterns, symmetry, order, and beauty;
7.) Self-actualization: to find self-fulfillment and realize one's potential; and
8.) Self-transcendence: to connect to something beyond the ego or to help others find self-fulfillment and realize their potential.

Our motivations for learning form similar patterns. Maslow's basic concept is that the higher needs in the hierarchy come into focus only once all the needs that are lower down in the pyramid are mainly or entirely satisfied.

For this reason, our desires to learn, and the topics we want to learn about, transition depending on the situation we find ourselves in. As an example, we will have very little desire to learn math and science if we are worried about survival. However, we will have a great desire to learn about survival topics.

The problem sets that surround us, and our ability to solve those problems, are a constantly refocusing lens into our learning motivators.

Maslow's basic position is that as people become more self-actualized and self-transcendent, they develop wisdom and automatically know what to do in a wide variety of situations. His ultimate conclusion that the highest levels of self-actualization are transcendent in their nature may be one of his most important contributions in this area of study.

7.) The Age of Hyper-Individuality

As a society we are less and less interested in the status competition involved in "keeping up with the Joneses." We are not all that concerned about what kind of car our neighbor drives, what kind of TV they are watching, or what kind of cell phone they are using. Instead, we are much more concerned about finding products that will satisfy our own particular needs.

We live in an era where we are approaching 100 million products in the marketplace, and depending on how you define a product, some would argue that we have already far exceeded that number. Suffice it to say that we now have products that are much more aligned with the needs of a very wide range of consumers, and consumers are voting with their debit cards for uniqueness and individuality. So much so that we have dubbed this the age of hyper-individuality.

When the cable TV companies started offering 500 different channels they found that all of the channels had an audience. When Amazon started offering over 2 million different books for sale on its website it found that all of the books had a market. This phenomenon is best described in Chris Anderson's book "The Long Tail" which explains how the Internet has driven the cost of shelf space in the online world to a number approaching zero, and in doing so has enabled online merchants like iTunes, Amazon,, and YouTube to carry millions of different products.

Our need for hyper-individualized solutions is driven by several factors including our time, our personality, and an overwhelming need to feel special in a world of over 6 billion other people wanting many of the same things.

Today the average person sleeps two hours less than a person in the 1920s. We have gone from 8.9 hours per night to 6.9 hours per night, and many people today, if they could do without, would skip sleeping altogether.

With time being one of our major constraints, we are continually searching for products that will save us time, and if we can find that left-handed, counter-balanced, pocket-sized device that we can operate efficiently on moon-lit nights when the stars are aligned, we will make the purchase.

8.) Transition from Consumers to Producers

As we transition from a predominantly passive society to a more active one, people no longer want to just sit on the sidelines and watch. They want to participate. And a whole new generation of tools and equipment are allowing people to shift their role from consumer to producer.

This transition began with the introduction of comment sections at the end of online news posts. People began to voice their thoughts on whether or not a piece of news was accurate, timely, or in any way news-worthy. Many commenters added additional information.

When Evan Williams and Meg Hourihan's company, Pyra Labs, launched Blogger (later purchased by Google) in 1999, a major shift began in the world of user-generated content for the Web. Suddenly it became easy for anyone to create a blog site, and millions of people began to experiment.

In July of 2003, MySpace was founded by Tom Anderson, Chris DeWolfe, and a small team of programmers. As a site that allowed users to generate their own website and connection to friends, MySpace quickly became the dominant player in the emerging category of social networking with the 100 millionth user account created in August 2006.

Similarly, when Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, and Jawed Karim launched YouTube in February of 2005, it became very easy for people to produce and post videos online. As an enormously popular and free video sharing website, YouTube lets users upload, view, share, and rate video clips. As a result, millions of people have transitioned from video consumers to video producers with an average of 65,000 new video clips uploaded onto YouTube every day.

While each of these are examples of runaway success stories, the world of user-generated content is not without its own set of problems. Each has managed to handle the challenges in their own unique way. But what these examples best illustrate is the public's driving need to participate and lend their own thoughts and ideas to the world around them.

Setting the Stage


It is easy to fall into the trap of thinking in terms of past top-down approaches. Instead, we need to focus on the key elements, the seeds of innovation, which will allow this new organic form of education to spring to life.

New forms of education are not achieved by putting an umbrella over our existing education systems and networking them with hopes that they will get better. And they're not achieved by simply recording the lectures for later broadcast. Education in its current state is the equivalent of Roman numerals, a system that is preventing us from achieving great things.

Unlimited Shelf Space

Since most people still believe that education must take place in the classroom, and only educators can create new courses, we have placed a very constrictive valve on the inflow of new courseware.

The retail world had very similar restrictions just a few years ago, with the cost of shelf space being one of the primary constraints to the introduction of new products. But the online marketplace has given us unlimited shelf space at a near-zero cost. This combination of super cheap and unlimited shelf space has caused an exponential growth curve in the introduction of new products.

The notion that education can take place only in a classroom is similar to the notion that purchasing a product can only take place when you see it on a store shelf. Removing the classroom constraints to learning is similar to removing the shelf space constraints to the marketplace.

At the same time that we have been experiencing the exponential growth of information, the amount of available courseware has remained rather static and consequently, our education systems have not kept pace.

Only a small percentage of the information being developed today is being passed on to future generations in the form of classes or courseware. This growing gap between information and courseware is what we call a "courseware vacuum," where supply has clearly not kept up with demand.

Certifying Accuracy - Truth vs. Untruth

As we contemplated the education system of the future, one of our biggest concerns was finding a way to ensure the accuracy of the information presented. Initially our thinking centered around the idea of selecting a central authority, some sort of governing truth authority, to authenticate the accuracy of information in each of the courseware modules. But this approach became unworkable as we considered the implications.

To begin with, a high percentage of what is taught in classes today is theoretical, ranging from theories of gravity, to theories of evolution, to music theory. None of these topics end up being 100 percent provable, and so from the standpoint of passing muster with a governing truth authority, none of these topics could be included.

Further, we realized that virtually every aspect of society has its own version of truth - religious truths, scientific truths, legal truths, etc.

For this reason we concluded that any governing truth authority would quickly deteriorate into a highly politicized authority, and the politicalization of any aspect of this future learning system will quickly compromise its usefulness.

As an alternative, we are proposing a checks-and-balances system where individual groups can create their own central truth authority and place their tags of approval or disapproval on courses. These tags will be a central feature of the search criteria used by the smart profiler and the recommendation engine.

For example, organizations like the American Chemical Society, People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, Focus on the Family, American Civil Liberties Union, National Rifle Association, National Education Association, or the Catholic Church can all review the new courseware that is being introduced and make a determination as to whether or not it meets their criteria.

We think that such organizations will quickly gear up to develop their own line of courseware so they can have better control of the content.

This type of tagging system holds value on many levels. First, it creates ways for virtually everyone to participate, and in fact, demands participation. Participation is an essential ingredient in a truly pervasive education system. It allows the learning system to develop organically without any central gatekeepers telling people what they can and can't learn.

Confidence-Based Learning

While many different learning methodologies will be experimented with, one that holds considerable promise is confidence-based learning. Some experiments in this area have demonstrated a significant reduction in learning time.

The first Confidence-Based Assessment study appeared in the Journal of Social Psychology in 1932 by Kate Hevner. Her goal was to improve the validity and reliability of standard musical assessments at the time. She did so by adding confidence assessment to knowledge. Fron 1932-1967, Confidence-Based Assessment focused on statistical validity and reliability. In 1967 it was discovered that Confidence-Based Assessment also improved memory retention. This is the discovery where people began to realize that the process of taking a test can and will make you smarter.

What started as a breakthrough approach for measuring knowledge and confidence is now moving front-and-center into corporate training centers in the form of a fast and accurate learning methodology. Confidence-based learning is on the rise among organizations that are transitioning their companies from training organizations to learning organizations.

Confidence-based learning is designed to ensure that learning actually takes place and mastery of a topic is achieved. It is much more than simply delivering information to students. It ensures learning by assessing precisely what people know and what they don't know without guesswork and doubt skewing the results. It then works to rapidly remediate a learner's gaps in knowledge and confidence.

Here's a summary of how it works.

Determining what people need to learn starts by understanding what ignorance, doubts and misinformation presently exists. Unlike traditional learning methodologies that measure only how many questions someone answers correctly, confidence-based learning assesses

Correct answers that are answered with confidence, indicating competency;
Correct answers that are answered with doubt;
Correct answers that are total guesses, equivalent to no knowledge;
Incorrect answers that are answered with confidence, indicating misinformation.
Distinguishing between a person guessing correctly and one who answers correctly with confidence can have a major impact. An assessment process that is built into the system can capture and validate knowledge confidence because of the unique structure of its multiple-choice questions and detailed analysis.

With the completion of an assessment, confidence-based learning is designed to close knowledge gaps at the moment users are most inclined to learn - right after being evaluated and their own misinformation and doubt has been exposed.

We have speculated that if confidence-based learning is somehow designed into the courseware-builder that the speed of learning can be increased dramatically, by as much as 50% or more.

Archiving Knowledge

While rarely viewed as such, education is a system for archiving a culture by passing down the knowledge of one generation to the next. Museums, written documents, books, photos, videos and audio recordings typically come to mind when considering a cultural archive. But certain aspects of a culture need to be experienced in order to be preserved, and that's where the notion of education as an archival medium comes in.

Craftsman guilds such as tilers and bricklayers are a good example of trades that require hands-on experience. The intricacies and nuances of piecing together building materials into artistic patterns cannot be adequately conveyed through books or even video. The tactile feel of textures, tapping, testing for hollow spots, and cleaning off excess material are all part of the experiential learning that cannot be conveyed through some other medium.

The concept of archiving knowledge is just one of many theories that will emerge as strategies around the new system begin to develop.

Defining the New, New Era in Learning

As we begin to peel back the layers of the system we are envisioning, we will use a number of different descriptors and definitions to describe the nature of the new, new era of learning.

The key to this whole system is an easy-to-use courseware builder that catches the imagination of the general public and inspires participation. Several features will be necessary to give this system both the range and functionality of a truly rich learning environment.

Twelve Dimensions of the Future Courseware Architecture

We have identified 12 critical dimensions of the future learning system. However, only the first two need to be in place for the revolution to begin.

The two critical components that will define education for centuries to come will be a standardized architecture for developing a courseware unit, and an organic distribution system that allows anyone around the world access to it.

Standard Courseware Unit

In the past, creating a standard was often a long and tedious process where smart people gathered around tables and argued about where to place the comma in a sentence. But times have changed, and so has the development process for standards.

Very likely the development of a standard will happen concurrently with the early testing of courseware modules, with the drafting of the standard document happening in parallel to the testing of the architecture. The final standard may not be finished for several years.

The reason it's important to create a standard is simply to focus energy. Competing standards can be divisive, creating temporary chaos in the industry, and greatly delaying market acceptance. Also, the path to market acceptance would end up being far more expensive.

So, what will a standard courseware unit look like? The short answer is that it is too early to know, but we have to have a starting point. For this reason we have put together a list of attributes and features that we think will be necessary components:

1.  The Courseware Builder - Envisioned as a smooth, fill-in-the-blanks templated process, the courseware builder will carefully step courseware producers through the design, build, and launch phases of each course.

2.  60 Minute (Approx) Learning Experience - An hour is an international unit of measurement recognized around the globe. We schedule our time in one-hour units, we plan our days in one-hour units, so building educational modules around one hour units makes sense. Some learning experiences may involve a grouping of 2, 5, or even 10 units, but the majority will be centered around the basic one-hour unit.

3.  Modality Agnostic, Language Agnostic - Learning comes in many forms ranging from reading text, to listening to audio, to watching video, to hands-on experiences, and more. The Standard Courseware Unit needs to accommodate all modes of sensory input and learning experiences.

4.  Confidence-Based Learning - All units will use some form of testing to validate competency or fluency in the topic, as well as the student's confidence in their answers. Test scores that are lower than minimum required proficiency levels will force students to repeat portions of the learning experience until students have achieved mastery.

5.  Smart Profiler - In addition to the basic name and address type of information found in most profiles, students will be asked to participate in regularly scheduled assessment surveys to determine primary and secondary areas of interest. The smart profiler will continually expand the profile of the student throughout their life, recalibrating topical interest levels, building a comprehensive understanding of the individual student as they evolve over time. The Smart Profiler will feed information directly to the Personal Recommendation Engine for prioritizing course selections.

6.  Multi-Dimensional Tagging Engine - Much of the system usability will be driven by the multi-dimensional nature of the tagging engines. Attributes include:

Personal rating tags - Upon completion, each student will be asked to rate the courseware. Courses will be graded on accuracy, quality of the learning experience, ease of use, and overall effectiveness.
Approval & Disapproval Tags - Each courseware unit will be set up to allow various organizations to either put their stamp of approval or disapproval on it. Since every political interest group will want to influence the direction of courseware development, it will be impossible to build courses around the likes and dislikes of all of the various interest groups. For this reason, each course will allow groups to place their stamp of approval or disapproval on it.
Taxonomy Tags - Folksonomy - Folksonomy is the emerging science of user generated taxonomies. Since each courseware topic will be understood differently by each student, it will be necessary to allow students to place descriptor tags on all completed courses. This self-tagging approach will create the necessary taxonomy for the Personal Recommendation Engine as well as other search engines.
Prerequisite & Post-Requisite Tags - Knowledge builds on knowledge. As an example, students cannot study literature until they know how to read, and they cannot study computer programming until they know math and algebra. Much of today's learning needs to happen sequentially. Therefore it becomes imperative to create some system for sequencing courses based on the order of which learning must take place.
Comment Tags - Comment sections will allow students to voice their thoughts on each course
7.  Personal Recommendation Engine - Each time the student completes a course, the Personal Recommendation Engine will present a number of possible future courses based on personal interests and past courses. This engine should offer an expanded view of possible directions the student can take, listing a variety of learning options as well as the certification endpoints.

8.  Certification Inputs - Every profession, personal skill, or area of learning has logical points where experts in that field would consider the necessary learning to be sufficiently complete. But every profession or skill is different. As an example, the courses necessary to become a master cigar maker are vastly different than the courses need to become a C+ programmer or airline pilot or registered nurse. Most professions and skills will use a combination of courses completed and a certification exam to validate student proficiency.

9.  New Achievement Standards - Descriptors like grade-level, graduate-level, and undergraduate-level will begin to disappear from our vocabulary. Initially, a set of equivalency units will be used to describe achievements (equivalent to sixth grade, or equivalent to a BA degree). Over time, the systems for illustrating achievement will change with the use of charts and graphs to explain the breadth and depth of a person's understanding.

10,  Official Record Keeping System - Building a system with impeccable integrity means that the system for archiving the accomplishments of every participant must be secure, private, and managed by an organization with impeccable credentials. While many people will think that a government-run archive is the best solution, the best possible record-keeping system will be one that transcends governmental boundary lines.

11.  Participative Wealth Pricing - The revenue stream generated by each courseware unit will be divided between the courseware producer, distribution company, transaction company, system operations company, and the official record keeping system. Maybe more. Courseware prices need to be kept low to make courseware accessible to anyone interested in learning.

12.  Global Distribution System - Think of the nature and functionality of iTunes with the following features:

A single online access point
Content aggregator
Search/sort capabilities
Accepting user generated content
Recommendation engine
Uniform pricing
Understanding the System Entry-Point

Before a child can tap into a system with courseware as described above, a certain number of skills must first be in place - ability to read, follow directions, and respond to questions. However, once basic motor skills have been mastered, it is conceivable that very young children can begin this type of learning with the aid of some future design of the early childhood workstation.

Since age is not a good way to determine a child's capabilities, new systems will need to be created to assess the overall readiness of a young student to participate.

Priming the Pump

Creating the initial Standard Courseware Units will be time-intensive, poorly understood, and topically spotty.

People creating the first units will most likely be educators working on a tiny budget. Budget limitations will cause courseware development to happen slowly, and this will leave gaps in many topical areas. Gaps will include areas such as craftsman trades that use more of an apprentice-style approach to learning, personal interest topics such as gardening and home repair, and social system education on topics like water law and import-export laws.

One way to "prime the pump" will be through a system of grants. Perhaps the creation of the first 1,000-3,000 Standard Courseware Units could be funded through a system offering $5,000-$10,000 individual development grants. Once the initial courseware is developed and tested, smaller amounts of grant money could be made available in the range of $2,000-$5,000 depending on whether it's a new topic or degrees of improvement over past courseware. For example, a Courseware Unit using a combination of video animation, expert interviews, and advance mathematical modeling will naturally provide a superior, content-rich learning experience over a standard text-based course and could therefore be eligible for a larger grant.

