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Characterization of a New Blastobotrys navarrensis Strain

Characterization of a New Blastobotrys navarrensis Strain | iBB | Scoop.it

A BSRG-iBB research paper just published in International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology reports the isolation, identification, and morphological and phylogenetic characterization of Blastobotrys navarrensis IST 508. The isolation of this yeast strain from a soil sample collected underneath an olive tree in Ferreira do Alentejo was essential to propose the taxonomic separation of B. navarrensis, so far represented by the single strain CBS 139.77, from Blastobotrys proliferans, which until this study was considered a synonym species. Molecular and phylogenetic data was used to propose B. navarrensis as an independent species and not a later synonym of B. proliferans. An emended description of B. navarrensis was also proposed. This research paper has as first- and corresponding- author Dr. Margarida Palma, who coordinated the investigation with contributions by Professor Isabel Sá-Correia. The article is also co-authored by former Master students Érica Vieira and Margarida Pataco, both from MSc in Biotechnology, IST.

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iBB Contributes to the Move2LowC Project

iBB Contributes to the Move2LowC Project | iBB | Scoop.it

The project Move2LowC, led by A4F, Algafuel, S.A., is mobilizing Universities, R&D Institutes, SMEs and Large Companies, to cooperate with the objective of increasing the use of aquatic biomass (microalgae), residual forest biomass and industrial effluents for the production of biofuels, in a circular economy logic. It also aims to reduce waste by reducing, reusing, recovering and recycling materials into energy vectors. IBB's contribute is geared towards the selection of unconventional yeasts for the production of microbial oils produced by heterotrophic fermentation of hydrolysates from residual lignocellulosic biomass.

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Genome Sequence and Analysis of the Flavinogenic Yeast Candida membranifaciens

Genome Sequence and Analysis of the Flavinogenic Yeast Candida membranifaciens | iBB | Scoop.it

A BSRG-iBB research paper just published in Journal of Fungi (special issue “New Trends in Yeast Genomics”) reports the isolation of Candida membranifaciens strains from soil, their physiological characterization and comparison regarding the production of riboflavin (vitamin B2). The first annotated genome sequence of C. membranifaciens IST 626 is provided, as well as the comparative genomic analysis with other relevant yeast species. This research work is first-authored by Dr. Margarida Palma, who coordinated the investigation with Professor Isabel Sá-Correia. The work has contributions from Master students Mariana Pereira and Érica Vieira and researchers from Joint Genome Institute, Berkeley, USA.

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Cláudia Godinho Delivers Oral Presentations at Microbiotec21

Cláudia Godinho Delivers Oral Presentations at Microbiotec21 | iBB | Scoop.it

Cláudia P. Godinho, a PhD researcher at BSRG-iBB, presented the work "The N.C.Yeastract and CommunityYeastract databases and tools: studying transcriptional regulation in non-conventional yeasts" during the Synthetic & Systems biology Symposium. Cláudia provided a guided exploration of the tools of the N.C.Yeastract database, which gathers all published regulatory associations and TF-binding sites for five yeast species of biotechnological potential. The potential of the database was also explained. The presentation was based in a recent MiniReview published this year in FEMS Yeast Research, resulting from collaborative work between the BSRG-iBB team coordinated by Isabel Sá-Correia and INESC-ID colleagues. Cláudia P. Godinho was also selected for presenting the International Microorganism Day initiative in the Teaching and Communicating in Science symposium. The purpose of the presentation, co-authored by Cláudia and Isabel Sá-Correia, was to report the results from IMD 2021 campaign and event, to promote IMD, and to provide an idea of the power of social media in Microbiology dissemination.

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ChiCoBionts: Chitinases from the Octocoral Microbiome

ChiCoBionts: Chitinases from the Octocoral Microbiome | iBB | Scoop.it

ChiCoBionts, a new FCT-funded research project, exploits the octocoral microbiome in the search for novel chitinases of relevance to global biogeochemical cycling, food waste management, and the smart production of added-value molecules. The project starts in January 2022, is funded with 50,000 euros, and aims to discover, express, and characterise novel chitinases and chitinolytic microbes with the potential to outperform current commercial enzymes and to foster the development of blue biotechnology for chitin waste. The ChiCoBionts team joins iBB scientists from BSRG and BERG, including Tina Keller-Costa (PI), Ângela Taipa (Co-PI), Carla de Carvalho and Rodrigo Costa, in addition to ITQB researcher Nuno Borges and collaborators from the University of Brussels, Belgium.

