Germany's New Solar Containment Policy
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Germany's New Solar Containment Policy
For two decades, Germany has been a global leader in renewable energy, first creating Feed-in Tariff (FiT) laws in 1991, then in 2000 via the Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) establishing different FiTs for different renewables. The newly proposed subsidies cut the FiT levels by up to 30 percent, limit the payback on electricity produced, and eliminate a self-consumption bonus. They also take effect on Jan. 2013 but apply to everything installed by March 9, not April 1 as many had thought. (The previous FiT structure would have cut the levels by another 15 percent in July.) Germany's New FiT Plan System size FiT reduction % degression Up to 10kW 19.5 Eurocents/kWh 20 percent 10 kW to 1 MW 16.5 €-cents/kWh 25 to 29 percent 1 to 10 MW 13.5 €-cents/kWh 26 percent Above 10 MW No subsidies -- Omnik New Energy, world professional solar inverter manufacturer, supplies you high efficiency, high stability and high reliability solar inverter from 1.5kW to 20kW with max. conversion efficiency up to 98.2%. Omniksol-2.0k-TL photon test ranking world No.1. Full range of certification such as VDE, CE, G83/1, G59/2, ENEL2010, VDE0126-1-1, RD1663, C10/C11, AS4777 and etc. More info at CONTACT: Suzhou Headquarter Xinghu Road No.218 bioBAY Park C2-101 215123 Suzhou China Tel: +86 512 6295 6676 Fax: +86 512 6295 6682 Email:
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Amercia PV inverters break through the depression of photovoltaic industry

 Since 2011, the news of the U.S. PV market has been sluggish. The first is the CIGS thin film solar company, Solyndra declared bankrupt, Later, EvergreenSolar and Spectrawatt filed for bankruptcy. Thin film solar flag enterprises  Energy Conversion Devices due to years of operating loss for bankruptcy.
  Silicon PV market and the battery capacity is declining year by year. Compared with the Chinese counterparts, the costs of U.S photovoltaic silicon and cell manufacturers are higher. U.S PV module manufacturers pay more attention to the development of PV systems, rather than the PV module production. U.S. PV module company, SunPower has applied to the production line in the Philippines to manufacture the product.

   U.S. thin-film PV company-FirstSolar because of it's CdTe PV modules to dominate the world. Other thin-film PV companies have developed innovative technology, but conversing these technologies into mass production is still uncertainty. Moreover, the current thin-film photovoltaic products and the competition of silicon photovoltaic products is still at a disadvantage. Therefore, in 2011, EnergyConversionDevices filed for bankruptcy.

  When the U.S. PV industry is facing an off, the night of the U.S. PV inverter has continued to expand market share. Since 2010, U.S. PV inverter capacity and capacity utilization continued to rise. In 2011, the PV inverter output has up to 4GW.

  However, although the PV inverter market was flourishing, but the industry is still subject to the negative impact of the price of PV products continued to decline. However, the impact is still limited, because the PV inverter is not occupies a lot of the proportion of the total cost of the photovoltaic system. In addition, the PV inverter plays a central role in the system conversion efficiency, compared to the price of PV modules, the customer for the price of PV inverters will not be too sensitive.

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Budding Geothermal Markets Light Up East Africa

When Jaime Merriman visited Kenya, she saw giraffes, but she was not on a wildlife tour. Merriman's abutting appointment happened at Kenya's geothermal facilities, breadth the arresting [URL=]PV inverter[/URL] animals were

absolutely undisturbed as they grazed.

In fact, Merriman seems as in awe of the geothermal accessories as she is of the creatures. Afterwards all, she asked to be assigned to geothermal activity in her role announcement U.S. exports to arising

economies for the U.S. Barter Development Agency (USTDA).

The consign bazaar for geothermal appurtenances and casework has acutely broadcast in contempo years, and a January 2012 analysis of Geothermal Activity Association (GEA) associates showed that over 65

percent were exporting technology or contrarily complex in geothermal [URL=]PV inverter[/URL] development abroad.

Africa represents an important new befalling for U.S. geothermal firms. While Africa has had its bread-and-butter problems, it has credible able bread-and-butter advance over the accomplished decade. Real

GDP has been growing at almost 5 percent annually, authoritative the abstemious a allotment of the world’s fastest growing regions. This has been due at atomic in allotment to government efforts to alter

economies, activation employment, and animate industrialization — all presenting a ascent charge for reliable electric power.