With this approach there should be a sufficient critical mass of courseware to inspire other people to begin creating their own courses without grants.

The After Effects


We are on the verge of radical shifts in our education systems, and not everyone will be happy to see them develop. Teacher unions and other people dependent upon the existing education system will provide much of the early resistance.

Because of the many facets of the architecture outlined above, the system will not be created all at once. It will be phased in, starting with the courseware builder and distribution system, and later followed by the official record keeping system and various groups providing inputs. Adoption will be spotty at first.

We see home schoolers and foreign students as being some of the earliest adopters, followed by private schools and charter schools, and later public schools. Initially these courses will be used to supplement traditional classroom-based courses, but will later develop into a complete learning curriculum.

Learning Camps

Many kinds of learning camps are already in existence, but we will go through an explosive growth in this area.

Many kinds of learning are best achieved through hands-on touch and feeling experiences. Marine biology is best learned through working with marine life in all its many forms. The best way to learn history is to travel to the battlefields, take tours of the castles, walk through the ancient ruins, dress up in the ancient clothing, and sleep overnight in a wigwam or cliff dwelling. The best way to become a plumber is to work with a skilled plumber and perform hands-on work-related tasks to fix real world plumbing problems.

Learning camps, ranging from one-day camps to multi-week camps, will begin to proliferate around specific topics. Some camps will be more academic-related areas of study such as math and science, while others will deal with more skill-related topics like woodworking or auto repair. Each camp will have its own identity, use its own in-house experts, and will focus on a specific learning experience that is tied to courseware with a built-in testing system to validate competency.

The Social Environments of Learning

Much of today's learning happens inside a social context. When a classmate asks a question, the whole class learns. When one student laughs at a teacher's joke, all the rest of the students perk up. These are pieces of a learning environment that may disappear if the learning process becomes too hyper-individualized and too much of a solemn, one-person experience.

Technology has a way of isolating people. As an example, many young girls today grab their cell phone and start talking as soon as the final classroom bell rings. This makes them unapproachable to boys who would like to find a good time to strike up a conversation with them. Sitting at a classroom computer or watching a video are other forms of technology isolation created by placing social barriers around individuals.

However, lasting relationships are based on common, shared experiences, and any learning system that does not address the need for building social relationships will be missing a critical dimension of the learning environment.
Learning camps are only a partial answer. Courseware designed around strengthening relationships may address this problem, but the power of socialization and the need for building relationships cannot be underestimated.

Thinking Through the Transition for Existing School Systems

We see the existing school systems going through a complicated transition which may not always be smooth. Below is a description of some of the anticipated changes that will happen to students, teachers, buildings, and school districts or systems.

Students - Perhaps the people who will be quickest to adapt to the new system will be the students. Instead of being forced to learn specific courses that are often of little interest to them, students will be free to select the topics that they are most interested in.

Most students will have the opportunity to travel to various learning camps around the country. As more and more students begin using the system, the demand for new courses will cause more and more people to develop courseware.

School Buildings - Some school buildings will transition into learning centers that are open 24 hours a day, accommodating both child and adult learners, providing support staff to assist people who struggle with the system or on a specific topic.

Other school buildings, or portions of buildings, will transition into production centers filled with the tools and equipment for people to produce new courseware. Staff people will also be on hand to assist in courseware design and creation.

Teachers - Teachers will have many good options to consider as the changes begin to happen. Some teachers will remain with the school buildings and work more as guides, coaches, and tutors for students needing help. Others will move into event planners and experience designers as each facility experiments with re-engineering the social side of learning.

Other teachers will choose to develop their own learning camp or series of camps. Learning camps will specialize in a specific experiential topic that is tied to specific courseware. These teachers will effectively operate their own enterprise with revenues driven by the number of students opting to go to their camp.

Some of the more entrepreneurial-minded teachers may choose to become full-time courseware producers. The techniques for creating good and effective new courseware will be an iterative process going through multiple evolutionary stages as new and better tools become available.

Changing Revenue Streams

So how does all this get funded, and how do the existing revenue streams change to accommodate the new era in learning?

Because of the sheer volume of students that will be involved, it is recommended that the price point for courseware modules be kept very low - as low as 99 cents per module. Some of the more specialized areas of learning will likely charge a higher amount, but general courseware should be pushed to the lowest possible price point.

Initially people will pay for their own courses, or the courses completed by their children. Later, systems for grants and loans will allow a broader range of students to participate. Eventually government money will begin to shift and cover student expenses.

Because the learning camps will demand a more aggressive involvement of people and technology, the pricing of camps will be done on a camp-by-camp basis according to market demand or according to some district or state pricing schedule, possibly with matching funds available to cover costs.

Speculating on government-sponsored funding mechanisms, students could each be granted an account with sufficient credits to complete the equivalent of a college bachelor's degree, roughly on the order of 20,000 credits.

Once those credits have been exhausted, the students would automatically enter into a loan arrangement where any additionally used credits would have to be paid back over time.

A second dimension of funding may be an annual amount of credits that could be spent on learning camps. Since prices of the camps would vary, student would be allowed to roll over funding from one year to the next.

Existing streams of funding for school district will not go away, but will be scaled to appropriate levels for staffing and maintaining buildings as each phase of the transition takes place.



The pace of change mandates that we produce a faster, smarter, better grade of human being. Current systems are preventing that from happening. Future education systems will be unleashed with the advent of a standardized rapid courseware-builder and a single-point global distribution system.

Information is growing at exponential rates, and our ability to convert that information into useful knowledge and skills is being hampered by the lack of courseware. We refer to this phenomenon as a courseware vacuum. The primary reason we lack courseware is because we haven't developed a quick and easy system for creating it.

Once a rapid courseware-builder has been created, and the general marketplace has put its stamp of approval on it, a series of standards will be developed.

With tools for producing courseware becoming widely available, people around the world will begin creating it, and we will see a courseware explosion similar to the dramatic rise of content on YouTube and iTunes.

As part of the rapidly developing courseware movement we will see education transition from:

Teacher-centric to learning-centric
Classroom-based teaching to anyplace, anytime learning
Mandated courses to hyper-individualized learning
A general population of consumers to a growing population of producers
Learning will become hyper-individualized with students learning what they want to learn, when they want to learn it. Most of today's existing learning impediments will eventually go away.

As a result of this shift we will begin to see dramatic changes in society. The speed of learning will increase tenfold because of a combination of the following factors:

Confidence-based learning will significantly increase learning speed and comprehension
Learning what we want, when we want - shifting away from a prescribed course agenda to one that is hyper-individualized, self-selected, and scheduled whenever a student wishes to take it will dramatically change levels of motivation
Technology improvements over time will continually improve the speed and comprehension of learning
The speed of learning will increase tenfold, and it is possible that the equivalent of our current K-12 education system will be compressed into as little as one year's worth of learning.

In the future, we predict students entering the workforce will be ten times smarter than they are today.
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6 Alternatives To Bloom's Taxonomy For Teachers -

6 Alternatives To Bloom's Taxonomy For Teachers - | Pedagogía & TIC |

This post is updated from an article we published in April. At the end of the day, teaching is about learning, and learning is about understanding. And as technology evolves to empower more diverse and flexible assessments forms, constantly improving our sense of what understanding looks like–during mobile learning, during project-based learning, and in a flipped classroom–can not only improve learning outcomes, but just might be the secret to providing personalized learning for every learner. This content begs the question: why does one need alternatives to the established and entrenched Bloom’s? Because Bloom’s isn’t meant to be the alpha and the omega of framing instruction, learning, and assessment. Benjamin Bloom’s taxonomy does a brilliant job of offering “verbs” in categories that impose a helpful cognitive framework for planning learning experiences, but it neglects important ideas, such as self-knowledge that UbD places at the pinnacle of understanding, or the idea of moving from incompetence to competence that the SOLO taxonomy offers. So with apologies to Bloom (whose work we covered recently), we have gathered five alternatives to his legendary, world-beating taxonomy, from the TeachThought Simple Taxonomy, to work from Marzano to Fink, to the crew at Understanding by Design. teachthought-simple-taxonomy-for-understanding 6-facets-of-understanding-fi marzano-taxonomy finks-taxonomy-for-understanding dok-depth-of-knowledge solo_taxonomy offers. So with apologies to Bloom (whose work we covered recently), we have gathered five alternatives to his legendary, world-beating taxonomy, from the TeachThought Simple Taxonomy, to work from Marzano to Fink, to the crew at Understanding by Design.

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Brecha digital de género: Reflejo de la desigualdad social (PDF)

Juan Carlos López Garcías insight:


Observatorio de Igualdad de Género (2013) Brecha digital de género: Reflejo de la desigualdad social. Notas para la igualdad N. 10. Disponible el 27/11/2015 en:



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Report of the Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression (PDF)

Juan Carlos López Garcías insight:


Report of the Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression, Frank La Rue.

This report explores key trends and challenges to the right of all individuals to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds through the Internet. The Special Rapporteur underscores the unique and transformative nature of the Internet not only to enable individuals to exercise their right to freedom of opinion and expression, but also a range of other human rights, and to promote the progress of society as a whole. Chapter III of the report underlines the applicability of international human rights norms and standards on the right to freedom of opinion and expression to the Internet as a communication medium, and sets out the exceptional circumstances under which the dissemination of certain types of information may be restricted. Chapters IV and V address two dimensions of Internet access respectively: (a) access to content; and (b) access to the physical and technical infrastructure required to access the Internet in the first place. More specifically, chapter IV outlines some of the ways in which States are increasingly censoring information online, namely through: arbitrary blocking or filtering of content; criminalization of legitimate expression; imposition of intermediary liability; disconnecting users from Internet access, including on the basis of intellectual property rights law; cyberattacks; and inadequate protection of the right to privacy and data protection. Chapter V addresses the issue of universal access to the Internet. The Special Rapporteur intends to explore this topic further in his future report to the General Assembly. Chapter VI contains the Special Rapporteur’s conclusions and recommendations concerning the main subjects of the report. 

The first addendum to the report comprises a summary of communications sent by the Special Rapporteur between 20 March 2010 and 31 March 2011, and the replies received from Governments. The second and third addenda contain the findings of the Special Rapporteur’s missions to the Republic of Korea and Mexico respectively.


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Ciberderechos: los e-derechos de la Infancia en el nuevo contexto TIC

Ciberderechos: los e-derechos de la Infancia en el nuevo contexto TIC | Pedagogía & TIC |
Jorge Flores Fernández - Mayo 2009

En el año en que se celebra el vigésimo aniversario de la Convención de los Derechos del Niño (CDN) cabe la oportunidad de hacer una reflexión sobre los nuevos retos y oportunidades que se plantean para la infancia y la adolescencia, no tanto por el tiempo transcurrido, sino por los vertiginosos cambios sociológicos que se han venido dando, en especial, en el último lustro, con la irrupción de las llamadas TIC (Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación).

Es obvio que, en esencia, poco o nada se puede añadir a lo expresado en la CDN. Sin embargo, merece la pena pensar qué nuevos condicionantes y agentes aparecen en esta labor de defensa de la infancia en el contexto actual

Reacciones en materia de protección de la infancia ante el efecto TIC

Existen iniciativas que ya recogen ciertos matices sensibles a las TIC en sus propuestas. Como no podía ser de otra manera, primero fue Unicef, que en Febrero de 2004, en el marco de la celebración del Día Internacional para una Internet Segura, planteó “los e-derechos de los niños y las niñas”, quizás más a efectos simbólicos que operativos (véase detalle al final del texto).

De manera más difusa, diferentes disposiciones normativas relativas a la protección de la infancia que se han ido actualizando recogen apartados aunque, por lo general, un tanto inconcretos y acotados.

El propio PENIA, Plan Estratégico Nacional de la Infancia y la Adolescencia (2006-2009), ya señala cuestiones referentes a las nuevas tecnologías. Es sintomático que, en sus primeros borradores, allá por 2005, ni siquiera aparecían aludidas cuando ya había constancia de un cambio de necesidades en otros países (por citar una referencia, suicidios durante 2003 en Estados Unidos causados por ciberbullying).

Otra iniciativa meritoria que cabe señalar, por específica e innovadora, es el llamado Decreto del Menor de Andalucía, que fechado en Febrero de 2007, tiene como título “Decreto de de Protección del Menor en el Uso de Internet y las Nuevas Tecnologías”.

Por fortuna, esta inquietud por la reformulación de necesidades va calando en nuestra sociedad como demuestra el reciente evento celebrado en Palma en Marzo de 2009: “I Congreso Estatal sobre los Derechos de los Menores frente a las Nuevas Tecnologías

Europa por una Internet más segura

Las instancias europeas han tomado un decidido papel por una Internet más segura, en especial para los menores. En 1999 iniciaron el “Safer Internet Action Plan”, relevado en 2004 hasta el pasado año por el Programa “Safer Internet Plus” que, a su vez, acaba de tomar un nuevo impulso para el período 2009-2013.

Es revelador señalar cómo las líneas prioritarias de actuación han ido desplazando su foco de atención. Así, los sistemas de filtrado o de etiquetado de contenidos tan promovidos en los primeros tiempos han quedado relegados a un segundo plano en la medida en que los contenidos son más audiovisuales (esto es, no evaluables automáticamente) y los usuarios se han constituido en creadores profusos e independientes de contenidos. Sin embargo, lo que se ha mantenido constante es el impulso de la autorregulación por parte de la industria y la necesidad de enfatizar la sensibilización y la formación de los menores y sus adultos responsables. En la actualidad, la telefonía móvil va adquiriendo más peso en el ciberespacio y son el ciberbullying y el grooming dos problemas con nombre propio

Esta evolución en tan sólo una década nos permite sacar algunas conclusiones tan evidentes como inmediatas:

No es previsible que el ritmo de cambios y novedades se reduzca a corto plazo.
No se trata de una moda y se hacen precisas tanto una adaptación constante como una labor de vigilancia permanente que posibilite prever y actuar con el menor retraso.
Nos encontramos por primera vez al menor como uno de los participantes activos principales del daño sufrido por otro menor.
Las TIC como oportunidad de promoción y participación

No hay que olvidar que las TIC suponen una gran oportunidad para la infancia y la adolescencia. En muchos casos, un adecuado uso de las mismas puede implicar ingentes beneficios para su desarrollo. Por otro lado, dada la importancia de los nuevos usos sociales de las TIC y de las competencias digitales, se puede hablar sin ningún tipo de duda de “el poder de la infancia en Red”. Niños y adolescentes copan muchos de los usos y aplicaciones más relevantes de la Red y, lo que es más, con sus preferencias marcan el desarrollo de la misma. Valga mencionar recientes experiencias donde la colectividad de usuarios, muchos menores, ha hecho cambiar condiciones de uso de, por ejemplo, redes sociales sin más que hacer un frente común. Así pues, promoción y participación son dos aportaciones valiosísimas de las TIC para la infancia.

¿Cuáles son los nuevos riesgos?

En síntesis, y de manera simplificada, podríamos decir que en Internet los menores se enfrentan a estas situaciones:

Contenidos nocivos, bien sean ilegales o no.
Grooming, o acecho sexual por adultos.
Ciberbullying, o acoso por parte de iguales.
Prácticas comerciales ilegales, con publicidad engañosa, estafas y fraudes.
Exposición a juegos de azar, casinos, apuestas… que les son prohibidas en el mundo físico pero a los que pueden acceder online.
Realización, consciente o no, de prácticas ilegales, que en la Red se pueden materializar con un solo click y cuya naturaleza y alcance es desconocido no ya por los propios menores sino también por parte de sus adultos responsables.
Abusos en materia de solicitud y uso indebido de datos personales, contra su privacidad y su intimidad.
Todo ello hay que considerarlo teniendo en cuenta que nunca antes los menores habían estado expuestos a “interacciones” tan abundantes e inmediatas con tal grado de anonimato y falta de supervisión efectiva, tanto en los países más desarrollados como en los que no lo son tanto.

¿Qué nuevas dificultades se presentan en la protección del menor?