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Exploring the Biological Function of Efflux Pumps for the Development of Superior Industrial Yeasts

Exploring the Biological Function of Efflux Pumps for the Development of Superior Industrial Yeasts | iBB | Scoop.it

The economic competitiveness of yeast-mediated bioprocesses in Chemical Biotechnology requires high tolerance of industrial strains to the multiple stresses that occur. Among the mechanisms used by yeast to overcome those deleterious effects is the activity of plasma membrane transporters involved in multidrug/multixenobiotic resistance (MDR/MXR). A new review article on these still poorly characterized transporters belonging to the MFS and the ABC Superfamily in yeasts of biotechnological relevance has just been published. The reported role of specific transporters in increasing the secretion of metabolites and other added-value bioproducts is also highlighted. The review article is co-authored by the BSRG-iBB researchers Isabel Sá-Correia and Cláudia P. Godinho and was published in the journal Current Opinion in Biotechnology (special Issue: Chemical Biotechnology 2022).

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Special Issue: Coral Reef Ecology, Conservation, and Inspiration for Marine Drugs Development

Special Issue: Coral Reef Ecology, Conservation, and Inspiration for Marine Drugs Development | iBB | Scoop.it

Marine invertebrates together with a plethora of symbiotic and free-living algae, fungi and prokaryotes are amidst the most prolific producers of bioactive compounds in coral reefs and marine environments at large. Their natural products often show astounding structural novelty and complexity, facilitating chemically mediated behaviours and interspecies interactions from competition to cooperation. There is great potential for a minimally invasive and economically reliable exploitation of bioactive secondary metabolites from the highly diverse and chemically complex reef communities. iBB researchers Tina Keller-Costa and Rodrigo Costa (BSRG) are guest editing a special issue on Coral Reef Ecology, Conservation and Inspiration for Marine Drugs Development in the Journal Marine Drugs and cordially invite the scientific community to contribute original research or review articles on the role of natural products in coral reef ecology and conservation, organismal interactions and biotechnology.

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Matilde Marques Wins Poster Prize at MICROBIOTEC21

Matilde Marques Wins Poster Prize at MICROBIOTEC21 | iBB | Scoop.it

PhD student Matilde Marques from DBE and iBB-BSRG received a Best Poster Prize for her video-poster presented at the Microbiotec21 web-conference. Matilde showed her work on metagenomics of viral communities in healthy and diseased octocorals. Matilde is a first year PhD student of the MIT Portugal program supervised by Rodrigo Costa and Tina Keller-Costa from IST and Raquel Peixoto from KAUST. Her thesis project focuses on developing microbiome therapy strategies to improve octocoral health. Congrats, Matilde!

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Quantitative FRET Microscopy Reveals a Crucial Role of Cytoskeleton in Promoting PI(4,5)P2 Confinement

Quantitative FRET Microscopy Reveals a Crucial Role of Cytoskeleton in Promoting PI(4,5)P2 Confinement | iBB | Scoop.it

Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) is crucial to many cellular processes in eukaryotes, including membrane trafficking, signal transduction, ion channel function  and cytoskeleton dynamics. This function multiplicity is partially achieved through a dynamic spatiotemporal organization of PI(4,5)P2 within the membrane. In a recent paper published in IJMS, an IBB team (Maria J. Sarmento, Luís Borges-Araújo, Sandra N.Pinto, Nuno Bernardes, Joana Ricardo, Ana Coutinho, Manuel Prieto and Fábio Fernandes) was able to quantify PI(4,5)P2 confinement in living cells making use of FRET imaging measurements. PI(4,5)P2 was found to be significantly compartmentalized at the plasma membrane of HeLa cells. These PI(4,5)P2 enriched domains were shown to not depend on cholesterol content, ruling out an association with lipid rafts. On the other hand, upon inhibition of actin polymerization, compartmentalization of PI(4,5)P2 was almost entirely eliminated, confirming that the cytoskeleton network is the critical component responsible for the formation of nanoscale PI(4,5)P2 domains.