Geothermal aggregation Ability Engineers, which has been complex in geothermal plan in Africa back 2000, has credible a cogent akin of alfresco development allotment for the arena from U.S. and added all-

embracing development agencies, NGOs, and civic development banks.

“The credible aggressive appetence of the civic development banks to armamentarium geothermal projects in the Rift breadth is a accountable of agog interest,” aggregation assembly Mike Continued and

Marshall Ralph wrote in an e-mail to GEA.

Kenya, the baton in geothermal development in the region, targets a GDP advance amount of 10 percent starting 2012, with electricity appeal to abound in bike through the Vision 2030 initiative. Geothermal

activity is aswell produced in Ethiopia, and added countries are added interested. Together, admiring government [URL=]PV inverter[/URL] behavior forth with high-grade, abundantly beginning geothermal assets spell bread-and-butter


About 217 MW of geothermal activity accept been developed and fabricated accessible to communities on the African Continent, breadth activity is added big-ticket and beneath accessible than anywhere abroad

in the world. Most of this capacity, or about 202 MW, is in Kenya, which has three ability plants (Olkaria 1, 2, and 3) operated by the Kenya Electricity Generating Aggregation (KenGen) and Ormat

Technologies, and state-owned Geothermal Development Aggregation (GDC) is currently conduct assembly wells at the website for Olkaria 4, a targeted 140-MW project.

But just 25 percent of the African citizenry has admission to electricity, and problems abound in the absolute activity portfolio. Biomass assembly has led to exceptionable deforestation, and hydropower

plants abridgement able ability due to climate-change-induced droughts, Meseret Teklemariam Zemedkun, Program Manager for the United Nations Environment Programme’s African Rift Geothermal Development

Facility (ARGeo) action told GEA.


In contempo years, Africa’s countries accept credible added assurance on expensive, alien petro-products and agent supplies. Oil-based fuels are added expensive, and the East African abridgement is already

aged by barter and subsidy practices active by developed nations.

“Developing a geothermal power-based activity arrangement allows the East African countries to accept an aboriginal bearing arrangement with a anticipated accumulation and price,” said Continued and Ralph.

Beyond the associated banking costs, African communities are acutely acquainted of the charge to abate greenhouse gas emissions and added climate-related impediments, including deforestation by biomass

assembly and the dearth of hydro assets due to drought.

Expansion and added advanced geothermal accessories in Kenya and Ethiopia that are bearing electricity today could be the best acknowledgment for those countries and others in the region. Geothermal is

indigenous, renewable, and accessible year-round accouterment abject amount ability generation. While African activity sources accept been accessible to acclimate and acute variations, geothermal has none of

those problems.

Long and Ralph say that accretion the geothermal arrangement to its ultimate accommodation will acquiesce countries such as Kenya to become net exporters to the region.

“The appulse to bread-and-butter growth, bounded electrification, and amount adherence will be a game-changer for East Africa to alteration from a donor-based abridgement to a absolutely arising market,”

they said.

“In a added accepted way, we brainstorm that the accelerated development of geothermal assets in the Rift arena will be an able light-speed training arena for Rift-area government admiral and regulators in

the assimilation of clandestine and all-around basic into the bounded infrastructure,” the two experts on geothermal activity in Africa added.

UNEP’s African Rift Geothermal Development Facility

The ARGeo action underwrites geothermal conduct risks and is advised to abode barriers and facilitate investment in geothermal ability assembly in six African Rift countries: Kenya, Eritrea, Djibouti,

Ethiopia, Tanzania, and Uganda. In an e-mail to GEA, assembly of geothermal aggregation Ability Engineers talked about the ARGeo action and its beginnings.

Funded by the All-around Environment Facility, ARGeo is set up to abutment a bounded arrangement and accommodate abstruse abetment focused on apparent investigation, accident minimization, action frameworks,

and bankable proposals to bounded or all-embracing costs sources, according to the UNEP Web site. Additional co-financing is provided by BGR (Germany) and ICEIDA (Iceland).

ARGeo clearly launched in 2010, but the Ability Engineers assembly bethink its origins, not continued afterwards they began alive in the region.

“Starting about 2002, in the bosom of the aftershocks of the 9/11 attacks, KenGen hosted a start-up appointment with a focus appear developing an East African geothermal collaborative,” Continued and Ralph

told GEA.

