Inox 316
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If you have ever seen some of the modern architectural wonders and marveled at them, it might interest you to know that most of these use cutting-edge stainl...
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A high level industrial maintenance engineer or maintenance manager for the food and beverage or other process plant in Eastern Europe, among the finest sites you may ever visit is that their of Schweisstechnik. Take some time and focus from the small but dynamic website and note the list of reputable international customers that contract this company on a regular base.

The home page with the website offers you a general summary of exactly what the company offers with many basic design pictures and drawings. Here the visitor will even find contact detail with the company, and links with other parts of the web page. Of interest could be the art gallery, displaying past projects the company worked tirelessly on.

Located in Belgrade, Serbia (former Yugoslavia), Schweisstechnik is specialized in serving the procedure industry of Eastern Europe, in terms of maintaining process equipment and plant support subsystems. This company focuses primarily on taking care, repair, and installing of steel piping valves and holding tanks. To this effect, Schweisstechnik employs only the latest trendsetting installation equipment and experienced staff.

The web page also provides some guidelines for the maintenance practices as relates to steel (inox 316, AISI 304 L, aisi316etc.) material forming and welding which could carry particular interest to maintenance personnel.

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Stainless steel 316

Stainless steel 316 Welcome to AX-SOLRAN LTD, a company with offices in Hong Kong, China and UK. 316ss is our core product. T...



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If you have ever seen a number of the modern architectural wonders and marveled at them, it might appeal to you to learn that the majority of of such use cutting-edge 316ss pipes. You will discover different models of metal pipes including 304, stainless steel 316 and 321. As the 304 pipe is needed in basic construction applications for instance regular buildings, the 321 pipes are widely-used in very demanding constructions including skyscrapers and the buildings requiring complicated architectural execution. 316ss pipes are recognized for their anti-corrosion properties. When you begin any construction or industrial process, the pipeline system is extremely critical. Hence it becomes imperative to choose the ones that suit your preferences.

Independent of the housing industry, the stream management and supply industries also make extensive use of these chromium steel. Let's take apple iphone 4 important role these pipes play in the water industry:

Water industry entails water being transported at extremely high pressure or water flowing with high pressure. This involves the pipes to experience a very high tensile strength and absolutely seamless welding to ensure there won't be fissures or leakages.

Since water a brand new for the purpose of people to drink, the pipes must be safe and environment-friendly. They will 't be toxic naturally otherwise these toxins could mix with all the water. The pipes should meet the water treatment and delivery conditions.

Smaller pipelines might occasionally require re-construction or maintenance work. Hence it is important that the pipes needs to be easy on maintenance as well as the fittings must be all to easy to dismantle and re-build.

With regards to high-rises or sky scrapers, water for drinking and sanitation purposes is pumped up at extremely high pressure. Hence, it is crucial that the pipes should be sturdy and also withstand these massive amounts of pressure. All alike, they ought to be also corrosion proof because rusting can lead to some dangerous situations or pipe-bursts. Steel tubing for instance 4130 tubing might possibly be chose in these cases.

The lake industry requires installations in certain of the most awkward positions. Hence, these pipes should place different angles and bends. This tremendously helps engineers to build the most complex grids for water. Also, these little bends and corners ought to be tightly sealable because will be the areas most at risk from leakages.
The main task of stainless-steel tube is to carry liquids and fluids in one location to another.

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316ss inox 316

Stainless steel 316 Welcome to AX-SOLRAN LTD, a company with offices in Hong Kong, China and UK. Stainless steel 316 is our core product. T...
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The precipitation-hardening stainless steels are iron-nickel-chromium alloys containing one or more precipitation hardening elements including aluminum, titanium, copper, niobium, and molybdenum. The precipitation hardening is achieved by a not at all hard aging treatment of the fabricated part.

Both main characteristics off precipitation-hardening stainless steels are high strength and high corrosion resistance. High strength is, unfortunately, achieved at the expense of toughness. The corrosion resistance of precipitation-hardening stainless steels resembles that surrounding the conventional AISI 304 and AISI 316 austenitic alloys. The fermentation care is meant to optimize strength, corrosion resistance, and toughness. To enhance toughness, the amount of carbon is kept low.

The first commercial precipitation-hardening stainless steel was developed by US Steel in 1946. The alloy was named Stainless W (inox 316) and its nominal chemical composition (in wt. %) was Fe-0.05C-16.7Cr-6.3Ni-0.2Al-0.8Ti.

The precipitation hardening process requires the formation (precipitation) of very fine intermetallic phases such as Ni3Al, Ni3Ti, Ni3(Al,Ti), NiAl, Ni3Nb, Ni3Cu, carbides, and Laves (AB2) phases. Prolonged aging causes the coarsening these intermetallic phases, which then causes the decline in strength, mainly because that dislocations can bypass coarse intermetallic phases.

There are three sorts of precipitation-hardening stainless steels:

- Martensitic precipitation-hardening stainless steels, e.g., 17-4 PH (inox 316), Stainless W, 15-5 PH, CROLOY 16-6 PH, CUSTOM 450, CUSTOM 455, PH 13-8 Mo, ALMAR 362, IN-736, etc., - Austenitic precipitation-hardening stainless steels, e.g., A-286 (aisi316), 17-10 P, HNM, etc., and - Semiaustenitic precipitation-hardening stainless steels, e.g., 17-7 PH (AISI 631), PH 15-7 Mo, AM-350, AM-355, PH 14-8 Mo, etc.