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iBB Researcher Nuno Bernardes is a Fulbright Visiting Scholar at the University of Pennsylvania

iBB Researcher Nuno Bernardes is a Fulbright Visiting Scholar at the University of Pennsylvania | iBB | Scoop.it

In cancer cells, the glycome is distinct from that on non-cancer cells, affecting the functionality of many overexpressed membrane oncogenes. In the scope of a visit to the laboratory of Prof. Elizabeth Rhoades at the University of Pennsylvania, Nuno Bernardes from BSRG-iBB will use advanced microscopy-based biophysical approaches to determine and quantify the molecular determinants involved in protein-glycan interactions between azurin(s)-derived peptides and cancer cells. This will make use of giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMVs) originated from cell lines and primary tumor cells. The characterization of these interactions will foster the development nano-delivery systems like nanoparticles and exosomes engineered to surface display azurins-derived peptides to improve tumor treatments. The project and visit is supported by the Fulbright program, as described here. 

mesrallonges's comment, September 10, 2021 9:01 AM
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Prediction of the Haa1-regulatory Network in the Oleaginous Yeast Rhodotorula toruloides

Prediction of the Haa1-regulatory Network in the Oleaginous Yeast Rhodotorula toruloides | iBB | Scoop.it

A new bioinformatics tool, developed by our computational biologist collaborators at INESC-ID, is described in a recent article published in BMC Bioinformatics. The BSRG-iBB team contributed to the application of the tool to predict the putative Haa1-regulon in the lipid producing yeast cell factory Rhodotorula toruloides. For this, genomic information on this species was collected and included in the CommunityYeastract to benefit from the access to all the comparative genomics queries offered in the YEASTRACT + portal. The transcription factor Haa1 is the main regulator of S. cerevisiae genomic response to acetic acid stress, regulating, directly or indirectly, the majority of acetic acid tolerance genes. The prediction of RtHaa1-regulon has an expected impact in the optimization of R. toruloides robustness for biorefinery processes using hydrolysates from lignocellulosic residues. The BSRG-iBB team involved in these studies included the PhD student Miguel Antunes, his supervisor Isabel Sá-Correia, and Cláudia P. Godinho and Miguel C. Teixeira. 

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Controlling Biofilm Establishment Since the First Touch

Controlling Biofilm Establishment Since the First Touch | iBB | Scoop.it

Candida glabrata’s ability to cause human infections is tightly linked to its impressive ability to form persistent biofilms. The molecular control of this process is far from being clarified, as it lacks many of the typical features displayed by other Candida species. In this study, a combination of genetic screening, RNA-seq based transcriptomics, and Single-Cell Force Spectroscopy (SCFS), enabled the observation that the transcription factor CgEfg1, but not CgTec1, is necessary for the initial interaction of C. glabrata cells with both abiotic surfaces used in medical devices and epithelial cells, while both transcription factors orchestrate biofilm maturation. The knowledge gathered through this study by former PhD student Mafalda Cavalheiro, and an international team led by Miguel Cacho Teixeira, BSRG-iBB, including Etienne Dague, LAAS-CNRS, Geraldine Butler, University College Dublin, and Arsénio Fialho, BSRG-iBB, and just published in Communications Biology, is expected to contribute to guide the design of more successful therapeutic approaches.

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Marta Mota Receives Outstanding Student Poster Award in the World Microbe Forum

Marta Mota Receives Outstanding Student Poster Award in the World Microbe Forum | iBB | Scoop.it

In the interactive poster (iPoster) presented by Marta Mota  to the international conference World Microbe Forum (online conference, 20-24 June 2021), a joint initiative by the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) and Federation of European Microbiological Sciences (FEMS), the candidate genes and the regulatory networks involved in overcoming methanol toxicity in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were reported. These results provide useful information to guide the genome engineering of methylotrophic yeast species, and other yeasts copying with methanol toxicity in industrial bioprocesses. This work was performed at BSRG-iBB by the PhD student of the PhD programme in Biotechnology and Biosciences Marta Mota (FCT_DP AEM fellowship) under Prof. Isabel Sá-Correia’s supervision and with the collaboration of Luís Martins, a former PhD student of the program. This iPoster was selected by ASM and by FEMS for the Outstanding Student Award.