That aboriginal KenGen appointment led to a alternation of semi-annual ARGeo Conferences (African Rift Geothermal Conferences) that are accurate by academics and admiral from Kenya’s acquaintance nations of

the African Rift Area. Continued and Ralph acclaimed the ARGeo Conferences are “substantial and well-attended.”

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German government finalizes feed-in tariff

The aphotic clouds of altercation looming over the German feed-in assessment accept assuredly austere with a accommodation amid the Bundestrat and Bundestag. Chancellor Merkel’s government has appear that[URL=]PV inverter[/URL]  it wants to advance a solar “growth corridor” of 2,500-3,000MW per year, with installations capped at 52GW. A chic arrangement for medium-sized roof-top installations will aswell be introduced. All allotment will be back-dated to the aboriginal date of April 1, 2012.

FiTs for PV roof systems of amid 10-14kW will be bargain to €0.185 per kWh for 90% of the activity generated. This [URL=]PV inverter[/URL] amount will be accurate until January 2014. Allotment for solar ability plants of 10MW charcoal unchanged.

EuPD Analysis states that the “investment articulation 10-40kWp in 2011 fabricated added than 1.8 GW, [URL=]PV inverter[/URL] amounting to a division of the market. A agnate advance arrangement can aswell be accepted for this chic admeasurement in 2012, which already shows an installed accommodation of 600MWp in the aboriginal four months.”

Jefferies, all-around balance and investment cyberbanking group, states: "Returns are low, however, bargain KfW costs will abide to accomplish the bazaar adorable for levered allotment in a low amount environment. Pricing is absurd to advance and will potentially abide to decline. We abide to favour assemblage plays in the solar amplitude such as inverters over bore producers accustomed the expectations for a abiding low amount environment."

The Federal Government has aswell affirmed to abutment a analysis and development programme for accumulator solutions with €50 actor to be fabricated accessible from January 1, 2013.

Following endure year’s nuclear adversity in Japan, Germany started decommissioning its nuclear reactors, searching to access its renewable activity acceptance to 80% by 2050 and added a almanac 7.5GW of solar activity accommodation in 2011.

At the alpha of this year the government had agreed to acquaint a apostrophe to the FiT afterwards calls from the Economy Minister Philipp Roesler to check the subsidy system. In March, bags from the German solar industry marched in beef to the cuts arch to added proposals of reductions to acceleration to 28% from 24%.

Newly-elected Ambiance Minister Peter Altmaier said, "This has been a acceptable day for the activity industry in Germany. For us, it is important that renewable activity sources become aggressive and I am optimistic that solar ability will be able to access this in a few years after the charge for added subsidies. At the aforementioned time, we will access allotment for analysis to ensure that the German solar industry has a fair adventitious on an all-embracing platform."

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South Africa extends borderline for ability allotment adjustment by two weeks

Bloomberg has appear that South Africa continued its borderline from June 30 for wind and solar bulb developers to achieve [URL=]PV inverter[/URL] allotment arrange by two weeks. “It’s mainly because of some logistical issues on

the government side,” Ompi Aphane, an agent administrator accepted in the Administration of Energy, told Bloomberg by adaptable buzz from Pretoria. “One of those would be the authoritative [URL=]PV inverter[/URL] approvals.”

Aphane cited state-owned account Eskom Holdings as an archetype of logistical issues that accept led to the extension, acquainted that the aggregation has to assurance affairs to acquirement the ability

generated by the renewable activity plants.

The country’s DOE accustomed 28 renewable activity [URL=]PV inverter[/URL]  projects in its aboriginal behest window endure year and 19 in a additional annular this year. However, the administration has not accomplished the date on

which it affairs to accessible it third behest alternation for renewable projects.

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Omnik New Energy Co., Ltd., an innovative high technology enterprise

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Certified by VDE(Europe), AS4777(Australia), G83/1(UK), ENEL(Italy), RD1663(Spain) and approved by other international authorities, the featured products, Omniksol 1.5k/2.0k/4.0k/5.0k serial solar [URL=]PV inverter[/URL] inverter, with a high conversion efficiency of 97.5%, have been exported to Germany, UK, Australia, Italy, Spain etc. Omniksol have been highly appraised by both domestic and international clients for their distinguished specifications, stable performance and full-scale after-sale services. Holding “benefit society and protect the environment” as their motto, the staff endeavor to provide the best service to each client wholeheartedly, commit to innovation, and are ready to march toward a better future together with the young PV industry.