Globalización y transnacionalidad. Quienes sufren las consecuencias de determinadas amenazas no tienen que corresponder a una misma realidad geográfica, sociocultural o económica que quienes las provocan directamente.
Menores como agresores de menores. Niños y adolescentes no son únicamente víctimas sino que también son participantes activos y necesarios en muchas situaciones donde otros sufren.
Dificultad de regulación e intervención. No es posible siquiera hacer cumplir la legislación vigente en cuestiones ya reguladas y existen evidentes vacíos de aplicación. Además, en muchos casos, los condicionantes legales implicados son distintos al intervenir agentes de diferentes países sujetos a reglamentaciones dispares.
Dinamismo extremo. Más que nunca, el ámbito TIC como nuevo entorno de socialización del menor se caracteriza por su frenética evolución, por lo que las labores de prevención e intervención se ven muy comprometidas.
Experiencia y perspectiva limitada de los adultos. En este terreno, donde la infancia encuentra comprometido su bienestar, los adultos que toman las decisiones apenas conocen la realidad y, menos aún, pueden aplicar sus experiencias y conocimientos.
De todo esto cabe deducir que los derechos de la infancia y la adolescencia necesitan, en la sociedad actual, una revisión que, en primer lugar, analice las nuevas formas en que se ven comprometidos y, en segundo lugar, identifique las mediadas (educativas, legislativas… ) que garanticen su más efectivo cumplimiento. De otra manera, seguiremos asistiendo a situaciones absurdas de adultos que quedan libres de cargos en casos de acecho a menores a través de Internet (hasta hace poco en países como Chile) o de menores encausados por pornografía infantil cuando en sus terminales móviles guardaban, imprudente pero inconscientemente, alguna imagen subida de todo de personas de su edad (actualidad hoy en día en Estados Unidos).

Decálogo UNICEF: “Los e-derechos de los niños y las niñas” (2004)

1. Derecho al acceso a la información y la tecnología, sin discriminación por motivo de sexo, edad, recursos económicos, nacionalidad, etnia, lugar de residencia, etc. En especial este derecho al acceso se aplicará a los niños y niñas discapacitados.

2. Derecho a la libre expresión y asociación. A buscar, recibir y difundir informaciones e ideas de todo tipo por medio de la Red. Estos derechos sólo podrán ser restringidos para garantizar la protección de los niños y niñas de informaciones y materiales perjudiciales para su bienestar, desarrollo e integridad; y para garantizar el cumplimiento de las leyes, la seguridad, los derechos y la reputación de otras personas.

3. Derecho de los niños y niñas a ser consultados y a dar su opinión cuando se apliquen leyes o normas a Internet que les afecten, como restricciones de contenidos, lucha contra los abusos, limitaciones de acceso, etc.

4. Derecho a la protección contra la explotación, el comercio ilegal, los abusos y la violencia de todo tipo que se produzcan utilizando Internet. Los niños y niñas tendrán el derecho de utilizar Internet para protegerse de esos abusos, para dar a conocer y defender sus derechos.

5. Derecho al desarrollo personal y a la educación, y a todas las oportunidades que las nuevas tecnologías como Internet puedan aportar para mejorar su formación. Los contenidos educativos dirigidos a niños y niñas deben ser adecuados para ellos y promover su bienestar, desarrollar sus capacidades, inculcar el respeto a los derechos humanos y al medio ambiente y prepararlos para ser ciudadanos responsables en una sociedad libre.

6. Derecho a la intimidad de las comunicaciones por medios electrónicos. Derecho a no proporcionar datos personales por la Red, a preservar su identidad y su imagen de posibles usos ilícitos.

7. Derecho al esparcimiento, al ocio, a la diversión y al juego, también mediante Internet y otras nuevas tecnologías. Derecho a que los juegos y las propuestas de ocio en Internet no contengan violencia gratuita, ni mensajes racistas, sexistas o denigrantes y respeten los derechos y la imagen de los niños y niñas y otras personas.

8. Los padres y madres tendrán el derecho y la responsabilidad de orientar, educar y acordar con sus hijos e hijas un uso responsable de Internet: establecer tiempos de utilización, páginas que no se deben visitar o información que no deben proporcionar para protegerles de mensajes y situaciones peligrosas, etc. Para ello los padres y madres también deben poder formarse en el uso de Internet e informarse de sus contenidos.

9. Los gobiernos de los países desarrollados deben comprometerse a cooperar con otros países para facilitar el acceso de éstos y sus ciudadanos, y en especial de los niños y niñas, a Internet y otras tecnologías de la información para promover su desarrollo y evitar la creación de una nueva barrera entre los países ricos y los pobres.

10. Derecho a beneficiarse y a utilizar en su favor las nuevas tecnologías para avanzar hacia un mundo más saludable, más pacífico, más solidario, más justo y más respetuoso con el medio ambiente, en el que se respeten los derechos de todos los niños y niñas.
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Research-based Strategies to Help Children Develop Self-Control

Research-based Strategies to Help Children Develop Self-Control | Pedagogía & TIC |
By Katrina Schwartz
JANUARY 11, 2016
It all started when psychology professor Walter Mischel was watching his four closely-spaced daughters growing up. He realized he had no idea what was going on in their brains that made it possible for a child who at one moment had no impulse control and just a few months later could inhibit her emotions, wait for things and have conversations. He became curious about how children develop these skills, which led to the famous marshmallow experiment conducted at the Bing Nursery School on Stanford’s campus, where Mischel was a professor.

That study has become famous over the last 50 years, leading to many hilarious YouTube videos (none of which are the original test subjects) and a lifetime’s work examining how various strategies can help both adults and children learn to delay gratification.

In the original marshmallow study, researchers spent time building up trust and rapport with their 4-year-old subjects before starting the experiment. The researcher then told the child that she was going to leave him in the room with a treat (cookie, pretzel or marshmallow) and if he waited to eat it until she returned, she would give him two marshmallows. Alternatively, the child could put an end to his misery by ringing the bell, at which point the researcher would return, but the child would get only the one treat. Mischel and his colleagues followed the test subjects over the next 50 years and found that those who were able to wait fared better on a variety of indices, including higher SAT scores, better ability to cope with stress and a lower body mass index.

‘To even want to delay gratification requires a trust expectation that’s often not there for kids for whom self-control and delayed gratification is most difficult.’
“One of the biggest determinators of choices of that kind is trust,” Mischel said at a Learning and the Brain conference in Boston.

He is now a psychology professor at Columbia University. Critics of his work often point out that children living in low-income communities, many of whom have experienced discrimination or disrespect from society, have no reason to trust those in positions of authority. Those kids might scarf down the marshmallow, not because they have no self-control but because they have no reason to believe the researcher is telling the truth about a second marshmallow.

Mischel agrees that the importance of a trusting relationship between the adult and child is often overlooked in reporting about his research. He began studying that aspect at the very beginning of this work.

“To even want to delay gratification requires a trust expectation that’s often not there for kids for whom self-control and delayed gratification is most difficult,” Mischel said. For children whose worlds are unstable and unpredictable, the marshmallow test may be testing belief in authority as much as self-control.

But aside from the specifics of the marshmallow test, lots of research has shown the value of self-control to positive life outcomes. That’s why Mischel is trying to focus the conversation on strategies educators and parents can use to help kids build self-control.

“The value of self-control has been measured in lots of longitudinal studies,” said Roy Baumeister, a psychologist at Florida State University who studies self-control and helped debunk an earlier theory that self-esteem was the foundation of academic success.

Self-control is the ability to override thoughts, impulses and emotions, and people who have it tend to do better in school and work. Baumeister said studies have shown people with high levels of self-control have better relationships, are happier, have less stress, are in better physical health, have better mental health and live longer.

Baumeister’s work has also helped demonstrate that self-control is like a muscle — it can be strengthened with exercise, but it also tires. “You have one resource, willpower, and you can expend it on different things,” Baumeister said at a Learning and the Brain conference.

So if a child uses up all his willpower controlling his emotions, he may be too depleted to show a lot of self-control at performing tasks. Additionally, making decisions and compromising use the same reserves of willpower. When people are depleted, they are more likely to default to old behaviors, less likely to compromise, more likely to follow impulses and less likely to trust others.

Knowing how important self-control is for positive outcomes, but recognizing that many children are experiencing several demands for their self-control at all times, how can educators help students build up their self-control muscles so they don’t tire as quickly?


Mischel says that his studies of tactics used by 4- and 5-year-olds hold true for older people as well. One of the biggest ones is self-distraction. During the marshmallow test, kids sit in that room by themselves with the coveted marshmallow in front of them, and they sing to themselves or imagine they are somewhere else.

‘The critical thing is to make delayed consequences more visible, more complete, more consequential, and to make the immediate rewards less hot.’
“It’s purposeful self-distraction with executive function,” Mischel said. “They have the goal in mind. They are actively inhibiting the responses. They are preventing hands from reaching out to take it.”

Another common strategy kids use is self-distancing. Mischel described one boy who picked up the bell he would use to call the researcher back into the room and slowly, very carefully, moved it to the edge of the table as far from him as possible. Other kids pretended the marshmallow was a picture, instead of real food, making it seem less attractive. Mischel even worked with “Sesame Street” on a Cookie Monster skit that would show young kids that it pays to wait.

While the original marshmallow test has come under fire for its small size and homogenous makeup (all the kids were either children of Stanford faculty or graduate students), Mischel has continued delayed gratification studies with students in the South Bronx with similar results. He said the keys are to keep the goal in mind, to suppress responses and to monitor progress toward the goal.

All humans have what Mischel calls a “hot system” and a “cool system,” both of which are crucially important. The hot system is where the fight-or-flight syndrome comes from. It is emotional, simple, stress-induced, reflexive, fast, centered in the amygdala and draws on the limbic system. It’s fundamental to survival and it develops early. When the hot system goes up, the cool system goes down. Mischel said most kids living in difficult situations are forced into using their “hot system” most of the time.

The cool system is cognitive, complex, reflective and slow. It is based in the frontal lobe and hippocampus and develops later. It is attenuated by stress and is crucial to self-control. The two systems work at opposite purposes, but both are important to survival and success.

When it comes to helping students delay gratification and thus work on self-control, Mischel said his experiments show “you have to cool the now and heat the later.” In other words, things that are immediate stimulate the hot system, but delayed gratification requires the cool system. So, when trying to get a student to see the benefit of working hard all the way through school so he or she can get into college, educators have to help students see that delayed reward as “hot.”

“The critical thing is to make delayed consequences more visible, more complete, more consequential and to make the immediate rewards less hot,” Mischel said. When kids are stressed out, it’s much more difficult for them to keep long-term goals in mind because they are constantly activating their “hot” or stress-induced system.

Mischel has personal experience with the strategies he recommends. He used to smoke three packs of cigarettes a day and often a pipe at night. He knew that smoking was bad for him, but that wasn’t enough to make the consequences feel real. One day he saw a man in the Stanford hospital getting ready for radiation. “That image is what allowed me to make the delayed consequences hot,” Mischel said. “Every time I reached for the cigarette, I remembered that image.” And he was able to quit smoking using that very personal image to help him delay gratification.

Mischel suggests that to help students develop self-control, educators could spend a little time helping kids identify their own hot spots and developing strategies to mediate them. For example, if a student knows that texts from friends distract him from homework, then he’ll turn off his phone when he’s trying to focus. It’s a pre-determined “if/then” plan based on specific trigger points. But to make that plan, students have to know what the “if” is.

“The research makes it very clear that the human brain is far more educable than previously thought,” Mischel said. He sees this kind of individual mapping as a key to developing emotional intelligence and ultimately as a route to much more freedom, choice and agency. Rather than having instinct drive decisions, kids can learn to make the decisions they believe will benefit them in the long term.

“We don’t want to train our children to be without hot emotionality, we just want them to be in control,” Mischel said.

Young people are actually getting better at delaying gratification and self-control, Mischel said. He points out that just as intelligence has been increasing over the past 60 years, so, too, have these other characteristics. He attributes the change to technology, and is particularly excited about video games, which he says require setting a goal, inhibiting interfering responses and using attention-control mechanisms to reach that goal.

“It may be a distraction from doing their arithmetic, but the games themselves can be enormously useful tools in enhancing executive function,” Mischel said.

Ultimately, he believes if educators can find productive ways to use his research in classrooms, they will also improve student motivation, which can’t be detached from the idea of student efficacy in meeting goals.

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8 Needs For Project-Based Learning In The 21st Century

8 Needs For Project-Based Learning In The 21st Century | Pedagogía & TIC |
by Terry Heick

We recently offered a definition of project-based learning, and looked at keys to designing Project-Based Learning. We also have looked at the difference between “doing projects” and project-based learning, various project-based learning resources, project-based learning apps, and offered ways for using an iPad in Project-Based Learning.

And have shared some practical ideas for better teaching through project-based learning as well.

What might be missing from these posts, however, are simply the characteristics of project-based learning in the 21st century. What does it look like? What might be evidence that it’s happening consistently? What needs to be built into every project–or the design of the requisite curriculum–so that students can shift from a mere “project” to a thoroughly modern learning experiences that runs parallel with the connected world they live in?

We tend to think of project-based learning as focused on research, planning problem-solving, authenticity, and inquiry. Further, collaboration, resourcefulness, and networking matter too–dozens of characteristics “fit” into project-based learning. Its popularity comes from, among other characteristics, its general flexibility as a curriculum framework. You can do, teach, assess, and connect almost anything within the context of a well-designed project.

But what if we had to settle on a handful (or two) of itemized characteristics for modern, connected, possibly place-based, and often digital project-based learning? Well, then the following might be useful.

8 Needs For Project-Based Learning In The 21st Century

1. Connectedness

Or connectivity. Interdependence–however you want to phrase it. The idea is, what does this project connect to? A community? A hope? An app? An existing project already in place? A social challenge? Some kind of conflict? Something downright unsolvable?

Through connectedness, students can then identify a proper to scale to work within. (In fact, “Scale” could well be an item of its own.)

2. Meaning

“Meaning” is always first personal, and then academic (if it becomes academic). This kind of meaning requires authentic audiences, purposes, and collaboration occur in real, intimate communities that share history, space, and meaning with learners.

3. Diversity

Diversity of purpose, scale, audience, digital media, potential resources, existing models, related projects, and so on require first an analysis of these kinds of diversities on the part of the project manager–that is, the student.

This can also be a matter of differentiation–less diversity and inherent complexity for students struggling with certain strands of project-based learning as a kind of set of training wheels until they get their balance. And when they do? Add it right back in.

4. Research

This one’s not sexy or compelling–this is a big part of the “work” of any project.

Researching the history of an issue or problem. Understanding the subtleties of given demographic data. Analyzing the credibility of information. Seeing how technology can serve or distract you (or rather, them) from the meat of the issue. This kind of knowledge helps you turn a problem into an opportunity.

5. A Necessity For Creativity & Innovation

Among other themes, the 21st century is about niches, innovation, and scale–seeing an opportunity, and designing something that works on a given–and clear–scale.

Too often, however, creativity is encouraged without being required. Points are given and a column is added to the rubric and teachers ask for it explicitly, but designing a project–or helping students design their own project–that fails without creativity is another thing altogether.

Lateral thinking, outside the box thinking, and taking the best from existing models are all part of 21st century learning.

6. Pivot Points

Perhaps the most modern of characteristics is the ability to be agile–to pivot as circumstances, data, and needs change. The world changes quickly, and the ability to adapt is an extraordinary sign of strength. Pivoting to a new digital media, audience, programming language, timeframe, purpose, or other parameter is crucial for 21st century survival.

Designing a kit that helps test water quality for third-world communities, but find instead a way to use Google Maps to help certain communities share water cleaning technology instead? Pivot.

Building an app to help people find restaurants, but find out people use it more to set up lunch dates with friends? Pivot.

Trying to build an art museum, and find an incredible source of collectible books instead? Pivot.

When students can “pivot” within the development of a project, it shows they’re able to see both the micro details and the macro context–which is a pretty remarkable assessment in and of itself.

7. Socialization

The socialization of thinking by connecting, collaborating, publishing, and socially curating (see more on that below). Ideally this would be done in multiple media forms and in multiple languages if possible. The English and Angle-centric image of education–and of edtech especially–is rapidly coming to a close.

Not all aspects of all projects need to be socialized, but for the sake of transparency and shared journeys in education, choosing something to share, socialize, and perhaps even collaborate on in the future can be powerful.

8. Elegant Curation

Crude curation is saving an email, favoriting a tweet, or pinning randomly to a board no one reads that students will never reference again in the future for anything.

Elegant curation is about saving a “thing” while honoring the thing itself. Showcasing it without losing its meaning or fullness. Somehow capturing both that which is being saved and its context as well–and doing so in a way that makes it accessible to yourself and others as technology continues to change. Not easy.

8 Needs For Project-Based Learning In The 21st Century; image attribution flickr user vancouverfilmschool
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Emerging Source Citation Index. Revistas científicas en estado de "emergencia"

Emerging Source Citation Index. Revistas científicas en estado de "emergencia" | Pedagogía & TIC |
Relanzamos este post, con los datos actualizados extraídos del Master List de Web of Science en fecha del 6/12/2015, pensando especialmente en los profesores que tienen que acreditar la calidad de sus revistas en el proceso de sexenios que comienza mañana.