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Modeling the Full Metabolism of the Human Pathogen Candida parapsilosis

Modeling the Full Metabolism of the Human Pathogen Candida parapsilosis | iBB | Scoop.it

Understanding the behavior of human pathogens is both a challenge and a need, if we are to address infectious diseases with the best possible tools. Genome-scale metabolic models are a way to meet this task, which was just used for the second most prevalent Candida species in Europe, Candida parapsilosis. The construction and validation of a global stoichiometric model describing the whole metabolic network in this human pathogen, as well as its exploitation in drug target discovery, stemming from a collaboration between researchers from BSRG/iBB (Miguel Cacho Teixeira), ITQB-NOVA (Isabel Rocha) and CEB-UMinho (Óscar Dias), was just published in Genes.

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Special Issue on "Yeasts for a Sustainable Circular Bio-Based Economy" for The Journal of Fungi

Special Issue on "Yeasts for a Sustainable Circular Bio-Based Economy" for The Journal of Fungi | iBB | Scoop.it

Together with Dr. Naseem A. Gaur, prof. Isabel Sá-Correia is organizing a special issue for The Journal of Fungi. This special issue is focused on the new circular bio-based economy. The development of large-scale bioprocesses for the bioconversion of biomass resources into environmentally friendly biofuels, chemicals, and materials is required to answer timeless societal challenges. Cost-effective microbial conversion processes of renewable feedstock into biofuels and biochemicals are of utmost importance for the establishment of a robust bioeconomy. Therefore, the transition to a sustainable bio-based economy requires further scientific research and innovation to reach those goals. Integrated yeast biorefinery processes have recently gained relevance in envisaging the conversion of forest and agro-industrial residues into environmentally friendly products currently produced by the petrochemical industry. For all these reasons, this is a very active and exciting area of R&D. Deadline for new manuscript submissions is August 31, 2022.

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Crosstalk between Yeast Cell Plasma Membrane Ergosterol Content and Cell Wall Stiffness

Crosstalk between Yeast Cell Plasma Membrane Ergosterol Content and Cell Wall Stiffness | iBB | Scoop.it

A BSRG-iBB research paper just published in Journal of Fungi (special issue “Yeast Biorefineries”) provides a comprehensive view of the effect that the content of ergosterol at yeast plasma membrane, associated to membrane ABC transporter Pdr18 activity, influences cell wall biophysical properties under acetic acid-induced stress,  as part of a coordinated response to counteract the deleterious effects of this important stress factor in lignocellulosic biorefineries. This research work is first-authored by the PhD student of the PhD programme in Biotechnology and Biosciences Ricardo Ribeiro (FCT_DP AEM fellowship), performed under the supervision of Isabel Sá-Correia and is also co-authored by Cláudia P. Godinho, also from the BSRG-iBB team. This is a collaborative study with Fábio Fernandes (BSIRG-iBB) and Mário S. Rodrigues and his team (BioISI, Faculty of Sciences, ULisboa).

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Marta Mota Delivers Oral Presentation at Microbiotec’21

Marta Mota Delivers Oral Presentation at Microbiotec’21 | iBB | Scoop.it

Marta Mota, a PhD student of the Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, PhD program in Biotechnology and Biosciences, (FCT doctoral programme in Applied and Environmental Microbiology (DP_AEM)), presented her work during the symposium on “Microbiotech for a Sustainable Future” of Microbiotec’ 21 Congress taking place online from 23-26 November. The presentation was entitled “Promising Genetic Determinants of Methanol Tolerance for Yeast Robustness Engineering for Biorefineries”. This work was performed in the Biological Sciences Research Group of iBB - Institute for Bioengineering and Biosciences, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, under Professor Isabel Sá-Correia’s supervision.

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A Neofunctionalized Transcription Factor Controls Azole Resistance in C. glabrata

A Neofunctionalized Transcription Factor Controls Azole Resistance in C. glabrata | iBB | Scoop.it

The prevalence of antifungal resistance in Candida glabrata, especially against azole drugs, results in difficult-to-treat and potentially life-threatening infections. In this study, the role of a newly described transcription factor, Mar1, in azole susceptibility was explored. Using RNA-sequencing, its role in the transcriptome-wide response to fluconazole is assessed, leading to the elucidation of its role in modulating azole susceptibility, dependent on membrane sphingolipid incorporation, membrane permeability, and intracellular drug accumulation. Altogether, a regulatory pathway modulating azole susceptibility in C. glabrata is proposed, resulting from what appears to be a neofunctionalization of a Hap1-like transcription factor. These results obtained by an international team led by Miguel Cacho Teixeira, BSRG-iBB, just published in Journal of Fungi, are expected to contribute to maintain the usability of this drug in antifungal therapy.