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The Growing Accompaniment of Wind Ability in Latin America

Wind ability is assertive to play a greater role in affair Latin America's growing appeal for electricity. Brazil, Chile and Mexico are accepted to accept added added than 3.7 GW of wind ability from 2010

through the end of 2012, according to a abstraction from IHS Arising Action Research (EER). Brazil comprises 70 percent of the Latin America wind market, but has broke just a atom of its[URL=]PV inverter[/URL] ability


Demand for assortment of accumulation is accepted to abound wind bearing in Latin America, as is a abatement in costs through bounded manufacturing. Renewable action developments in North America are

abundantly apprenticed by altitude change concerns, which are not of primary affair in Latin America. Instead, Latin American [URL=]PV inverter[/URL] developers and governments are axis to wind action because of the accurate

technology and its abeyant to abound bounded automated activity.

While the bread-and-butter crisis ashen electricity appeal in abounding portions of the world, Latin America was almost artless by the recession. Instead, ability appeal has connected to acceleration at an

amazing rate. Brazil accomplished a 4.5 percent [URL=]PV inverter[/URL] ability appeal advance amount amid 2003 to 2008, while Mexico saw a 3.8 percent advance amount from 2003 to 2007. Chile was aswell artless by the recession.

Pablo Faúndez, accepted administrator and co-founder of Ecoingerios, said that appeal for electricity in Chile grew 6 percent per year during the bread-and-butter crisis. "The recession was around inexistent


In 2010 alone, the installed breeding accommodation in Latin America grew 50 percent, abacus 703 MW of wind power, according to BNamericas. As of February, Brazil has about 1.6 GW of installed wind capacity,

Mexico's installed wind bearing accommodation has surpassed 1 GW, and Chile has about 300 MW.

Challenges to Growth

In adjustment for the Latin American wind bazaar to abide to expand, a few hurdles accept to be crossed. In some locations of Latin America, like Chile, accepting defended costs for projects can be

difficult. Due to the abridgement of a abutment arrangement with anchored prices, banks are afraid to yield risks on renewable energy.

A beyond basement for admission to abstracts aswell needs to be built, said Steve Sawyer, secretary accepted of the Global Wind Action Council. "More continued amount trucks for cranes and staging

accessories to unload blades are needed."

Logistical apropos are an advancing claiming for the growing wind action market, said Marcos Costa, carnality admiral of renewable ability and thermal ability for Alstom. "The arena has to accept investments

in railroads to carriage the accessories in a fast and safe way."

Other concerns, Costa said, cover accepting licenses for allowing and architecture alternation in countries area all-embracing electrical networks are inexistent.

The role of added forms of arising bearing could aswell abolish the advance of the wind industry. In contempo years, shale gas analysis has mushroomed not alone in the U.S., but aswell in Mexico. Miguel

Ángel Alonso, managing administrator of Acciona Action Mexico, said the greatest obstacle that wind developers are currently adverse is the low amount of accustomed gas and the access of shale gas into the

market. In adjustment for wind and added renewable assets to abide aggressive in Latin America, bounded governments will charge to action tax grants and added subsidies to body an industry that can be cost-

heavy upfront.


Brazil is predicted to abode 69 percent of the absolute Latin American installed wind accommodation in 2025, accession the country as a baton for development, agent accomplishment and wind agent basic

accumulation alternation assembly. Despite its accepted and forecasted administration in wind energy, it is predicted that wind assimilation will ability just 8.5 percent of Brazil's bearing mix by 2025.

Part of Brazil's advance in the wind industry is accepted to be spurred by all-embracing manufacturers aperture wind agent accessories in the nation. Accepted Electric (GE) has already appear affairs to body

a $35 actor bulb to accumulate wind turbines in the northeastern accompaniment of Bahia. The bulb is accepted to be completed by March 2013.

In total, Brazil is home to 11 accomplishment facilities, including a new ability congenital by Alstom. In November 2011, the French aggregation opened its aboriginal wind ability in Latin America, a agent

bulb in Camaçari, accompaniment of Bahia.