Thomson Reuters lanza un nuevo órdago a la mesa. Si hace un año aumentaba la cobertura de Web of Science con las revistas de Scielo e incluía la base de datos Scielo Citation Index, ahora, crea un nuevo producto, Emerging Source Citation Index, que vió la luz en Noviembre. Emerging Source Citation Index (ESCI) consiste en una base de datos dónde están todas las revistas que en la práctica están siendo evaluadas para entrar a formar parte de las bases de datos de Web of Science Core Collections (Science Citation Index, Social Science Citation Index y Arts & Humanities Citation Index). Por tanto no estamos realmente ante un nuevo producto, sino ante la explotación pública de la base de datos que utilizaban los analistas de Web of Science para realizar el seguimiento de aquellas revistas que optaban a entrar en los productos de evaluación de revistas más exigentes (Core Collections). Esto añade transparencia al proceso y hace públicas las métricas de estas revistas. Thomson se postula como el producto de evaluación de revistas con un mayor número de cabeceras.

Emerging Source Citation Index empieza con 2400 revistas de 82 países, lo que amplía mucho la cobertura, en un claro ejemplo del interés de Thomson Reuters por mejorar la presencia de áreas sub-representadas en el producto. No obstante, los cinco países con mayor presencia en ESCI son anglosajones (Inglaterra, USA, Canadá, Países Bajos e Italia). La presencia Iberoamericana en el producto es secundaria, y sin embargo, porcentualmente es el producto de Thomson Reuters, si obviamente descartamos Scielo Citation Index, donde nuestras revistas tienen una mayor presencia. En presencia se sitúa España la sexta con 165 revistas y Brasil la octava con 81.

Tabla 1. Distribución de Revistas en Emerging Source Citation Index (06/12/2015) por Países

Como primicia, y puesto que la Master List de Web of Science no permiten analizar las revistas por países, adjunto el listado de revistas en un Éxcel.

Ahora, Emerging Source Citation Index plantea varias preguntas importantes.

¿Cuánto tiempo estará una revista en esta base de datos hasta que suba al paraíso del JCR o por el contrario sea expulsada al infierno de la mediocridad? ¿Un año? ¿Dos años?
Al estar ESCI en Web of Science Core Collection, ¿las citas emitidas por las revistas de ESCI contarán para el Impact Factor de las revistas en JCR?
¿Conseguirán las revistas españolas que han sido indexadas en esta base de datos algún tipo de ayuda por parte de las autoridades educativas y científicas españolas que les permita consolidarse y competir con revistas que sí poseen recursos económicos?
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Cómo incorporar las TIC en la educación

Recientes estudios de la OCDE y la Unesco muestran que existe un alto impacto del uso de las TIC (Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación) en la calidad de la educación. Otros, por el contrario, presentan una baja correlación entre el uso de las TIC y el desempeño en las pruebas de áreas básicas

Ante estas dos posturas, cabe preguntarse cómo se puede potenciar el valor de las TIC para apoyar la calidad de la educación. También cuáles son los factores que aún no han sido explorados al respecto

De las pesquisas recientes de la OCDE y de la Unesco, se podría inferir que para fortalecer la calidad de la educación a través de las TIC se requiere considerar elementos adicionales más allá de la simple infraestructura.

Resulta fundamental resaltar que ninguna herramienta genera impacto por sí sola. De hecho, el resultado puede ser todo lo contrario si es utilizada de forma inadecuada o sin un propósito claro. Puede incluso menoscabar el propósito inicial de su introducción en cualquier sistema.

Al revisar las actividades en que los estudiantes emplean las TIC, se entiende por qué la herramienta no está generando una transformación.  Se utilizan para navegar por Internet sin un propósito claro, para copiar y pegar información. Así, los estudiantes no generan competencias contundentes, como asegura la OCDE.

El ideal a alcanzar debería ser que las competencias en áreas básicas del conocimiento se fortalezcan a través de las TIC. Para ello debe haber un acompañamiento, por un lado, desde el desarrollo profesional docente y, por otro, de los contenidos relevantes y de calidad. Estos deben generar interés en los estudiantes, visualizar de forma amena los conceptos, motivar la resolución de problemas en la vida diaria, fomentar la creatividad, promover el trabajo colaborativo y convertir en accesible la educación a toda la población, entre otras.

El problema es que se ha partido de concepciones inadecuadas: la creencia de que los estudiantes, al ser nativos digitales, saben cómo usar las TIC en su beneficio de manera innata.

El maestro debe cobrar un valor único y esencial, como guía y tutor de sus estudiantes hacia el conocimiento y fortalecerlo a través de las TIC, tanto en el aula de clase, como fuera de ella.

Para que no fallezca en el intento, los modelos de formación que recibe deben simular su contexto real y resolver las problemáticas que se le presentan más a menudo. También es imprescindible tener un alto componente de práctica y uso, monitorear su avance y acompañar su gestión en el aula de clases. Esto al menos al inicio, lo que requiere de tiempo y dedicación, gestión similar a la realizada por Computadores para Educar que ha mostrado impactos contundentes en la calidad de la educación.

Sin embargo, en algunos casos, la formación de maestros ha tendido a ser breve y se limita al manejo básico de una herramienta en particular, desperdiciándose su capacidad de transformación.  

La conclusión es que las TIC por si solas no pueden generar impactos en la calidad de la educación. Sólo si se fortalecen los conocimientos básicos de las áreas disciplinares, se cuenta con una formación profesional docente pertinente, se tienen contenidos adaptativos e involucrados en el área disciplinar y se aprovecha el tiempo que los estudiantes dedican en su casa a estudiar, se van a generar impactos cuantificables en la calidad de las educación.

En definitiva, no es posible desarrollar competencias para los profesionales de mañana, con las tecnologías de hoy y las prácticas pedagógicas de ayer.

*Consultora en Apropiación TIC para el Desarrollo y el Fortalecimiento de la Educación
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Los pasos gigantes de los MOOC

¿Quiere saber por qué razón los gatos se asustan con pepinos? ¿Quién mató a Kennedy? ¿Los gringos fueron los primeros en llegar a la luna? ¿Cómo me convierto en Súper Sayayin? ¿Por qué mi pez duerme mucho? Estas son las preguntas que hacen los usuarios de internet a plataformas como Yahoo. Las respuestas a veces tienden más hacia la conspiración y la ridiculez que a la realidad. Pero internet no es únicamente viralidad y estupidez. Hay plataformas que no solo generan conocimientos valiosos, sino que además forman al cibernavegante.

Un ejemplo son los cursos virtuales que dictan plataformas como MiriadaX, Coursera, Edx, Udacity, Futurelearn, Khan Academy, entre otras. Iniciativas que brindan conocimiento a quien esté interesado de manera gratuita, excepto si quiere tener un diploma, lo cual implica un costo.

En su mayoría, estas plataformas tienen su origen en la iniciativa de grandes universidades como Harvard o MIT, que empezaron a masificar la educación. Personas de todo el mundo pueden escuchar, ver, leer y aprender de buenos profesores y especialistas en temas que van desde neurociencia, filología inglesa, hasta cómo pasar los exámenes IELTS o el TOEFL.

El atractivo es mayúsculo porque son contenidos gratis y de calidad. Por tal motivo, SEMANA Educación presenta las cifras de crecimiento de las más grandes plataformas de MOOC, ¿Cuántos estudiantes tiene cada una? ¿Cuánto cuesta el diploma? ¿Cuándo nacieron? ¿Quiénes las fundaron? ¿Cuál es el número de instituciones que participan en cada una?



Año de creación: Octubre de 2011

Fundadores: Daphne Koller y Andrew NG

Director o vocero: Rick Levin

Inscritos al comienzo: 1’700.000

Inscritos actualmente: 16’117.640

Universidades / instituciones: 136

Cursos: 1471

Costo diploma: 39 Usd (en promedio por curso) 444 USD aproximadamente (Coursera ofrece especializaciones, que consisten en tomar varios cursos sobre una misma temática. Son los más costosos).
_ _


Año de creación: 2012

Fundadores: Universidad de Harvard y el Instituto Tecnológico de Massachusetts  (MIT)

Director o vocero: Anant Agarwal (CEO)

Inscritos al comienzo: 370.000 en el otoño de 2012

Inscritos actualmente: 2’000.000

Universidades / instituciones: 44

Cursos: 744

Costo diploma: $49  USD (en promedio por curso) - $149 USD el más costoso.
_ _


Año de creación: 2013

Fundadores: Banco Santander y Telefónica

Director o vocero: Yuma Inzolia (Gerente de la Factoría de contenidos de Telefónica Learning Services)
Inscritos al comienzo: N/A

Inscritos actualmente: 1’700.000

Universidades / instituciones: 64

Cursos: 338

Costo diploma: 40 Euros
_ _

Año de creación: 2006

Fundador y director: Sal Khan

Inscritos al comienzo: N/A

Inscritos actualmente: 34’061.284

Universidades / instituciones: N/A

Cursos: N/A

Costo diploma: N/A

_ _

Año de creación: 2012 
Fundadores: The Open University (Inglaterra)

Inscritos al comienzo: N/A

Inscritos actualmente: 2’660.831

Universidades / instituciones: 75

Cursos: 90

Costo diploma: 40 Euros
_ _

Año de creación: 2011

Fundadores: Sebastian Thrun y Peter Norvig (Stanford University)

Director o vocero: Sebastian Thrun (CEO, Co-fundador).

Inscritos al comienzo: 160.000

Inscritos actualmente: No hay una cifra exacta

Universidades / instituciones: 19

Cursos: 117

Costo diploma: $200 USD


Usted, lector ¿pagaría por un diploma de una Mooc?
Deje sus comentarios en nuestro twitter @SemanaEd y @simongrma.

Revista digital Semana Educación

Este artículo forma parte de la última edición de la revista digital Semana Educación.Si quiere informarse más sobre este tema y otros relacionados con la educación siga este link.
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Escuelas por internet, ¿peores que las tradicionales?

Escuelas por internet, ¿peores que las tradicionales? | Pedagogía & TIC |
Son cada vez más populares en los Estados Unidos y sus defensores dicen que están permitiendo "regenerar" la educación tradicional. Se trata de las llamas "escuelas chárter", que utilizan internet como principal herramienta.

El sector de la tecnología educativa ha presionado para llevar la alta tecnología a estos centros educativos que se financian a través de fondos públicos independientes.
Y el resultado son aulas virtuales en las que se combina la autonomía de este tipo de escuelas con la flexibilidad de la internet.

Sin embargo, una investigación a gran escala, que analizó 17 estados del país con este tipo de colegios, asegura que "el rendimiento académico es significativamente más bajo en matemáticas y en lectura" en estas aulas virtuales, en comparación con el de las escuelas convencionales.

Además, el National Study of Online Charter Schools (investigación nacional sobre escuelas chárter por internet), el primer gran estudio sobre este fenómeno, asegura que el aprendizaje de los alumnos "no es tan efectivo" con este sistema. ¿Cuáles son los motivos?

Aturdimiento digital

Según el estudio, desarrollado por la Universidad de Washington, la Stanford University y la Mathematica Policy Research, los alumnos que aprenden en aulas virtuales se rechasan mucho con respecto a sus homólogos que van a clase.

En matemáticas, el resultado es el mismo que si los niños hubieran perdido un año entero de colegio.
Las escuelas por internet son relativamente pequeñas en número de alumnos.
Aún así, la idea de la educación virtual ha crecido muy rápidamente, y se considera una potencial alternativa a los colegios convencionales.

Hoy en día hay cerca de 200.000 alumnos registrados en escuelas chárter online en EE.UU, de acuerdo con la investigación. Y, entre 2012 y 2013, había cerca de 65.000.

Los estudiantes no pagan gastos de matrícula, y las escuelas cuentan con subsidios de financiación anuales de US$6.000 por alumno que suponen, en total, US$39 millones de gasto público. Las escuelas online no tienen límites físicos y pueden crecer rápidamente.

De hecho, una escuela en Pensilvania llegó a matricular a más de 10.000 alumnos a jornada completa.
Estas escuelas por internet, también conocidas como "virtuales" o "cibernéticas" se definen por un sistema en el que casi todo se enseña por internet.

No funcionan como clases adicionales a aquellas con maestro y pizarra, sino como una alternativa para no atender a las clases presenciales.
Sin embargo, las nuevas conclusiones sobre su bajo rendimiento cuestionan este sistema de aprendizaje.

Menos tiempo con el profesor

El estudio averiguó, quizá como era de esperarse, que había mucho menos contacto con los profesores en los colegios virtuales.

Los alumnos que van a la escuela de pupitres y ladrillos pasan, de media, el mismo tiempo con el profesor a diario que los que asisten a la "escuela virtual" pasan en una semana.

Las escuelas por internet confían mucho más en que los estudiantes gestionen su propio aprendizaje y determinen el ritmo al que avanzan.

Pero el mayor problema que identificaron los investigadores fue la dificultad a la hora de que los alumnos se concentren en su trabajo.

"Las dificultades a la hora de mantener la participación estudiantil son inherentes a la enseñanza online", le contó Brian Gill, coautor del informe, a Sean Coughlan, corresponsal en asuntos de educación de la BBC.

"Y se ven agravadas por la desproporción entre estudiantes y maestros, y por el poco tiempo de contacto entre éstos que, según las estadísticas, es habitual en las escuelas chárter por internet", agregó Gill.

Los investigadores compararon el desempeño de los alumnos en las escuelas virtuales con el de los estudiantes de escuelas convencionales, según su género, etnia, y niveles de salud y pobreza.

La mayor diferencia con respecto a las aulas tradicionales es el alto y desproporcionado número de estudiantes blancos.

Además, los investigadores descubrieron que tan sólo un 2% de alumnos de escuelas cibernéticas superaban a sus homólogos de aulas convencionales en lectura.
Por el contrario, en matemáticas ninguna escuela online era mejor; de hecho, un 88% eran "significativamente peores".

Hallazgos "sombríos"

James Woodworth, del Centro de Stanford para la Investigación de Resultados en Educación (CREDO, por sus siglas en inglés), describió los hallazgos como "sombríos" y dijo que "servirán como prueba ante los debates sobre el papel de las escuelas online en el futuro".

El Centro para la Reinvención de la Educación Pública de la Universidad de Washington sugirió que estas conclusiones "demuestran la necesidad de una mejor regulación de estas escuelas".

El director del centro, Robin Lake, le contó a la BBC que "necesitamos políticas que aborden las preocupaciones, sin restringir innecesariamente su crecimiento".

¿Cuáles deberían ser las normas de admisión para escuelas virtuales? ¿Cómo inspeccionar los estándares de calidad? Son algunas de las preguntas.

Fuentes de la Asociación Nacional de Escuelas Chárter Públicas aseguraron que se sienten "descorazonados" ante "el bajo rendimiento"

Nina Rees, presidenta del organismo, dice que las escuelas chárter que "suspendan" deberían cerrarse.

No obstante, destacó que el estudio tan sólo investigó a aquellas escuelas que ofrecen clases a jornada completa, y que hay muchos ejemplos exitosos de la denominada enseñanza "combinada", que incluye clases tanto virtuales como presenciales.

La investigación también puso de relieve que las escuelas online podrían ser ventajosas para estudiantes de zonas rurales con opciones limitadas y para aquellos que tengan problemas de salud.
También dijo que este sistema educativo podría ser beneficioso para las familias que viajen por el país y para aquellos que, por cualquier otro motivo, no "encajen" en los colegios tradicionales.

Connections Academy, empresa proveedora de este tipo de enseñanza, dijo que las estadísticas deberían tener en cuenta "el carácter distintivo de la instrucción y la población que proporcionan las escuelas públicas online".

La academia pidió una "dirección productiva" para encontrar la manera de fortalecer las escuelas virtuales.