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Metabolic Engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Towards the Valorization of Pectin-rich Residues

Metabolic Engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Towards the Valorization of Pectin-rich Residues | iBB | Scoop.it

A recent article published in the journal Metabolic Engineering reports the metabolic engineering of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae envisaging the fast and complete consumption of D-galacturonic acid (d-GalUA) in crude sugar beet pulp hydrolysate under aerobic conditions. To this end, the fungal d-GalUA pathway was inserted in an S cerevisiae strain equipped with an NAD-dependent glycerol catabolic pathway. The constructed strain was able to consume d-GalUA with the highest reported maximum specific rate in synthetic minimal medium when glycerol was added. This work is the result of joint research in the framework of project YEASTPEC (Engineering of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for bioconversion of pectin-containing agro-industrial side-streams), funded through the ERA-IB scheme. In Portugal, the project was led by Isabel Sá-Correia (BSRG/iBB), in Germany by Elke Nevoigt, Jacobs University (corresponding author) and Wolfgang Liebl, TUM, and at VTT, Finland, by Peter Richard. The BSRG/iBB PhD graduate in Biotechnology and Biosciences Luis Martins also co-authored this article.

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Implementation of Synthetic Pathways towards Microbe-Based Production of Non-Natural Carboxylic Acids

Implementation of Synthetic Pathways towards Microbe-Based Production of Non-Natural Carboxylic Acids | iBB | Scoop.it

Carboxylic acids (CAs) are considered key players in the implementation of more sustainable industrial processes due to their potential to replace a set of oil-derived commodity chemicals and there is growing interest in producing them through microbial processes. While many CAs are intermediates of microbial central carbon metabolism, and therefore envisaging their production in a host of choice is relatively straightforward; for other CAs this approach is difficult. This could be because they do not occur naturally (as is the case for levulinic acid) or because the described production pathway cannot be easily ported (as it is the case for adipic, muconic or glucaric acids). In a review published in Journal of Fungi, Nuno Mira’s team (iBB) reviewed the synthetic biology approaches that have been made towards enabling the production of non-natural CAs in microbes, with a large emphasis on metabolic retrobiosynthesis methodologies. Additionally, the authors also reviewed the pathway prospecting studies towards microbial levulinic, poly-lactic and methacrylic acid production, as two case-studies where there is a need to bridge the gap between natural CAs and their non-natural industrial derivatives.

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Acyl-chain Saturation Regulates the Order of Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate Nanodomains

Acyl-chain Saturation Regulates the Order of Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate Nanodomains | iBB | Scoop.it

PI(4,5)P2 is a phospholipid found mostly in the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells, where it plays a crucial role in processes like vesicle trafficking, cytoskeletal regulation, ion channel function, viral assembly and budding. While most phospholipids show considerable acyl-chain diversity, PI(4,5)P2 lipids are exceptionally enriched in specific acyl-chains, the most frequent composition in mammalian cells being 1-stearoyl-2-arachidonyl (18:0 20:4). The biological functions that call for this specific enrichment are still not fully clear. In a recent paper published in Communications Chemistry, a BSIRG-iBB team led by Fábio Fernandes together with the teams of Dr. Nuno Santos (IMM) and Dr. Manuel Melo (ITQB) identified a previously unreported increase in membrane order upon calcium-dependent PI(4,5)P2 clustering. Remarkably, the interaction of saturated PI(4,5)P2 with calcium culminated in the formation of gel nanodomains for fully saturated PI(4,5)P2, and the formation of these gel domains was abrogated in the presence of 18:0 20:4 polyunsaturated PI(4,5)P2. These results support a role of (18:0 20:4)PI(4,5)P2 in inhibiting the formation of highly ordered PI(4,5)P2 nanodomains in the plasma membrane.

