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Institute for Bioengineering and Biosciences
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Regeneration of Periodontal Tissues with Hierarchical Biomimetic Scaffolds

Regeneration of Periodontal Tissues with Hierarchical Biomimetic Scaffolds | iBB | Scoop.it

The project "DentalBioMatrix: Exploiting the power of decellularized extracellular matrix to fabricate hierarchical biomimetic scaffolds to regenerate functional periodontal tissues" has been recommended for funding by FCT (2020 Call for SR&TD Project Grants). The goal of DentalBioMatrix is to develop novel bioengineering strategies to regenerate periodontium, by engineering hierarchically designed compartmentalized systems to meet the different characteristics of the tissues involved in periodontal defects. Decellularized extracellular matrix (dECM) will be used to create complex dECM-derived scaffolds to recreate the different niches of periodontium. Collectively, this approach will potentially provide the opportunity to harness the properties of periodontal tissue ECM, recreating a local niche at the tooth interface that can promote periodontal regeneration, especially important for osteoporotic and older patients with compromised ECM. The project, which falls within the scientific area of Medical Biotechnology, is headed by Marta Carvalho from SCERG-iBB.

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Compositional and Structural Analysis of GAGs in Cell-Derived ECM

Compositional and Structural Analysis of GAGs in Cell-Derived ECM | iBB | Scoop.it

Cell-derived ECM have emerged as promising materials for regenerative medicine due to their ability to recapitulate the native tissue microenvironment. However, little is known about the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) composition of these cell-derived ECM. In a recent study published in Glycoconjugate Journal, researchers from SCERG-iBB, working in collaboration with colleagues from the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, characterized three different cell-derived ECM in terms of their GAG content, composition and sulfation patterns using a highly sensitive LC-MS/MS technique. Distinct GAG compositions and disaccharide sulfation patterns were verified for the different cell-derived ECM. Additionally, the effect of decellularization method on the GAG and disaccharide relative composition was also assessed. The method offers a novel approach to determine the GAG composition of cell-derived ECM, which we believe is critical for a better understanding of ECM role in directing cellular responses and has the potential for generating important knowledge for the development of new ECM-like biomaterials for tissue engineering applications.

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Marta Carvalho Defends PhD Thesis in Bioengineering

Marta Carvalho Defends PhD Thesis in Bioengineering | iBB | Scoop.it

Marta Monteiro Silva Carvalho will be defending her PhD thesis in Bioengineering (Cell Therapies and Regenerative Medicine) at Instituto Superior Técnico, tuesday the 4th December 2018 (14:00 H, room PA3). During the last years, and under the supervision of Cláudia Lobato Silva from SCERG-iBB and Deepak Vashisth from the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Marta focused on the development of biomimetic 3-D matrices for stem cell mediated bone formation, with a particular interest on evaluating the influence of non-collagenous proteins present in the bone matrix. The title of her thesis is "Stem Cell-mediated bone formation on biomimetic 3-D matrices”.

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Synergistic Effect of Osteopontin and Osteocalcin on Stem Cell Properties

Synergistic Effect of Osteopontin and Osteocalcin on Stem Cell Properties | iBB | Scoop.it

There is a high demand for functional bone grafts worldwide partly due to the increased life expectancy. Bone matrix proteins, especially osteopontin (OPN) and osteocalcin (OC), have been reported to regulate some physiological process, such as cell migration and bone mineralization. However, the effects of OPN and OC on cell proliferation, osteogenic differentiation, mineralization and angiogenesis are still undefined.  In a recent study published in Journal of Cellular and Biochemistry, researchers from SCERG-iBB working with colleagues from the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute assessed the exogenous effect of OPN and OC supplementation on human bone marrow mesenchymal stem/stromal cells proliferation and osteogenic differentiation.  These results suggest that OC and OPN stimulate bone regeneration by inducing stem cell proliferation, osteogenesis and by enhancing angiogenic properties. The synergistic effect of OC and OPN observed in this study can be applied as an attractive strategy for bone regeneration therapeutics by targeting different vital cellular processes.

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Cell-derived Electrospun Microfibrous Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering

Cell-derived Electrospun Microfibrous Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering | iBB | Scoop.it

Cell-derived extracellular matrix (ECM) has been employed as scaffolds for tissue engineering. SCERG-iBB researchers working with colleagues from the Rensselaer Polytechnic developed bioactive cell-derived ECM electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds produced from ECM derived from human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC), human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and their combination based on the hypothesis that the cell-derived ECM incorporated into the PCL fibers would enhance the biofunctionality of the scaffold. The findings show that all cell-derived ECM electrospun scaffolds promoted significant cell proliferation compared to PCL alone, while presenting similar physical/mechanical properties. Additionally, MSC:HUVEC-ECM electrospun scaffolds significantly enhanced osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. The study was published in Materials Science and Engineering: C.

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Rapid Formation of Mineralized Bone Tissue Based on Stem Cell-mediated Osteogenesis

Rapid Formation of Mineralized Bone Tissue Based on Stem Cell-mediated Osteogenesis | iBB | Scoop.it

Bone regeneration, following fracture, relies on autologous and allogenic bone grafts. However, majority of fracture population consists of older individuals with poor quality bone associated with loss and/or modification of matrix proteins critical for bone formation and mineralization. Allografts sufer from same limitations and carry the risk of delayed healing, infection, immune rejection and eventual fracture. Researchers from SCERG-iBB, working in collaboration with colleagues from the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in the US, have applied a synergistic biomimetic strategy to develop matrices that rapidly form bone tissue. Collagen matrices, enhanced with osteocalcin and/or osteopontin, increased the rate and quantity of synthesized bone matrix by increasing mesenchymal stem/stromal (MSC) cell proliferation, accelerating osteogenic diferentiation and enhancing angiogenesis The work was published in Scientific Reports.

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