Porque, tal y como explica, "esta forma de educación es escogida por un número creciente de familias estadounidenses"
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Más allá del laberint conceptual: La noción de la calidad en la educación

Juan Carlos López Garcías insight:

El debate sobre la calidad de la educación suele perder nitidez por la falta de claridad y de una concepción común de lo que quiere decir realmente el término “calidad”. Tal vez se deba a que la calidad en la educación, más que un concepto operacional, es una noción cuya comprensión requiere cierta intuición. Por tanto, no existe una única definición o una sola manera de abordarlo, sino diversas conceptualizaciones posibles y múltiples enfoques, basados en hipótesis muy divergentes. En el presente documento se propone hacer balance de algunas de las conceptualizaciones de la noción de calidad de la educación, así como de los posibles enfoques analíticos y de sus hipótesis subyacentes. Es una tarea esencial para el apoyo que la UNESCO presta a los Estados Miembros, ya que la noción de calidad enmarca los esfuerzos de la Organización en favor del desarrollo de la educación en el mundo. Aunque el documento se centra en los conceptos formulados en el marco del seguimiento de los progresos hacia los objetivos de la Educación para Todos (EPT), también hace referencia a otros enfoques propuestos para comprender y examinar mejor la calidad del aprendizaje y los resultados de los sistemas educativos. En el examen de estos, el documento propone tres categorías de marcos que podrían denominarse: i) el enfoque centrado en el alumno, ii) el enfoque aportacionesproceso-productos, y iii) el enfoque basado en la interacción social multidimensional. La finalidad del presente estudio no es proponer un nuevo modelo de conceptualización la calidad en la educación, sino encontrar un camino para guiarse por el laberinto conceptual examinando toda la gama de enfoques existentes.


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El diseño del pensamiento

El diseño del pensamiento | Pedagogía & TIC |
Programar parecía ser un asunto de currículo escolar o planeación estratégica. Pero, en el siglo XXI significa habitar el lenguaje, hablar de las tecnologías, encontrar las posibilidades narrativas y estéticas del nuevo mundo; contar en el mundo de las culturas digitales.
Wittgenstein dijo que "habitamos la casa del lenguaje" y hoy el lenguaje es la programación. Programar significa en televisión poner un programa después del otro. En la vida del mercado se traduce a planificar para ahorrar tiempos, ganar eficiencia y productividad. En la escuela es diseñar las secuencias de aprendizajes. Y en la vida implica renunciar a las libertades para ganar seguridades.

Uno nace y lo programan para ser alguien. En la educación lo programan para obedecer, a aprender de memoria y a ser productivo para la sociedad. Las relaciones de poder lo programan para obedecer (los pobres) y mandar (los ricos).

La industria del entretenimiento lo lleva a uno a programar los goces y las felicidades llamadas vacaciones, parques temáticos, conciertos, eventos. Uno es el dueño de su felicidad programada.

El mercado es programar ganancias, minimizar gastos, exhibir resultados. Somos los sujetos programados y lo hacemos felices porque no habitamos el lenguaje: la programación.

"Programar es ser libres y pensar con la propia cabeza"
Programar en las culturas digitales da cuenta de la creación "electrónica" del mensaje; de hablar, de escribir y de crear en un lenguaje. Intervenir las máquinas, profundizar las pantallas, atravesar las visualidades. Programar en lo digital significa, sobre todo, proyectar-diseñar los modos de pensar, las lógicas de narración y reflexión, las estéticas de la vida contemporánea.

Y es que si no hablamos el lenguaje, no podemos crear, ni expresarnos ni intervenir el mundo. Por ahora habitamos la fe en las pantallas; nos dicen que hay que seguir la lógica Mac o Microsoft y la seguimos. Nos dicen que hay que jugar con las aplicaciones diseñadas, y jugamos. Pensamos que la tecnología es neutra, y no, es ideológica (crea mundos de vida) y es lógica (diseña modos de pensar y narrar).

Narramos y pensamos como las tecnologías que usamos. Ellas nos dirigen, nos formatean los modos de narrar y pensar. Uno termina pensando como Google: buscamos con sus algoritmos, compramos como Amazon o Netflix, ellos saben lo que nos gusta. Somos rebeldes de YouTube, curadores de Instagram, subjetividades de Facebook. Lo paradójico es que nos sentimos libres de ser como queremos ser, solo que somos como los programas (sus recorridos, sus inter-relaciones, sus conexiones) que usamos. Somos creyentes de aparatos "dioses" y nuestra fe está en creer en que somos libres cuando estamos siendo formateados por su software.

Lo peor es que pensamos que eso es neutro y no. Somos pensamiento Mac (seguimos sus lógicas de diseño), somos burocracia Microsoft (seguimos su exceso de fórmulas y pasos), somos emoción Facebook (seguimos sus exhibicionismos del yo), somos irreverencia Youtube (toda libertad se diluye en menos de tres minutos). No estamos en tecnologías, somos su programación, su relato, su algoritmo de pensar, buscar, crear, imaginar. Somos los esclavos de los programadores negociantes.

Entonces nos queda solo un único camino, o aprendemos a programar para habitar el lenguaje digital y crear nuestros propios mensajes, relatos, imágenes, subjetividades... o seremos esclavos de la programación de otros. Solo si aprendemos a programar, sabremos intervenir las máquinas digitales para disputarle sus lógicas y ensoñaciones. Aprender el lenguaje (programar) es el comienzo de la liberación de las mentes.

Y el más radical es practicar la cultura libre, esa del creative commons, esa del software libre. Esta cultura libre nos obliga a crear nuestros propios destinos y a hacerlo de manera colaborativa; buscando ser más los colectivos creativos y menos los súbditos individualizados. La cultura libre nos saca de aquella (cultura) de comprar licencias y lógicas, nos invita a compartir lo que sabemos (porque lo que sabemos, lo sabemos entre todos), y nos hace habitantes de experiencias donde más que pagar por consumir, creamos para innovar y crear.

Programar hoy es habitar la cultura libre. Y ésta dice así en su manifiesto (

Promovemos el uso de licencias libres. Somos una nueva idea, un ambicioso proyecto que aspira a servir de herramienta y estímulo para todos aquellos creadores que trabajan bajo nuevos códigos y que desean controlar al máximo la forma y el modo en que difunden su obra.
El Copyright no nos sirve. Nuestro campo de batalla es la cultura y la creación en un sentido amplio.
Frank Zappa captó el mensaje: "Arrebatad el poder a los viejos", dijo. Por esa misma razón rechazamos un modelo obsoleto, unas entidades de gestión de los derechos de autor llenas de "viejos" (viejas ideas, viejas prácticas, viejos negocios).
Más que una gestión más racional de los derechos de autor, a lo que hay que tender es a nuevos modelos.
Es posible ganarse la vida éticamente sin empañar el sueño, con menos intermediarios, con nuevas licencias y, por supuesto, sin "representantes forzosos" de los artistas.
Cada día hay más y más gente aplicando nuevas tecnologías y estrategias para difundir su obra.
Saludamos a nuestros aliados. Su soledad es ahora una multitud de voces: Zemos98,, el Festival BccN de cine, el documental en desarrollo, los programas de radio Intangible23 o comunes, Bookcamping, Traficantes de Sueños y tantos otros. Seguid así: Stéphane M. Grueso, Belén Gopegui, los autores que han participado en el libro colectivo Creative Commons "CT o la Cultura de la Transición", proyectos como la Fundación Robo, grupos musicales como Pony Bravo, Kerobia o Lisabö. Os leemos. Os escuchamos. Os imitamos. Nos inspiráis.
No al canon. Cada día, fluyen correos electrónicos en la Red, llegan faxes a algunos despachos, hay llamadas que exigen que no recauden por lo que no les pertenece.
Una remuneración justa a las personas que crean, posibilitando el libre acceso a sus obras si no hay ánimo de lucro (licencias libres = nuevas mentalidades en los procesos creativos). Al mismo tiempo, es importante el libre acceso a la cultura y el conocimiento.
No podemos aguantar las ganas de remover todo, de crear debate, de repensarlo todo.
Paradoxical end. Programamos y hablamos el lenguaje de la cultura digital; o seguiremos siendo los súbditos de una fe en el billete llamada Microsoft, Apple, Propiedad intelectual. Programar es ser libres y pensar con la propia cabeza.
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Community of practice

Community of practice

A community of practice ( CoP) is a group of people who share a craft and/or a profession. The concept was first proposed by cognitive anthropologists Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger in 1991. CoPs can evolve naturally because of the members' common interest in a particular domain or area, or it can be created specifically with the goal of gaining knowledge related to their field.

A community of practice (CoP) is a group of people who share a craft and/or a profession. The concept was first proposed by cognitive anthropologists Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger in 1991. CoPs can evolve naturally because of the members' common interest in a particular domain or area, or it can be created specifically with the goal of gaining knowledge related to their field. It is through the process of sharing information and experiences with the group that the members learn from each other, and have an opportunity to develop themselves personally and professionally (Lave & Wenger 1991).

CoPs can exist in physical settings, for example, a lunch room at work, a field setting, a factory floor, or elsewhere in the environment, but members of CoPs do not have to be co-located. They form a “virtual community of practice” (VCoP) (e.g. Dubé et al. 2005) when they collaborate online, such as within discussion boards and newsgroups, or a ‘‘mobile community of practice’’ (MCoP) (Kietzmann et al. 2013) when members communicate with one another via mobile phones and participate in community work on the go.

Communities of practice are not new phenomena: this type of learning practice has existed for as long as people have been learning and sharing their experiences through storytelling. The idea is rooted in American pragmatism, especially C.S. Pierce's concept of "the community of inquiry" (Shields 2003), but also John Dewey's principle of learning through occupation (Wallace 2007). Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger coined the phrase in their 1991 book, 'Situated learning' (Lave & Wenger 1991), and Wenger then significantly expanded on the concept in his 1998 book, 'Communities of Practice' (Wenger 1998).

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Origin and development
Early years
Later years
Present work
Communities of practice compared to functional or project teams
Communities of Practice versus Communities of Interest
Communities of practice and knowledge management
Social capital
Factors of a successful community of practice
Individuals in communities of practice
Social presence
Actions to cultivate a successful community of practice
See also
Further reading
External links
Overview Edit

Origin and development Edit
Since the publication of "Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation" (Lave & Wenger 1991), communities of practice have been the focus of attention, first as a theory of learning and later as part of the field of knowledge management. See Hildreth & Kimble (2004) for a review of how the concept has changed over the years. Cox (2005) offers a more critical view of the different ways in which the term communities of practice can be interpreted.

Early years Edit
To understand how learning occurs outside the classroom while at the Institute for Research on Learning, Lave and Wenger studied how newcomers or novices to informal groups become established members of those groups (Lave & Wenger 1991). Lave and Wenger first used the term communities of practice to describe learning through practice and participation, which they named situated learning.

The structure of the community was created over time through a process of legitimate peripheral participation. Legitimation and participation together define the characteristic ways of belonging to a community whereas peripherality and participation are concerned with location and identity in the social world (Lave & Wenger 1991, p. 29).

Lave and Wenger's research looked at how apprenticeships help people learn. They found that when newcomers join an established group or community, they spend some time initially observing and perhaps performing simple tasks in basic roles as they learn how the group works and how they can participate (an apprentice electrician, for example would watch and learn before actually doing any electrical work; initially taking on small simple jobs and eventually more complicated ones). Lave and Wenger described this socialization process as legitimate peripheral participation. The term "community of practice" is that group that Lave and Wenger referred to, who share a common interest and a desire to learn from and contribute to the community with their variety of experiences (Lave & Wenger 1991).

Later years Edit
In his later work, Wenger (1998) abandoned the concept of legitimate peripheral participation and used the idea of an inherent tension in a duality instead. He identifies four dualities that exist in communities of practice, participation-reification, designed-emergent, identification-negotiability and local-global, although the participation-reification duality has been the focus of particular interest because of its links to knowledge management.

He describes the structure of a CoP as consisting of three interrelated terms: 'mutual engagement', 'joint enterprise' and 'shared repertoire' (Wenger 1998, pp. 72–73).

Mutual Engagement: Firstly, through participation in the community, members establish norms and build collaborative relationships; this is termed mutual engagement. These relationships are the ties that bind the members of the community together as a social entity.
Joint Enterprise: Secondly, through their interactions, they create a shared understanding of what binds them together; this is termed the joint enterprise. The joint enterprise is (re)negotiated by its members and is sometimes referred to as the 'domain' of the community.
Shared Repertoire: Finally, as part of its practice, the community produces a set of communal resources, which is termed their shared repertoire; this is used in the pursuit of their joint enterprise and can include both literal and symbolic meanings.
Present work Edit
For Etienne Wenger, learning is central to human identity. A primary focus of Wenger’s more recent work is on learning as social participation – the individual as an active participant in the practices of social communities, and in the construction of his/her identity through these communities (Wenger et al. 2002). In this context, a community of practice is a group of individuals participating in communal activity, and experiencing/continuously creating their shared identity through engaging in and contributing to the practices of their communities.

The structural characteristics of a community of practice are again redefined to a domain of knowledge, a notion of community and a practice.

A domain of knowledge creates common ground, inspires members to participate, guides their learning and gives meaning to their actions.
The notion of a community creates the social fabric for that learning. A strong community fosters interactions and encourages a willingness to share ideas.
While the domain provides the general area of interest for the community, the practice is the specific focus around which the community develops, shares and maintains its core of knowledge.
In many organizations, communities of practice have become an integral part of the organization structure (McDermott & Archibald 2010). These communities take on knowledge stewarding tasks that were formerly covered by more formal organizational structures. In some organizations there are both formal and informal communities of practice. There is a great deal of interest within organizations to encourage, support, and sponsor communities of practice in order to benefit from shared knowledge that may lead to higher productivity (Wenger 2004). Communities of practice are now viewed by many in the business setting as a means to capturing the tacit knowledge, or the know-how that is not so easily articulated.

An important aspect and function of communities of practice is increasing organization performance. Lesser & Storck (2001, p. 836) identify four areas of organizational performance that can be affected by communities of practice:

Decreasing the learning curve of new employees
Responding more rapidly to customer needs and inquiries
Reducing rework and preventing "reinvention of the wheel"
Spawning new ideas for products and services
Examples Edit

The communities Lave and Wenger studied were naturally forming as practitioners of craft and skill-based activities met to share experiences and insights (Lave & Wenger 1991).

Lave and Wenger observed situated learning within a community of practice among Yucatán midwives, Liberian tailors, navy quartermasters and meat cutters (Lave & Wenger 1991) as well as insurance claims processors. (Wenger 1998). Other fields have made use of the concept of CoPs. Examples include education (Grossman 2001), sociolinguistics, material anthropology, second language acquisition (Kimble, Hildreth & Bourdon 2008), Parliamentary Budget Offices (Chohan 2013), and child mental health practice (AMBIT).

A famous example of a community of practice within an organization is that which developed around the Xerox customer service representatives who repaired the machines in the field (Brown & Duguid 2000). The Xerox reps began exchanging tips and tricks over informal meetings over breakfast or lunch and eventually Xerox saw the value of these interactions and created the Eureka project to allow these interactions to be shared across the global network of representatives. The Eureka database has been estimated to have saved the corporation $100 million.

Communities of practice compared to functional or project teams Edit
Collaboration constellations differ in various ways. Some are under organizational control (e.g., teams, see below) others, like CoPs, are self-organized or under the control of individuals. For examples of how these and other collaboration types vary in terms of their temporal or boundary focus and the basis of their members’ relationships, see Kietzmann et al. (Kietzmann et al. 2013).

A project team differs from a community of practice in several significant ways (McDermott, 1999).

A project team is driven by deliverables with shared goals, milestones and results.
A project team meets to share and exchange information and experiences just as the community of practice does, but team membership is defined by task.
A project team typically has designated members who remain consistent in their roles during the project.
A project team is dissolved once its mission is accomplished.
By contrast,

A community of practice is often organically created, with as many objectives as members of that community.
Community membership is defined by the knowledge of the members. CoP membership changes and members may take on new roles within the community as interests and needs arise.
A community of practice can exist as long as the members believe they have something to contribute to it, or gain from it.
Communities of Practice versus Communities of Interest Edit
In addition to the distinction between CoP and other types of organizational groupings found in the workplace, in some cases it is useful to differentiate CoP from Communities of Interest (CoI).

Community of Interest

A group of people interested in sharing information and discussing a particular topic that interests them.
Members are not necessarily experts or practitioners of the topic around which the CoI has formed.
The purpose of the CoI is to provide a place where people who share a common interest can go and exchange information, ask questions, and express their opinions about the topic.
Membership in a CoI is not dependent upon expertise - one only needs to be interested in the subject.
Community of Practice

A CoP, in contrast, is a group of people who are active practitioners.
CoP participation is not appropriate for non-practitioners.
The purpose of a CoP, as discussed above, is to provide a way for practitioners to share tips and best practices, ask questions of their colleagues, and provide support for each other.
Membership is dependent on expertise - one should have at least some recent experience performing in the role or subject area of the CoP.
Example: Someone who is interested in photography and has some background/training in it finds an online CoP for working photojournalists, who use it to discuss various aspects of their work. Since this community is focused on working photojournalists, it would not be appropriate for an amateur photographer to contribute to the CoP discussions there. Depending on the CoPs structure non-CoP members may have access to reading the discussions and accessing other materials of the community.
Communities of practice and knowledge management Edit
Wasko and Faraj (2000) describe three kinds of knowledge: "knowledge as object", "knowledge embedded within individuals", and "knowledge embedded in a community". Communities of Practice have become associated with finding, sharing, transferring, and archiving knowledge, as well as making explicit "expertise", or tacit knowledge. Tacit knowledge is considered to be those valuable context-based experiences that cannot easily be captured, codified and stored (Davenport & Prusak 2000), also (Hildreth & Kimble 2002).