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The Azurin-Derived Peptide CT-p19LC Exhibits Membrane-Active Properties and Induces Cancer Cell Death

The Azurin-Derived Peptide CT-p19LC Exhibits Membrane-Active Properties and Induces Cancer Cell Death | iBB | Scoop.it

The bacterial protein azurin shows an unexpected therapeutic effect against various types of cancer. This property seems to result from its unique structural and surface features. A 28-residue peptide (named p28) derived from the middle part of azurin has been subjected to various studies and reached two clinical trials phase I in US. In a recent paper published in Biomedicines, a iBB team (Ana Rita Garizo, Lígia Coelho, Sandra Pinto, Tiago Dias, Fábio Fernandes, Nuno Bernardes and Arsénio M Fialho) were able to identified another anticancer bioactive peptide (CT-p19LC) derived from the C-terminal of azurin. CT-p19LC proved to interact preferentially with cancer cells, causing a significative inhibition of cell proliferation in a dose dependent manner. Moreover, it is proposed that the mode of action of CT-p19LC involves perturbation or disruption of cancer cell membranes. Overall this study highlights the relevance of azurin as a source of bioactive peptides with potential application in cancer therapies.

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Exploring N.C.Yeastract to Study Gene and Genomic Regulation in Non Conventional Yeasts

Exploring N.C.Yeastract to Study Gene and Genomic Regulation in Non Conventional Yeasts | iBB | Scoop.it

Responding to the recent interest of the yeast research community in non-Saccharomyces cerevisiae species of biotechnological relevance, the N.C.Yeastract was associated to YEASTRACT+, a curated repository of known regulatory associations between transcription factors (TFs) and target genes in yeasts. A recent Minireview published in FEMS Yeast Research aims to advertise the update of the existing information since the release of N.C.Yeastract in 2019, and to raise awareness in the community about its potential to help the day-to-day work on non-Saccharomyces species, exploring all the information and bioinformatics tools available in YEASTRACT +. Using simple and widely used examples, a guided exploitation is offered. The usage potentialities of the new CommunityYeastract platform by the yeast community are also discussed. The Minireview is coauthored by a BSRG-iBB team coordinated by Isabel Sá-Correia and including Cláudia P. Godinho, Margarida Palma, Miguel C. Teixeira and the PhD students Miguel Antunes and Marta N. Mota, in collaboration with INESC-ID colleagues.

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Gefitinib-Loaded p28-PLGA Nanoparticles Reduce Tumor Burden and Metastases in Lung Cancer

Gefitinib-Loaded p28-PLGA Nanoparticles Reduce Tumor Burden and Metastases in Lung Cancer | iBB | Scoop.it

p28 is a 28 amino acids peptide derived from the bacterial protein azurin. It possesses cell-penetrating capabilities showing preferential enter in cancer cells. Moreover it has been subject in US to two phase I clinical trials as a anticancer agent. In a recent paper published in Journal of Controlled Release, a iBB team (Garizo AR, Dias TP, Fernandes F, Bernardes N, Fialho AM) together with a i3S/UP team (Castro F, Martins C, Almeida A, Barrias CC, Sarmento B) were able for the first time to fabricate p28-functionalized PLGA nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib. The results obtained indicate that these NPs interact preferentially with lung cancer cells due to their decoration with p28 peptide. In vitro cytotoxicity assays demonstrate biological activity of the NPs against lung cancer cancer cells. Finally, in vivo studies demonstrated a great potential of the p28-NPs in enhancing the therapeutic effects of gefitinib.

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iBB Researcher Tina Keller-Costa Delivers Talk at the International Coral Reef Symposium

iBB Researcher Tina Keller-Costa Delivers Talk at the International Coral Reef Symposium | iBB | Scoop.it

In her talk at the 14th International Coral Reef Symposium, taking place online from 19-23 July 2021, Tina Keller-Costa presented her latest comparative metagenomics study on the functional features of the microbiomes of healthy and diseased octocoral tissue.  This conference, granted every 4 years by the International Coral Reef Society (ICRS), brings together 1300 scientists from 80 countries to discuss coral reef science, management, and conservation policies. The symposium is a key event to develop science-based solutions addressing the present and future challenges of coral reefs, which are globally exposed to unprecedented anthropogenic pressures.

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