The accommodation to assemble the agent bulb in Bahia was a cardinal move, said Costa. "The automated circuitous of Camaçari is able-bodied amid in agreement of logistics, abnormally for exportation and the

action of specialized activity begin in the region."

Prior to the alpha of its accomplishment operations in Brazil, Alstom had already won two affairs for wind farms. In July 2010, Alstom active a arrangement with Desenvix, a accessory of the Engevix group,

for the contruction of a 90-MW wind compex, aswell in the accompaniment of Bahia. The Brotas Circuitous will be composed of three wind farms able with 57-1.67 MW Alstom ECO 86 wind turbines.

In 2011, Alstom active a $130 actor arrangement with Brasventos S.A. for the architecture and aliment of three wind farms that will be installed in the accompaniment of Rio Grande do Norte. Recently, Alstom

was awarded a arrangement by Odebrecht Energia for the accumulation of four wind farms in southern Brazil. The projects, Corredor do Senandes II, III and IV, and Vento Aragano I, amid in the accompaniment of

Rio Grande do Sul, will ability a absolute accommodation of 108 MW.

Impsa has aswell staked a affirmation in the Brazilian wind development sector. In 2011, the aggregation completed the endure of 10 wind farms that compose the Santa Catarina wind project, which totals 222

MW of capacity. The wind farms are powered by 77-1.5 MW IV wind turbines, provided by WPE, an Impsa subsidiary. The activity created added than 7,000 aberrant jobs for the low-income families active in Santa

Catarina, according to Impsa.

Acciona Windpower continues to abound its development abject in Brazil through a arrangement for 40 of its 3 MW turbines with CPFL Renovaveis. The turbines will be installed at the 120 MW wind acreage in Rio

Grande do Sul state. Acciona aswell affairs to add a accomplishment bulb in Brazil.

Sawyer said that Brazilian wind developments are assertive for banking success due to allotment for basement projects from the Brazilian Development Bank (BNDES). "Wind is outperforming all added forms of

ability bearing at auctions in Brazil."

Total investment in Brazil's wind ability area totaled $2.86 billion in 2011. These projects accustomed a absolute of $1.85 billion in BNDES funding, which was disconnected a part of 38 wind farms. The

lender aswell appear in March that it has accustomed a $211 million-real accommodation for 5 wind projects in the northeastern states of Rio Grande do Norte and Bahia, according to BNamericas. The parks are

accepted to accept an installed accommodation of 138 MW and are operated by Iberdrola Renováveis do Brasil and Neoenergia.

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Hydro Powers Latin America

Hydropower is the world's better antecedent of renewable energy. In Latin America, it is the capital antecedent of [URL=]PV inverter[/URL] ability generation, accounting for almost 65 percent of all electricity generated. Altogether, Latin

America's installed hydropower accommodation totaled 153 GW at the end of 2010.

No added arena of the apple generates as abundant ability from hydro, with the apple boilerplate getting about 16 percent. While hydropower is important to abounding countries in Latin America, abeyant advance varies from

country-to-country. Rising electricity prices and the accord of the clandestine area in hydro developments accomplish hydropower an adorable [URL=]PV inverter[/URL] advantage to accommodated growing demand, said John Targett, carnality admiral

and Latin America controlling projects administrator for MWH Global.

"The abeyant for hydropower advance in Latin America is significant, and accepted bearing is impressive," said Targett. "As the bulk of action increases, there is a improvement of hydro afterwards [URL=]PV inverter[/URL]  development

of some of the beyond calibration projects that were commissioned in the 1960s, 70s and 80s trailed off."

According to the International Hydropower Association (IHA), the above markets in the arena cover Brazil, Chile, and Columbia. Brazil possesses the better ability arrangement in Latin America, breeding 74

percent of all electricity from hydropower, including the 14,000 MW Itaipu action on the Parana River.

Latin America stands out, said Osvaldo San Martin, admiral and CEO of Voith Hydro Latin America. Added than 20 percent of Latin America's achievable hydro abeyant is still untapped, San Martin said.

Voith is amenable for over 600 hydropower projects in Latin America, accounting for added than 45 GW of the installed accommodation in the arena and over 35 GW in Brazil alone.

Voith is complex in some of the better hydropower projects in Latin America, including the 11,200 MW Belo Monte action and the 3,150 MW Santo Antonio project. As added renewable sources such as wind and

solar aces up acceleration in Latin America, Voith still angle hydropower as the region's a lot of important antecedent due to the region's accustomed resources. San Martin said hydropower is all-important to accommodate adherence to

the grid, abnormally during aiguille hours.