Because knowledge management is seen "primarily as a problem of capturing, organizing, and retrieving information, evoking notions of databases, documents, query languages, and data mining" (Thomas, Kellogg & Erickson 2001), the community of practice, collectively and individually, is considered a rich potential source of helpful information in the form of actual experiences; in other words, best practices.

Thus, for knowledge management, a community of practice is one source of content and context that if codified, documented and archived can be accessed for later use.

Benefit Edit

Social capital Edit
Social capital is said to be a multi-dimensional concept, with both public and private facets (Bourdieu 1991). That is, social capital may provide value to both the individual and the group as a whole. Through informal connections that participants build in their community of practice, and in the process of sharing their expertise, learning from others, and participating in the group, members are said to be acquiring social capital - especially those members who demonstrate expertise and experience.

Factors of a successful community of practice Edit

Individuals in communities of practice Edit
Members of communities of practice are thought to be more efficient and effective conduits of information and experiences. While organizations tend to provide manuals to meet the training needs of their employees, CoPs help foster the process of storytelling among colleagues which, in turn, helps them strengthen their skills on the job. (Seely Brown & Duguid 1991)

Studies have shown that workers spend a third of their time looking for information and are five times more likely to turn to a co-worker rather than an explicit source of information (book, manual, or database) (Davenport & Prusak 2000). Time is saved by conferring with members of a CoP. Members of the community have tacit knowledge, which can be difficult to store and retrieve outside. For example, one person can share the best way to handle a situation based on his experiences, which may enable the other person to avoid mistakes and shorten the learning curve. In a CoP, members can openly discuss and brainstorm about a project, which can lead to new capabilities. The type of information that is shared and learned in a CoP is boundless (Dalkir 2005). Duguid (2005) clarifies the difference between tacit knowledge, or knowing how, and explicit knowledge, or knowing what. Performing optimally in a job requires being able to convert theory into practice. Communities of practice help the individual bridge the gap between knowing what and knowing how. (Duguid 2005)

As members of communities of practice, individuals report increased communication with people (professionals, interested parties, hobbyists), less dependence on geographic proximity, and the generation of new knowledge. (Ardichvilli, Page & Wentling 2003)

Social presence Edit
Communicating with others in a community of practice involves creating social presence. Tu (2002) defines social presence as "the degree of salience of another person in an interaction and the consequent salience of an interpersonal relationship" (p. 38). It is believed that social presence affects how likely an individual is of participating in a CoP (especially in online environments). (Tu 2002) Management of a community of practice often faces many barriers that inhibit individuals from engaging in knowledge exchange. Some of the reasons for these barriers are egos and personal attacks, large overwhelming CoPs, and time constraints (Wasko & Faraj 2000)

Motivation Edit
Motivation to share knowledge is critical to success in communities of practice. Studies show that members are motivated to become active participants in a CoP when they view knowledge as meant for the public good, a moral obligation and/or as a community interest (Ardichvilli, Page & Wentling 2003). Members of a community of practice can also be motivated to participate by using methods such as tangible returns (promotion, raises or bonuses), intangible returns (reputation, self-esteem) and community interest (exchange of practice related knowledge, interaction).

Collaboration Edit
Collaboration is essential to ensuring that communities of practice thrive. Research has found that certain factors can indicate a higher level of collaboration in knowledge exchange in a business network (Sveiby & Simon 2002). Sveiby and Simons found that more seasoned colleagues tend to foster a more collaborative culture. Additionally they noted that a higher educational level also predicts a tendency to favor collaboration.

Actions to cultivate a successful community of practice Edit

See also: Motivations for online participation
What makes a community of practice succeed depends on the purpose and objective of the community as well as the interests and resources of the members of that community. Wenger identified seven actions that could be taken in order to cultivate communities of practice:

Design the community to evolve naturally - Because the nature of a Community of Practice is dynamic, in that the interests, goals, and members are subject to change, CoP forums should be designed to support shifts in focus.
Create opportunities for open dialog within and with outside perspectives - While the members and their knowledge are the CoP's most valuable resource, it is also beneficial to look outside of the CoP to understand the different possibilities for achieving their learning goals.
Welcome and allow different levels of participation - Wenger identifies 3 main levels of participation. 1) The core group who participate intensely in the community through discussions and projects. This group typically takes on leadership roles in guiding the group 2) The active group who attend and participate regularly, but not to the level of the leaders. 3) The peripheral group who, while they are passive participants in the community, still learn from their level of involvement. Wenger notes the third group typically represents the majority of the community.
Develop both public and private community spaces - While CoPs typically operate in public spaces where all members share, discuss and explore ideas, they should also offer private exchanges. Different members of the CoP could coordinate relationships among members and resources in an individualized approach based on specific needs.
Focus on the value of the community - CoPs should create opportunities for participants to explicitly discuss the value and productivity of their participation in the group.
Combine familiarity and excitement - CoPs should offer the expected learning opportunities as part of their structure, and opportunities for members to shape their learning experience together by brainstorming and examining the conventional and radical wisdom related to their topic.
Find and nurture a regular rhythm for the community - CoPs should coordinate a thriving cycle of activities and events that allow for the members to regularly meet, reflect, and evolve. The rhythm, or pace, should maintain an anticipated level of engagement to sustain the vibrancy of the community, yet not be so fast-paced that it becomes unwieldy and overwhelming in its intensity. (Wenger, McDermott & Snyder 2002)
See also Edit

Discourse community
Distributed Leadership
Explicit knowledge
Knowledge management
Knowledge transfer
Knowledge tagging
Learning community
Legitimate peripheral participation
Network of practice
Online participation
Online Community of Practice
Organizational learning
Personal Network
Professional learning community
Situated cognition
Situated learning
Social capital
Social network
Tacit knowledge
Value network
Value network analysis
Virtual community of practice
Contrast with:

Project team
References Edit

Ardichvilli, Alexander; Page, Vaughn; Wentling, Tim (2003). "Motivation and barriers to participation in virtual knowledge sharing in communities of practice". Journal of knowledge management 7 (1): 64–77. doi:10.1108/13673270310463626.
Bourdieu, P. (1991). Language and symbolic power. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Brown, John Seely; Duguid, Paul (2000). "Balancing act: How to capture knowledge without killing it". Harvard Business Review.
Cox, Andrew (2005). "What are communities of practice? A comparative review of four seminal works.". Journal of Information Science 31 (6): 527–540. doi:10.1177/0165551505057016.
Chohan, Usman (2013). "Fostering a Community of Practice Among the Parliamentary Budget Offices of the Commonwealth". Commonwealth Parliamentary Review, "The Parliamentarian" 31 (3): 198–201 (40–43).
Dalkir, K. (2005). Knowledge Management in Theory and Practice. Burlington: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0-7506-7864-X.
Dalton, R.A (2011). Knowledge Transfer for the Military Leader. pp. Chapter 5.
Davenport, Thomas H.; Prusak, Lawrence (2000). Working knowledge. How organizations manage what they know, 2nd Edition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press. ISBN 1-57851-301-4.
Dubé, L.; Bourhis, A.; Jacob, R. (2005). "The impact of structuring characteristics on the launching of virtual communities of practice". Journal of Organizational Change Management 18 (2): 145–166. doi:10.1108/09534810510589570.
Duguid, Paul (2005). "The Art of Knowing: Social and Tacit Dimensions of Knowledge and the Limits of the Community of Practice". The Information Society (Taylor & Francis Inc.): 109–118.
Grossman, P. (2001). Toward a theory of teacher community. 103, 942–1012.: Teachers College Record,. ISBN 0-7506-7864-X.
Hildreth, Paul; Kimble, Chris (2002). "The duality of knowledge". Information Research 8 (1).
Hildreth, Paul; Kimble, Chris (2004). Knowledge Networks: Innovation through Communities of Practice. London / Hershey: Idea Group Inc. ISBN 1-59140-200-X.
Kietzmann, Jan; Plangger, Kirk; Eaton, Ben; Heilgenberg, Kerstin; Pitt, Leyland; Berthon, Pierre (2013). "Mobility at work: A typology of mobile communities of practice and contextual ambidexterity" (PDF). Journal of Strategic Information Systems 3 (4). doi:10.1016/j.jsis.2013.03.003.
Kimble, Chris; Hildreth, Paul; Bourdon, Isabelle (2008). Communities of Practice: Creating Learning Environments for Educators. Information Age Publishing. ISBN 1-59311-863-5.
Lave, Jean; Wenger, Etienne (1991). Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-42374-0.; first published in 1990 as Institute for Research on Learning report 90-0013
Lesser, L.E.; Storck, J. (2001). "Communities of Practice and organizational performance" (PDF) 40 (4). IBM Systems Journal.
McDermott, Richard; Archibald, Douglas (2010). "Harnessing Your Staff's Informal Networks" 88 (3). Harvard Business Review.
Polyani, Michael; Sen, Amartya (2009). The Tacit Dimension. University Of Chicago Press; Reissue edition. ISBN 0-226-67298-0.
Putnam, Robert (2001). "Social Capital: Measurement and Consequences". ISUMA (spring): 41–51.
Seely Brown, John; Duguid, Paul (1991). "Organizational learning and communities-of-practice: Toward a unified view of working, learning and innovation". Organization Science 2 (1). JSTOR 2634938.
Shields, Patricia M. The Community of Inquiry: Classical Pragmatism and Public Administration, Administration & Society, November 2003 35: 510-538, doi:10.1177/0095399703256160
Sveiby, Karl-Erik; Simon, Roland (2002). "Collaborative climate and effectiveness of knowledge work - an empirical study" (PDF). Journal of Knowledge Management 6 (5): 420–433. doi:10.1108/13673270210450388. ISSN 1367-3270.
Thomas, J.C.; Kellogg, W.A; Erickson, T. (2001). "The knowledge management puzzle: Human and social factors in knowledge management" (PDF). IBM Systems Journal 40 (4): 863–884. doi:10.1147/sj.404.0863.
Tu, Chih-Hsiung (2002). "The measurement of social presence in an online learning environment". International Journal on E-learning. April–June: 34–45.
Wallace, Danny P. Knowledge Management: Historical and Cross-disciplinary Themes Libraries Unlimited knowledge management series. Libraries Unlimited, 2007. ISBN 1591585023, 9781591585022.
Wasko, M.; Faraj, S. (2000). ""It is what one does": why people participate and help others in electronic communities of practice". Journal of Strategic Information Systems 9 (2-3): 155–173. doi:10.1016/S0963-8687(00)00045-7.
Wenger, Etienne (1998). Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning, and Identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-66363-2.
Wenger, Etienne; McDermott, Richard; Snyder, William M. (2002). Cultivating Communities of Practice (Hardcover). Harvard Business Press; 1 edition. ISBN 978-1-57851-330-7.
Further reading Edit

Barton, T & Tursting, K (2005). Beyond Communities of Practice: Language Power and Social Context. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-83643-2.
Bourdieu, P. (1991). Language and symbolic power. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Chua, Alton (October 2002). "Book Review: Cultivating Communities of Practice". Journal of Knowledge Management Practice.
Duguid, Paul (2005). The Art of Knowing: Social and Tacit Dimensions of Knowledge and the Limits of the Community of Practice, University of California
Duguid, Paul (2005). "The information Society" 21. Taylor & Francis Inc.: 109–118.
Gannon-Leary, P.M. & Fontainha, E. "Communities of Practice and virtual learning communities: benefits, barriers and success factors" ELearning Papers 26 Sept 2007 [Accessed Nov 2007]
Lesser, E.L., Fontaine, M.A. & Slusher J.A., Knowledge and Communities, Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000
Nonaka, Ikujiro (1991). "The knowledge creating company". Harvard Business Review 69 (6 Nov-Dec): 96–104.
Roberts, Joanne (2006). "Limits to Communities of Practice". Journal of Management Studies (Wiley-Blackwell.) 43 (3): 623–639. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6486.2006.00618.x.
Saint-Onge, H & Wallace, D, Leveraging Communities of Practice, Butterworth Heinemann, 2003.
Smith, M.K. (2003). "Communities of practice". The Encyclopedia of Informal Education.
van Winkelen, Christine. "Inter-Organizational Communities of Practice".
External links Edit

Etienne Wenger: Communities of practice: a brief introduction
A Workshop on Accounting Education as part of a Community of Practice at the World Bank
Implementing Best Practices (IBP) Knowledge Gateway: a tool for virtual Communities of Practice.
Communities of practice for Climate Change and Agriculture supported by FAO.
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Conversación con María Teresa Lugo: Avances en el sistema de la integración de las TIC en los sistemas educativos latinoamericanos.

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SITEAL (2015). Conversación con María Teresa Lugo: Avances en el sistema de la integración de las TIC en los sistemas educativos latinoamericanos. Diálogos del SITEAL, Febrero 2015. 13/01/2016


« El sentido de las políticas TIC en nuestra región es aportar a que se enseñe más, mejor, pero también de una manera diferente. Es evidente que hay una brecha de expectativas entre lo que los estudiantes necesitan y lo que la escuela está proponiendo. En este marco, la tecnología puede ofrecer oportunidades para propiciar un acercamiento»

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ITU/UNESCO (2013) Doubling Digital Opportuities (PDF)

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ITU/UNESCO (2013) Doubling Digital Opportuities: Enhancing the position of Women and Girls in the Information Society, A Report by the Broadband Commission Working Group on Broadband Gender . Disponible el 27/11/2015 en:


FOREWORDS Ms. Helen Clark, Administrator, UNDP Dr Hamadoun I. Touré, Secretary-General, ITU 02 04







ANNEX 1: Gender-related ICT Indicators from the Partnership

ANNEX II: Overview of the work of Working Group partners



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WEF: The Global Gender Gap Report 2013

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v Preface
Klaus Schwab, World Economic Forum


3 The Global Gender Gap Index 2013
Ricardo Hausmann, Harvard University, Laura D. Tyson, University of California, Berkeley,
Yasmina Bekhouche, World Economic Forum and Saadia Zahidi, World Economic Forum
39 Appendix A: Tracking the Gender Gap over Time
45 Appendix B: Regional and Income Group Classifications, 2013
47 Appendix C: Spread of Minimum and Maximum Values by Indicator, 2013
48 Appendix D: Rankings by Indicator, 2013
63 Appendix E: Policy Frameworks for Gender Equality


103 List of Countries
105 User’s Guide: How Country Profiles Work
Yasmina Bekhouche and Saadia Zahidi, World Economic Forum
110 Country Profiles


383 Contributors
385 Acknowledgements

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How to Teach Multiplication by Teaching Art

How to Teach Multiplication by Teaching Art | Pedagogía & TIC |

By Amanda Koonlaba

“Come see this work,” she said with a huge smile on her face. I traveled down the hallway to the 3rd grade teacher’s classroom where she had a stack of student artwork ready for me to view.
“I am just really amazed at how well this lesson went. Even my lowest student got it. I mean, he really got it,” she bragged.
We had planned this arts-integrated math lesson together. The students were learning about multiplying by multiples of ten in math class, and the teacher wanted the students to learn more about Cubism. So I created a presentation about Cubism. Since I teach visual art to these same students, I know what visual art background knowledge they have and what visual art skills they have been taught. I used this information to create a relevant presentation for the teacher to use in her math classroom.
To create the artwork, the students cut out shapes. Then, they traced at least one but no more than nine of each shape onto a piece of paper to create an image. Next, they collected data from their artwork. They created a tally chart of how many of each shape they used. Once they had the tally, they referred to a key that assigned a value to each shape. For instance, squares were assigned a value of 40. They had to multiply the value of each shape with the amount of times they had used that shape. If a student used a square 8 times in their artwork, he or she would multiply 8 and 40. Finally, students reflected on this process by describing their artwork. Here is the data recording sheet used by the students for this lesson

A full two weeks after the teacher had taught this lesson, I was able to have some conversations with the students to gauge how they thought the project went. One student said he thought the project was fun. It made him feel proud and happy that “the principal told my mama about it. He called her while she was at church, and she told all her friends about how well I did.” He went on to say that, “I learned that even when you use ten shapes, instead of nine like the teacher said, that it is okay. Everything will be okay. You just get an even bigger number when you multiply.” I showed this student a photo that I’d taken of his work and asked him to explain the multiplication to me. He explained each of the equations he’d gotten by tallying his shapes and multiplying by a multiple of ten.
Another student said he thought that the project was “kinda hard, even though I liked it a lot.” He said it made him think harder than usual. “I had to find a way to make all these shapes fit together to make a picture. The parallelogram was hard to fit,” he explained. He went on to tell me that he learned some shapes that he didn’t know before, citing the parallelogram as one. “I don’t think I’ll ever forget what a parallelogram is,” he stated.