The type is determined by the martensite start and the martensite finish temperature (Ms and Mf) plus the as-quenched microstructure.

Throughout the heat therapy for precipitation-hardening stainless steels, no matter their type, austenitization in the single-phase austenite region is usually the initial step. Austenitization will be accompanied by a relatively rapid cooling (quenching).

Martensitic Precipitation-Hardening Steel

Over the heat treatment of precipitation-hardening stainless steels, irrespective of their type, austenitization inside single-phase austenite region is obviously the 1st step. Austenitization is then then a relatively rapid cooling (quenching).

The martensite finish temperature (Mf) in the martensitic precipitation-hardening stainless steels - including 17-4 PH (aisi316), Stainless W, 15-5 PH, CROLOY 16-6 PH, CUSTOM 450, CUSTOM 455, PH 13-8 Mo, ALMAR 362, and-736 - is simply above room temperature. Thus, upon quenching from the solution-treatment temperature they transform completely into martensite. Precipitation hardening is achieved by a single aging treatment at 480 °C to 620 °C (896 °F to 1148 °F) for 1 to 4 hours.

The martensite start temperature (Ms) in the martensitic precipitation-hardening stainless steels must be above room temperature to guarantee the whole martensite-to-austenite transformation upon quenching.

One of many empirical equations that may be often used to predict the martensite start temperature (in °F) is really as follows:

Ms = 2160 - 66·(% Cr) - 102·(% Ni) - 2620·(% C + % N)

where Cr = 10-18 %, Ni = 5-12.5 %, and C + N = 0.035-0.17 %.

Precipitation hardening within the martensitic steels is achieved by reheating to temperatures at which very fine intermetallic phases - such as Ni3Al, Ni3Ti, Ni3(Al,Ti), NiAl, Ni3Nb, Ni3Cu, carbides, and Laves phase - precipitate.

A lath martensite structure provides an abundance of nucleation sites for your precipitation of intermetallic phases.

Austenitic Precipitation-Hardening Steel

The austenitic grades include the least popular with the three types of precipitation-hardening stainless steels. From the metallurgical viewpoint, they might be regarded as being the precursors of the nickel-based and cobalt-based superalloys. A good example will be the develop Fe-10Cr-35Ni-1.5Ti-1.5Al austenitic precipitation-hardening alloy, that is conducted prior to a Second World War.

The martensite start temperature (Ms) from the austenitic precipitation-hardening stainless steels - for example a-286 (AISI 600), 17-10 P, and HNM - is really low which they cannot be transformed into martensite. The nickel content of the austenitic precipitation-hardening stainless steels is sufficiently high to totally stabilize austenite at room temperature.

The highly stable nature of the austenitic matrix eliminates the many potential problems in connection with embrittlement, even at extremely low temperatures. The austenitic precipitation-hardening stainless steels are therefore very attractive alloys in relation to cryogenic applications.

Strengthening is achieved with the precipitation of very fine, coherent, intermetallic Ni3Ti phase, once the austenite is reheated to elevated temperatures. Precipitation in austenitic precipitation-hardening stainless steels is somewhat more sluggish when compared with either martensitic or semiaustenitic precipitation-hardening stainless steels. As an example, to get near-maximum hardening in a very-286 (AISI 600), 16 hours at 718 °C (1325 °F) is needed.

Like several precipitation-hardening stainless steels, the strength of A-286 (aisi316) is usually further increased by coldwork previous to aging.

The austenitic precipitation-hardening stainless steels contain no magnetic phases and, in general, have higher corrosion resistance compared to martensitic or semiaustenitic precipitation-hardening stainless steels.

Semiaustenitic Precipitation-Hardening Metal

The semiaustenitic precipitation-hardening stainless steels are supplied inside the metastable austenitic condition. They will also contain approximately 20 % of delta ferrite in equilibrium using the austenite at the solution temperature. The metastable nature from the austenitic matrix will depend on the degrees of austenite stabilizing and ferrite stabilizing elements.

The martensite finish temperature (Mf) of the semiaustenitic precipitation-hardening stainless steels - for example 17-7 PH (inox 316), PH 15-7 Mo, AM-350, AM-355, and PH 14-8 Mo - is well below room temperature. Consequently, their microstructure is predominantly austenitic (and highly ductile) upon quenching from your solution-treatment temperature.

After forming, the austenite-to-martensite transformation is achieved by way of conditioning treatment at about 750 °C (1382 °F), whose main goal should be to enhance the Mf temperature towards the vicinity of room temperature with the precipitation of alloy carbides (mainly chromium-rich M23C6 carbides). This, consequently, reduces the carbon and chromium content with the austenite (see the above given formula for Ms temperature which demonstrates that should the quantity of dissolved carbon and chromium in austenite is reduced, the Ms temperatures are significantly raised). The transformation to martensite is finished upon cooling.

A cryogenic (subzero) medication is required in case a high conditioning temperatures are used, typically 930 °C to 955 °C (1706 °F to 1751 °F). At such high temperatures, how much alloy carbides that precipitate is relatively small, rendering the Mf temperature well below room temperature. The potency of the martensite which is formed that way (high-temperature conditioning + cryogenic treatment) is higher than that formed by transformation at lower temperatures, because of a higher carbon content from the former.

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