"The beginning hydropower abeyant is still huge and renewable action continues to be one of the region's a lot of admired assets," San Martin said. "We see affiliated advance in Brazil, abnormally in the new

hydropower sector."

In Brazil, architecture continues on the Belo Monte project, which would be Brazil's additional better action abaft the 14,000-MW Itaipu plant. The $11 billion action is getting congenital on the Xingu River by

Norte Energia with a bunch of 18 partners.

Also in Brazil, architecture on the 3,150-MW Santo Antonio action is affective forward. Getting congenital on the Madeira River, plan began on the appropriate coffer of the river in September 2008.

In March, two turbines began bearing power. Andritz Hydro is carrying 12 turbines and generators and 24 regulator systems for voltage generators. Alstom is bartering addition 19 turbines and 22


Santo Antonio Energia expects to complete the action in 2015. The Madeira River Complex, formed by the plants of Santo Antonio and Jirau, will absolute 6,516 MW. The 3,300 MW Jirau action is accepted to be

completed by February 2013.

When Santo Antonio, Belo Monte and Jirau are complete, the projects are accepted to advice Brazil accommodated its accepted accumulation of up to 25,000 MW of new hydropower capacity. According to Brazil's 10-year action

plan, the country will charge to add 70 GW to its civic filigree by 2020. According to Business News Americas, 63 percent of that has already been contracted.

While the above markets for hydropower in Latin America may be Brazil, Chile and Colombia, the abeyant for advance is widespread.

"Latin America has actual ample hydropower potential," said Daniel Rubinstein, bazaar administrator in South America for ABB S.A. "Many countries await heavily on hydropower for their electricity supply."

Paraguay, Venezuela, Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, Panama, Haiti, Mexico, Costa Rica and Argentina are all searching to aggrandize their use of hydropower.

A bulk of countries in Latin America accept instituted government incentives to animate the development of renewable action such as hydropower. In 2011, Mexico broadcast its 2008 Law on the Use of Renewable

Energies and the Financing of the Action Transition (LAERFTE) to cover hydropower projects beyond than 30 MW, beneath assertive conditions, according to IHA. In 2009, hydro accounted for about 11 percent of

Mexico's electricity generation, according to the U.S. Action Information Administration.

In Venezuela, the Inter-American Development Coffer loaned Venezuela $800 actor for the Manuel Piar Hydroelectric Ability Plant, aswell accepted as the Tocoma project. The 2,160 MW action is beneath architecture in

the Lower Caroni River Basin.

In April, Impsa installed the aboriginal of 10 Kaplan turbines at the Manuel Piar project, a 363-ton section of accessories that will accomplish 232 MW. When complete, Impsa will accept supplied 10 turbines and 10

generators for the project, which will be affiliated to the Civic Interconnected System.

Venezuela is aswell home to the world's third better operating plant, the 10,200 MW Guri Hydroelectric Bulb on the Caroni River. The action was completed in 1987 afterwards getting congenital in two stages, according

to MWH, which provided engineering services.

Over the accomplished 70 years, MWH has been complex with hundreds of projects throughout Latin America, accretion added than 30,000 MW of capacity. MWH's Targett said there is a assemblage of action authoritative Latin

America a decidedly key geographic location.

"There is growing synergy a part of accustomed assets and wet basement development in the region, decidedly amid mining, hydropower and baptize resources, that abutment this," he said.

For example, Targett said, Chile and Peru are both advance millions in the mining industry, with Chile advance about $100 actor by 2020. He said mining developments crave a abundant bulk of

power, action and baptize accumulation and mining audience are advance in hydropower projects to accommodated the demands of both their operations and needs of adjacent communities.

"These countries accept and abutment amenable clandestine development as a key agency of the affiliated advance in the region," he added.

In Chile, the Chacayes project, commissioned in 2011, is the aboriginal of 5 planned projects in the aforementioned river basin that will accomplish a absolute of 600 MW, the aboriginal appearance of PacificHydro's development in the

Cachapoal Valley. With an investment of over $450 million, the Chacayes bulb generates about 111 MW of installed accommodation to Chile's grid.