Finally, another student said she created a dog and a dog house with her shapes. She said she really likes dogs and enjoys reading about, drawing, and spending time with dogs. She explained that, “Cubism is interesting, because it has all these different shapes and colors. It makes me think of broken glass.” She said, “This project was fun, but we were still doing math. It was like fun-math.” She also explained that you could get the answer just by multiplying or by counting the shapes. She said that if you had four squares you could touch each one and count 40, 80, 120, 160 to get the answer.
The conversations that I had with these students offer evidence for how meaningful this project was to them. The student who was so proud that the principal had called his mom experienced a sincere, positive reward for his efforts. The reward did not cost anything and wasn’t tangible, but it meant something to the student. This is how intrinsic motivation is developed. This student also learned that it is okay to make mistakes. Even though he used too many of one shape, he discovered he could still multiply. He just took his learning a step beyond what the teacher had intended. He didn’t feel the need to start over on his artwork. He adapted what he was doing and moved on. Students need to develop this adaptive behavior to thrive in the world.
The student who admitted that the project was hard for him was able to articulate that he had to think harder than usual. He makes it clear that he had to work to get his product finished. This shows persistence and determination.
Finally, the student who said she was doing fun-math figured out how to count by multiples of ten and connected it to multiplication. She better understands the theory behind multiplication. The project was special to her because she was able to create an image of something related to her interests. The fact that these students could still explain the process to me after two weeks had passed definitely shows a high rate of retention for the concept.
Art really does reach learners in a way that basic worksheets and common textbooks cannot. Art gives students the opportunity to construct something, to build something, or to create something. This lesson did all of those things but also taught the students the concept of multiplying by multiples of ten. When these students are formally assessed on this skill, they will think back to the time they created the artwork. They won’t be as likely to think back to the time they completed a worksheet.
We can think of using art in our regular classrooms as a superpower strategy to reach all of our students. Art is exciting, demanding, engaging, meaningful, and worthwhile. Why not add it to your arsenal of teaching methods?
Captions for images: 1. This student has created a “Ninja- Lion.” 2. This student has created a bear enjoying the sunshine.
Amanda Koonlaba teaches visual art to students in grades 2 through 5 at Lawhon Elementary in Tupelo, Miss. She is National Board-certified in Elementary/Middle Art, holds a masters degree in curriculum, instruction, and assessment and a specialists degree in educational leadership. Before becoming a visual art teacher, she taught in a regular elementary classroom using arts integration as the cornerstone for instruction for over six years. She is a member of the CTQ Collaboratory.

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A Project-Based Learning Spectrum: 25 Questions To Guide Your PBL Planning

A Project-Based Learning Spectrum: 25 Questions To Guide Your PBL Planning | Pedagogía & TIC |
by Terry Heick

I’ve been talking with a friend recently about project-based learning, which is leading to a TeachThought Project-Based Learning framework hopefully sometime next week. (Or whenever I finally get this TeachThought podcast off the ground–maybe Tuesday? Ish?)

In the meantime–and in pursuit–I’ve been thinking of the kinds of questions I consider when planning a project–or planning a unit when students plan a project on their own. There’s a lot to consider here–so much so that 12 isn’t even close to enough, but that’s because I tends to over-complicate things (my 14 year-old daughter tells me). I”ll stick to a “primary” set for the first dozen, and then add a secondary set you can take a gander at below.

I’ve more or less organized them into a kind of spectrum, from the simplest questions to consider, to the most complex. I focused more on creating compelling and student-centered projects, rather than creating a list of questions to use as a checklist for pure academic planning. For related reading, you might check out the difference between doing projects and project-based learning, as well as our project-based learning cheat sheet that provides some examples to jumpstart your thinking.

A Project-Based Learning Spectrum: 25 Questions To Guide Your PBL Planning


What role is the learner assuming? Designer? Engineer? Brother? Artist? Cultural Critic? Naturalist?
What is their purpose? What are they doing, and what should the project itself “do”?
Who is their audience? Who is the audience of the project’s design, impact, or effect?
How can different learning spaces (e.g., classroom, home, digital) work together? To promote meaningful interaction? An authentic audience? Personalized “workflow” to meet each student’s needs?
What kind of support does each student need individually? Who can provide it? How much structure is enough for that student? (Scoring Guide, Teacher-Provided Tools, Rubric, etc.)
What’s the “need to know”? Is there one? Where did it come from? Is it authentic? Teacher-based, school-based, curriculum-based, or student-based? What are the consequences of each?
Which academic standards are the focus of the unit? How will data from formative assessment (that target these standards) help teachers and students respond within the project?
Who will provide learning feedback? When? How? And feedback for what–the quality of the project? Progress towards mastery of academic standards? Will it be “graded” with letters, numbers, as a matter of standards-mastery, or some other way? Which way best supports student understanding?
How should the product be paced to maintain student momentum? What “check-in with the teacher” markers make sense?
How can assessment, iteration, and metacognition improve student understanding?
How can the student bring themselves (affections, experience, voice, choice, talent, curiosity) to the project? Also, what is the teacher’s role in the process? Is it the same for every student?
What sort of quality criteria make sense? How will we know if the project “works”? Was effective? Performed? Who designs this quality criteria?
What kind of project would the student never forget? 
What’s most critical to the success of the project? Creativity? Critical thinking? Organization? Grit? All may apply, but how might the project be designed to focus on the factors you or the student value most?
How can students work within their local community to solve authentic problems, or celebrate meaningful opportunities?
Is technology use distracting, useful, or critical to the success of the project?
Does it make sense for the project to also be Inquiry-focused? Problem-based?
How can students build on their unique schema and background knowledge to produce something special?
What role might iteration play in the project?
Is the project research-based? Product-based? Service-based? 
Can mindfulness be embedded into the project to help students see their own thinking, identify barriers and opportunities, and respond in a self-directed way?
What filtered (e.g., a teacher-selected book, an encyclopedia) and unfiltered information sources (e.g., a Google search, a social media stream) might they use cooperatively?
What learning taxonomies or cognitive actions might guide students to think best? We covered some of these in a recent post, many of which are shown in the graphic below.
What scale makes the most sense for the student to work best?
Is the project designed to build on student strengths (rather than trying to “correct deficiencies”)?

A Project-Based Learning Spectrum: 25 Questions To Guide Your PBL Planning; image attribution wikimedia commons (the spectrum to the right)
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The Definition Of Blended Learning

The Definition Of Blended Learning | Pedagogía & TIC |
by TeachThought Staff

Blended education. Hybrid learning. Flipping the classroom. Whatever one chooses to call it, this method of learning–which combines classroom and online education–is going places and making headlines along the way. While education experts continue to debate the efficacy of hybrid learning, its very existence has challenged them to re-evaluate not just technology’s place in (and out of) the classroom, but also how to reach and teach students more effectively.

That alone is one of the major benefits of blended learning.

The Definition Of Blended Learning

Defining hybrid or blended education is a trickier task than one might think–opinions vary wildly on the matter. In a report on the merits and potential of blended education, the Sloan Consortium defined hybrid courses as those that “integrate online with traditional face-to-face class activities in a planned, pedagogically valuable manner.” Educators probably disagree on what qualifies as “pedagogically valuable,” but the essence is clear: Hybrid education uses online technology to not just supplement, but transform and improve the learning process.

That does not mean a professor can simply start a chat room or upload lecture videos and say he is leading a hybrid classroom. According to Education Elements, which develops hybrid learning technologies, successful blended learning occurs when technology and teaching inform each other: material becomes dynamic when it reaches students of varying learning styles. In other words, hybrid classrooms on the Internet can reach and engage students in a truly customizable way. In this scenario, online education is a game changer, not just a supplement for status quo. But what does this theoretical model actually look like in practice?

Blended Learning In Action

In the course of higher education, blended or hybrid learning is a snazzy, yet relatively new tool, and not all professors use it the same way. Trends have emerged, however.

For instance, most professors in blended classrooms use some version of a course management system application to connect with students online. Blackboard and Moodle are perhaps two of the best known CMS applications used today. Through platforms like these, students can access video of lectures, track assignments and progress, interact with professors and peers, and review other supporting materials, like PowerPoint presentations or scholarly articles.

Even if all professors used the same platform, however, they could each integrate them into their classrooms differently. According to a report on the subject by the Innosight Institute, professors could supplement traditional coursework with online media in the classroom, or simply alternate between online and classroom instruction. Perhaps one of the most recent–or at least most widely covered–hybrid teaching models is what Innosight calls the “online driver” method, or, as it has come to be known, “flipping.”

How Hybrid Classrooms Are Redefining Education

This year, NPR and other media outlets caught wind of a relatively new education model called “flipping,” which is really just an adaptation of blended learning. In a traditional classroom, instructors use class time to lecture and disseminate support materials. Students then review these materials and complete any assignments at home, on their own time. With some luck, teachers will review those assignments in class the following day, or at least host office hours so that they can field questions and offer support.

“Flipping” defies these conventions. In this method, teachers and professors use online media to deliver notes, lectures and related course materials. Students review these materials at home and at their own pace. Classroom periods are then transformed into hands-on work periods where the teacher–who will have already delivered his or her lecture digitally–is free to field questions, engage class-wide discussions or offer other means of support. According to Mary Beth Hertz of the George Lucas Educational Foundation, “flipping” reinforces student-centered learning, allowing students to master content in an individual way. But is it effective?

Can blended learning–whatever the application–truly transform education as we know it?

Does Blended Learning Work?

Not all students learn the same way. This is not a particularly novel concept, but it is an important one. The tech publication PFSK notes that even early childhood education programming, like Sesame Street, recognizes this, and therefore design programming in a way that reaches auditory, visual and kinetic learners alike. Students never outgrow their learning styles, so why do traditional college classrooms fail to engage all of them?

This is blended learning’s real strength: it transforms a largely transmissive method of teaching–say, a professor lecturing for what feels like an eternity–into a truly interactive one. It sounds ideal on paper, but does it work? A 2010 meta-analysis published by the U.S. Department of Education suggests it does. According to the report, students exposed to both face-to-face and online education were more successful than students entirely in one camp or the other.

Is There A Catch?

Of course, no educational model is one-size-fits-all, and some hybrid classrooms are probably more effective than others. According to a scientific literature review published by the Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education, a number of factors impact the success of hybrid learning. Teachers must be committed to and well trained in blended and hybrid education and its technologies, and students must have a clear understanding of what is expected of them in this new environment.

As blended learning becomes more common, schools and professors will likely understand and implement it better. Yet even now, early in the game, blended education shows promise, making this an exciting time to be a student.

This is a cross-post from; image attribution flickr users celtkeene2 and andrewstarwarz
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Gina Parody: “Tenemos que mejorar el salario de los docentes”

Gina Parody: “Tenemos que mejorar el salario de los docentes” | Pedagogía & TIC |
Gina Parody: “Tenemos que mejorar el salario de los docentes”
La ministra de la Educación habló en exclusiva con Semana Educación, sobre los grandes retos de Colombia para el próximo año. También fue enfática a la hora de apuntar los temas más polémicos que han definido la agenda de 2015.
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La materialización del sueño del educador

Detrás de todo gran personaje casi siempre ha existido un profesor que lo encaminó por los pasos del éxito, bien sea porque lo inspiró o porque le dio un mensaje para su vida. Sin embargo, en su gran mayoría han sido anónimos.

En países como Finlandia o Singapur en los que la calidad educativa es la mejor, los profesores son valorados y muy bien remunerados, además, cuentan con espacios especiales para su crecimiento profesional y personal. Bajo estas premisas, la Secretaría de Educación de Medellín decidió iniciar hace dos años el proyecto Mova, Centro de Innovación del Maestro, el cual cuenta con estrategias de formación y apropiación para los docentes de la ciudad. Para el segundo semestre del próximo año se centrarán estas estrategias en un espacio con 5.000 mt2 de área construida y 1.200 de áreas exteriores, contando con una inversión final de 35 mil millones de pesos.

En este momento la construcción física está en etapa de desarrollo, con un avance del 30%. Contará con aulas de formación, auditorio, espacios multifuncionales de aprendizaje, laboratorios del cuerpo, lectura, cocina, creación audiovisual, investigación, ciencias de la vida, bricolaje y expresiones artísticas.

“Mova tiene una forma y una esencia. En cuanto a la primera se está ejecutando una gran obra en el distrito de ciencia, tecnología e innovación de la ciudad de Medellín. Esto nos llena de profunda alegría porque le entregaremos a nuestros maestros un espacio que estará lleno de vida, lugares para el encuentro, para el trabajo colaborativo, para la construcción de redes de conocimiento que transforman la educación en nuestra ciudad”, afirmó Juan Diego Barajas López, secretario de Educación de Medellín.

El Centro de Innovación del Maestro es un espacio que busca propiciar, promover e integrar las dimensiones del ser, el saber, el crear y el vivir de los maestros, como también posibilitar experiencias personales y profesionales para generar prácticas educativas diversas y contextualizadas.

En total fueron más de 3 mil los maestros de la capital antioqueña que participaron este año en las estrategias de formación, con actividades como Intercambios Educativos y Culturales, Aulas al Aire, Escuelas y Territorios, Investigación Educativa y Ser + Maestro. También, expertos de países como Brasil, Argentina, México y Francia se vincularon en diferentes encuentros a través de las Cátedras Mova, los círculos de conversación y encuentros de formación.

En cuanto a la movilización social o apropiación, se creó Mova Móvil que es una estrategia itinerante que tiene como propósito sensibilizar a los maestros, directivos docentes y otros públicos sobre el centro de innovación y su propuesta educativa. Esta aula móvil propicia ambientes de diálogo y cooperación, construcción colectiva de saberes y experiencias de maestros. En 2015 llegó a 109 instituciones. Por su parte, Territorio Mova visitó 100 establecimientos educativos por medio de talleres que permitieron transversalizar diferentes áreas del conocimiento trabajadas en el aula. Con Experiencia Maestra se logró crear y dinamizar una comunidad de maestros aliados y Café Rectores llegó a los directivos docentes de la ciudad.

Además, el logro más importante del año 2015 fue la aprobación por parte del Concejo de Medellín de la Política Pública de formación de los maestros y maestras a través de Mova (Acuerdo 19 de 2015), construida de la mano de agentes educativos, docentes y directivos docentes.

¿Quiénes están participando y podrán asistir a Mova? Están incluidos todos los agentes educativos de jardines infantiles; maestros y directivos docentes de instituciones educativas oficiales, de cobertura y privadas (preescolar, básica primaria, básica secundaria y media); y también se está contemplando la posibilidad de incluir a estudiantes de último semestre de carreras pedagógicas.

Mova surgió a partir de preguntarse cómo recuperar el valor que tiene el educador en la sociedad y que la comunidad entienda su importancia en el desarrollo de la misma.

La filosofía de Mova parte de la formación integral para que los maestros fortalezcan sus aspectos personales, vocacionales y profesionales por medio de varias líneas de acción que se preocupan por su desarrollo humano, la formación situada, la reflexión metodológica y la investigación educativa.
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¿Neurociencia - neuroeducación?

¿Neurociencia - neuroeducación? | Pedagogía & TIC |
7 de diciembre de 2015

Carmen Chihuala Peche. Trujillo - PERÚ
IBERCIENCIA. Comunidad de Educadores para la Cultura Científica.
Los últimos años se viene hablando de neuro- algo, como lo más novedoso. En el caso de la neurociencia cuyos resultados de investigación se pueden aplicar en los temas de educación, nos confirma saberes tal vez empíricos y supuestos con lujo de detalles experimentales.

Hace algún tiempo asistí a una conferencia sobre neuromarketing. Los expositores explicaban la relación de lóbulos cerebrales con los gustos de los clientes, sus preferencias y predisposiciones. En otro contexto, también escuché hablar de la neurociencia en educación pero como algo muy vago, tal vez no dominaba el tema quien usaba el término. Pero, he observado las presentaciones de Fabricio Ballarini y me parecen muy novedosas. Más el hecho de que se estén observando, registrando, evaluando, concluyendo y compartiendo con mucha facilidad, fidelidad y cuidado en un país latinoamericano.

Me parece fascinante poder ver nuestros cerebros dando respuestas, representadas con puntos y líneas de colores. Y que un iberoamericano sea quien nos dé a conocer. También es interesante conocer el cómo se está articulando la conexión entre resultados científicos y aplicación en las aulas, en este caso. Seres humanos científicos con seres humanos que sin ser científicos empleamos los resultados de las investigaciones con esa cercanía a los investigadores.

En una muestra de que la universidad cumple con su papel de vanguardia y propuestas de solución en la realidad, en Argentina, específicamente en la Universidad Nacional del Litoral de Argentina se convocaron un conjunto de jornadas abiertas el pasado 9 de mayo de este año. En un extracto de la convocatoria en su página web, se afirma lo siguiente:

La actividad es organizada por la Asociación de Padres de Niños con Dislexia, de la ciudad de Santa Fe, y auspiciada por la Universidad Nacional del Litoral (UNL) y la Secretaría de Estado, Ciencia y Tecnología del Gobierno de la provincia de Santa Fe.
La jornada tiene como objetivo examinar de manera crítica las aplicaciones de diferentes metodologías y estrategias neuroeducativas en los diferentes niveles. Asimismo, se aprovechará el acercamiento brindado por la jornada para estimular el intercambio de información, intentando intensificar el nexo entre el ámbito científico, el educativo y la comunidad.

Aquello nos indica un esfuerzo adicional muy importante: estimular el intercambio de información, intentando intensificar el nexo entre el ámbito científico, el educativo y la comunidad.

Retornando a la videoconferencia del Dr. Fabricio Ballarini a la que nos invitó la OEI a través de la comunidad de docentes IBERCIENCIA, los resultados que en ella nos reporta confirman la preocupación: a más pobreza menor posibilidad de desarrollar capacidades ejecutivas. A menor educación no nos espera más que menor posibilidad de salir del atraso.

La esperanzadora noticia de que es posible la regeneración de las neuronas, en condiciones de ejercicio y que la educación es un requisito para superar desventajas que podamos tener en cuanto a desarrollo de nuestro cerebro son alentadoras.

Nuevas alternativas frente a las maneras de aprender y fijar aprendizajes, proyectos como Educando al cerebro, productos del quehacer de los investigadores como Fabricio Ballarini son muy novedosas y prometedoras.

Los investigadores de neurociencia nos brindan el sustento científico para proponer y exigir políticas sociales y educativas más acordes con la búsqueda del desarrollo real de los pueblos.

Acerquemos nuestra práctica docente a las alternativas propuestas sustentadas en la investigación científica.
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Lo digital en educación sigue de moda

Lo digital en educación sigue de moda | Pedagogía & TIC |
La educación escolar digital sigue pasando por un boom sin precedentes en Colombia. En lo que va del año se han desarrollado eventos donde se analiza el impacto de la educación digital, las tendencias en el aula y los nuevos contenidos digitales. Ahora el turno es para ScolarTIC, con el primero congreso latinoamericano (Centros de transformación) que se realizará los días 24 y 25 de noviembre en Bogotá.

El evento contará con figuras relevantes en el mundo digital como  Shimon Schocken, reconocido internacionalmente como uno de los expertos en lograr  la inclusión de la tecnología en la educación a través de Nand2Tetris, un enfoque de código abierto para la enseñanza, o en TED Talk Education.
Además, estará presente Vicky Colbert quien también participó en la ‘Cumbre Líderes por la educación’ y es reconocida por el modelo revolucionario de Escuela Nueva, con el cual miles de colombianos en áreas rurales accedieron a la formación básica y se redujeron las tasas de analfabetismo. Hoy el reto es superar el analfabetismo digital algo que es más allá de conocer el uso de tabletas o conectarse por redes sociales.

Destaca también la participación de Nancy Palacios, ganadora del premio "Compartir al Maestro" por su iniciativa  'La indagación como estrategia pedagógica para la enseñanza de las ciencias sociales'; y Rafael Orduz, gerente General de la Fundación Compartir y ex viceministro de Educación; quienes trasladarán sus experiencias y posicionamientos de cómo reinventar la estrategia pedagógica para lograr la transformación en las aulas y que generen nuevas dinámicas de aprendizaje.

Para estar conectado con la realidad colombiana y el papel fundamental de la Educación en su contribución a la paz, Miguel de Zubiria disertará sobre “La Felicidad es más importante que la Química” donde destacará que la principal finalidad de la educación es que cada individuo pueda alcanzar un grado óptimo de bienestar social y emocional e invitará a los docentes y a las instituciones en general a focalizar su misión en formar niños y jóvenes bajo esta premisa.

Estas dos jornadas del I Congreso Iberoamericano ScolarTIC constituyen un punto de encuentro entre los diferentes actores del sistema educativo y una verdadera ocasión para poner en común las últimas tendencias así como las necesidades existentes que impulsen la democratización del acceso al conocimiento y la integración del mundo digital en el centro educativo, señaló Alfonso Gómez, presidente de Telefónica Colombia.
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RIE 56 Mayo-Agosto 2011

RIE 56 Mayo-Agosto 2011 | Pedagogía & TIC |
Monográfico / Monográfico
Modelo 1 a 1 / Modelo 1 a 1
Coordinadores: Darío Pulfer, Juan Carlos Toscano, Vera Rexach y Joaquín Asenjo



Eugenio Severín y Christine Capota, «La computación uno a uno: nuevas perspectivas»

Manuel Area Moreira, «Los efectos del modelo 1:1 en el cambio educativo en las escuelas. Evidencias y desafíos para las políticas iberoamericanas»

María Ester Lagos Céspedes y Juan Silva Quiróz, «Estado de las experiencias 1 a 1 en Iberoamérica»

Patricia Beatriz Vega García y Ángela María Merchán Jaramillo, «La revolución educativa del modelo 1 a 1: condiciones de posibilidad»

Óscar Valiente González, «Los modelos 1:1 en Educación. Prácticas internacionales, evidencia comparada e implicaciones políticas»

Joni de Almeida Amorim, «Aula multimídia com aprendizagem significativa: O Modelo de Referência AMAS»

Otros temas / Outros temas

Maria José D. Martins e Teresa Oliveira, João Paulo Barros e José Espírito Santo, Vítor Trindade e Jorge Bonito, «Concepções sobre qualidade de ensino em estabelecimentos de ensino superior público em Portugal»

Celia Rizo Cabrera y Luis Campistrous Pérez, «Algunas implicaciones de la filosofía marxista para la enseñanza de la matemática: el caso de Cuba»

Edson Souza de Azevedo, Beatriz Oliveira Pereira e César Augusto Sá, «Percepções docentes acerca da formação inicial na atuação pedagógica: estudo de caso dos professores de Educação Física»

António Manuel Águas Borralho e Sílvia Neutel, «O Currículo Nacional do Ensino Básico e a prática lectiva dos professores de Matemática»
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Muchos aparatos, muchas conexiones, pocos contenidos, nada de innovación

Muchos aparatos, muchas conexiones, pocos contenidos, nada de innovación | Pedagogía & TIC |
“Estuve en Toca, Boyacá, que tiene una economía que se basa en el agro, y fue impresionante ver cómo los niños se conectan a Internet y tienen las mismas oportunidades que quienes estudian en un colegio privado o viven en ciudades como Londres o Nueva York”, Diego Molano, Ministro TIC, Colombia.


Colombia es una nación vendedora de cuentos. Y todo cuento tiene su valor público y su potencial político. Y el cuento de las TIC en la educación es uno de vende-humos, 'mucho tilín y pocas paletas'.

Si uno oye al MinTIC regalando tabletas y conexiones, todo es alegría y promesa; si uno ve al MinTIC recibiendo premios de empresarios, telefónicas y operadores de Internet, todo es preocupación porque es evidente que defiende intereses privados por encima del bien público; si uno regala su viejo aparato a 'Computadores para Educar', uno se entristece porque se da cuenta que es todo un asunto de caridad y no de inclusión; si uno va a una escuela colombiana se felicita de que haya computadores pero se entristece por las pobres conexiones a Internet, uno entra en depresión cuando ve que no hay luz y peor aún los computadores se guardan con llave y se protegen de los niños y sus juegos. Obvio, todo depende de cómo uno vea la película. He aquí mi película:


'Colombia es TIC'. Nos dicen que nuestro país está superconectado con banda ancha, que la explosión de computadoras y conexiones es alucinante. Es más, el Ministro TIC, el doctor Molano, afirma que “Vive Digital ha hecho que seamos un país moderno y próspero. De ahora en adelante la forma de arreglar los problemas de educación, justicia, agricultura, salud pública, pobreza y corrupción será con las TIC”. Luego, sóloé

Bueno, y creo que vamos bien. Todo el sistema educativo ha adoptado el pensamiento TIC. Existen laboratorios, hay interés por la conexión, se intenta vincular a maestros en esta experiencia de cambio de mentalidades, modos de aprender y estrategias de producir conocimiento. Creo que no hay una institución educativa que no haya incorporado en su discurso, misión y visión a las TIC como parte de su presente y futuro.

"En Colombia, el cuento de las TIC en la educación es uno de vende-humos"
Ya usamos juntas tecnologías y aprendizaje, creatividad y colaboración, redes y pensamiento, interactuar e hipertextuar, conceptos abiertos y juegos. Sabemos los conceptos, tenemos las teorías, seguimos a los gurúes. Ya tenemos una Red Nacional de Maestros que utilizan Medios y TIC. Sabemos que el aprendizaje será mejor y de más calidad porque hay interactividad, flexibilidad, diversidad de fuentes de contenido y lo mejor, se podrá educar a más millones de colombianos. Y todavía más innovador se recupera el trabajo en equipo, el juego como acción de aprendizaje, la educación como experiencia, el niño como agente de saber y centro del acto educativo. Y lo mejor, el maestro deja de ser autoritario y dueño del saber para pasar a ser el gestor, el curador, el DJ de la experiencia de aprender. Y para todo esto está 'Colombia aprende' que es el programa de MinEducación para hacer más innovadora la educación.

'Educa Digital' premia los mejores proyectos de TIC y Educación, y en el 2014 “El Ministro de las TIC, Diego Molano Vega, dijo que los diez proyectos premiados en 'Educa Digital Colombia' ratifican que el Plan Vive Digital está cumpliendo el cometido de elevar la calidad de la educación en nuestro país a través de las TIC (…) Con su pasión y entrega, estos hombres y mujeres se convirtieron en los héroes de cientos de estudiantes y contribuyen a hacer de Colombia un territorio de paz". Y obvio, el premio a los 10 finalistas fue tabletas y portátiles.

Además de pensamiento (interactividad, red, colaborativo) y la cantidad de programas que se tienen (Colombia Aprende, Educa Digital, Vive Digital, Computadores para Educar), hemos asumido las máquinas (tableta, aplicaciones, programas, diseños). El computador ya no es un bien lejano, está en todas partes,  hasta en el aula. Los teléfonos inteligentes abundan, las redes crecen, el uso de aplicaciones es alucinante. En Colombia hay 7,6 millones de conexiones a Internet banda ancha. En el 2010 la cifra era de 2,2 millones de conexiones, para 2014 son 8,8 millones y en el 2017 será de 10 millones.MinTIC dice que en el 2013 el 43 por ciento de los hogares del país estaba conectado a Internet, mientras que la meta para 2014 ya es el 50 por ciento. LaFibra Óptica será realidad en 1.078 municipios (un 96 por ciento del país) en el 2014.

Luego, la cosa va bien, muy bien. Tenemos la tecnología, la conexión, las redes, las teorías, los conceptos, los programas y las políticas. Y la voluntad política y del sector de educación. Luego, ya la calidad de la educación está aumentando, la educación llega a más colombianos, los maestros se han transformado, y, lo mejor, los niños se han convertido en sujetos de conocimiento.


Cuatro historietas de la vida real:

… sin luz. En una vereda del municipio de Medellín (el más innovador y conectado de Colombia) hay una escuela que tiene 25 niños, ellos han recibido 25 computadores de escritorio y 25 tabletas, solo que no tienen electricidad. ¡Sin comentarios!

… con protección. En un colegio de Bogotá un profesor intentó instalar un video juego de la ONU (o sea, educativo) y se encontró que en esos computadores de escuela se prohíben los videojuegos, el Facebook, el YouTube… o sea todo con lo que juega y crea el niño. El computador entró al sistema educativo pero como aparato para adorar, cuidar, limpiar y obedecer. Menos mal que en la casa el niño juega, ensucia, interviene y pervierte el computador, y lo hace tanto que lo hace suyo, a pesar de la escuela, los maestros, el Ministerio de Educación y MinTIC.

… sin plan. El Ministro TIC regala tabletas que luchan contra la pobreza, las drogas, la mala educación..., pero sin plan de datos. Hay que crear la nueva adicción: no comer pero pagarle a las telefónicas. La noticia dice así: “Padres de familia de algunos colegios de Barranquilla y el vecino municipio de Soledad (Atlántico) se quejaron por el valor que les toca pagar por las tabletas que supuestamente regaló el Gobierno Nacional en estas ciudades para los estudiantes de instituciones educativas de los estratos uno y dos”. Las denuncias de los padres de familia dicen que les están cobrando 21.000 pesos para un plan de datos que deben firmar con DirecTV, operador de Internet.

Simple, el gobierno regala tabletas y los beneficiados tienen que comprar el plan de datos a un operador privado. Más que una tableta de regalo, el gobierno le regala un cliente a los operadores: socialismo neoliberal. Y termina la noticia: “El Ministerio a través del programa Computadores para Aprender regala esas tabletas pero los operadores de Internet debemos venderlas a un precio subsidiado (…) se le entrega con 7 días de plan de Internet de DirecTV, que puede recargar en la modalidad 1.000 pesos al día o 21.000 pesos al mes, pero, si tienen servicio en su casa, no están obligados a comprar el servicio”, puntualizó la señora de DirecTV. Si tiene en casa es porque ya compró el plan de datos con Claro, Movistar, ETB, Une o el mismoDirecTV. El gobierno trabaja para hacerle negocio a los operadores. En Uruguay y Argentina el plan es gratis.

… Como MinTIC se ha dedicado a 'producir' clientes para los operadores privados, y como una tabletaes mágica para el Ministro ya que “arregla los problemas de educación, justicia, agricultura, salud pública, pobreza y corrupción”, poco nos hemos preocupado de los contenidos, de la innovación en formatos y aplicaciones, en la creación de unas tecnologías para Colombia. No hay experiencias de contenidos, los logros colombianos son por ahora de aparatos y discurso. ¿De verdad el Ministro cree que una tableta soluciona los graves problemas de educación, salud, justicia, pobreza, corrupción?, ¿no es como cínico decir eso, creer este determinismo tecnológico?

El es que todos los países regalan tabletas, todos conectan a fibra óptica, todos de derecha e izquierda lo hacen…, pero en otros (Uruguay, Argentina, Brasil) se enfatiza en el niño, en el ciudadano, el WiFi libre, en las TIC metidas en la vida cotidiana, en una nueva arquitectura del aprendizaje, y por eso han convertido a las TIC en estrategia de innovación y táctica de contenidos para pensar desde la propia cabeza.

En Colombia queremos venderle ciudadanos a los planes de datos de las operadoras, queremos convertir a la tecnología en dios, queremos que seamos súbditos de los software de otros y militantes de Bill Gates. En otros países, saben que la pepa del asunto está en la creación de contenidos y aplicaciones en perspectiva de lo propio, lo local, la cultura que se habita. Aquí nos guían para practicar la cultura del 'copy - paste', mientras en Uruguay, Argentina y Brasil para el inventar en clave de las necesidades locales. Toda una diferencia.


2015. net
Esperamos que MinTIC entienda que el asunto es de contenidos en perspectiva de cultura local, que se asuma que los aparatos no bastan. Esperamos que maestros y el Ministerio de Educación comprendan que no se puede aprender en los espacios de aprendizaje que tenemos, que es desde la misma arquitectura y las pedagogías que se crea el co-working y el co-aprendizaje. Deberán entender que necesitamos una educación dialógica y no de la obediencia, una educación de la contestación y la crítica, que más que la máquina. La clave está en el trabajo colectivo de producción, debemos practicar el interfaz entre cultura, educación y comunicación y producir una comunicación de procesos de comunidad produciendo, en la cual lo que sabemos lo sabemos entre todos.

Por ahora tenemos en los Ministerios de TIC, Educación y Cultura, vendedores de humo tecnológicos, requerimos convertir a las TIC en experiencia cultural de producción de contenidos y en experiencia comunicativa de contenidos desde nuestras necesidades y expectativas.
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