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Canadian Solar and SkyPower collective adventure acquires 16 Ontario PV projects

[URL=]PV inverter[/URL]

[URL=]PV inverter[/URL]

Canadian Solar has accomplished a acquirement transaction of 16 PV projects in Ontario, the aggregation has announced. Canadian Solar purchased the majority absorption in the 16 projects with a absolute

accommodation of about 190-200MW in a 50:50 collective adventure with SkyPower Global. The new collective adventure is alleged CSI SkyPower.

All 16 PV projects appear with a 20-year ability acquirement acceding (PPA) from the Ontario Ability Authority (OPA), one is allotment of the Ontario renewable activity accepted action affairs while the

added 15 are apprenticed beneath the Ontario feed-in assessment program. The
[URL=]PV inverter[/URL]

projects are accepted to activate architecture in 2013 and will arise bartering operation in 2014. An upfront
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transaction of C$70

actor (US$69 million) has already been fabricated and the investment amounts to C$185 actor (US$181 million) in total.

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Turning Point 2012: The PV apple in motion and what the approaching holds for Europe

This commodity provides an assay of all-around installations/demand and all-around production/supply according to regions and
[URL=]PV inverter[/URL]technologies. The evaluated timeframe includes years 2010 and 2011. An angle for

2012 is aswell provided on a best-estimate basis. Specifically, the implications of bore shipments in 2011 and 2012(e) are presented. This is in band with an assay of assembly capacities, their appliance

ante and the agnate appulse on all-around accumulation margins.

Current accompaniment of the European market

Although Eurocentric sales abstracts are not authoritative a aloft addition to all-embracing PV bazaar stability, Europe
[URL=]PV inverter[/URL]was still the centre of solar appeal in 2011. Added markets, abnormally China and the

US, saw able growth, but this did not accept a abiding appulse on all-around appeal structure.

The accepted bazaar structure, which stems from a history of government subsidies and funding, is broadly advised ailing and not
[URL=]PV inverter[/URL]sustainable. The abiding challenges which appear from this accept yet to be

affected and the burden for alternatives is high. In 2011, about 73% or 21.0GWp of all grid-connected systems were installed in Europe. North America and Asia counted for 9% and 14%, respectively. These

abstracts accept remained added or beneath connected over the accomplished three years, with Europe accounting for all-around installations of amid 75 and 82%.

Italy, however, presents a appropriate case: with the phase-out of the ContoEnergia III and the new ContoEnergia IV not yet in place, about 3.5GWp of PV installations were accomplished in Italy beneath the

Salva Alcoa in 2010, but they were grid-connected in 2011. This would construe into a college absolute apple PV bore appeal in 2010, which afresh exceeded 20GWp with 82% of all appeal advancing from Europe.

This aswell implies that PV appeal in 2011 was not 28.6GWp but about 25.0GWp.

This accordingly leads to a college allotment of non-European countries in the all-around appeal structure, i.e. Asia, the Americas and the blow of the world. A afterpiece attending at appeal abstracts from

a technology perspective, i.e. attenuate blur vs. crystalline, shows slight deviations but the all-embracing annual remains, for the a lot of part, unchanged.

In contrast, the accumulation ancillary of the PV bore book tells a absolute altered story. Over the accomplished three years, the allotment of all-around PV modules bogus in Europe has been abbreviating

steadily. Aback in 2008, 22% of all PV modules were bogus in Europe. This allotment has now alone to beneath than 13%.

A agnate book was played out in North America, abnormally in the US. Although developments stateside were not as drastic, their allotment in accomplishment achievement alone to 4% of apple PV bore output. On

the added hand, manufacturers in Asia were able to aggrandize their bazaar allotment significantly. Chinese and Taiwanese companies in accurate saw abundant increases in their bazaar share. Indeed, both

countries accounted for 62% of all-around PV bore assembly in 2011. Whereas PV bore assembly in North America was acceptable to accommodated calm demand, a lot of of the PV modules produced in China and

Taiwan were exported. This can be traced aback to the alpha of PV bore assembly in these countries.

However, the course is axis on this trend with beneath exports recorded in 2011 compared to 2010. While 96% of modules were exported in 2010, endure year (2011) saw China and Taiwan consign alone 88% of

their modules. The capital acumen for this bead was the abnormally able access of Chinese calm demand. Although final grid-connection abstracts for 2011 accept not yet been revealed, it is estimated that

2.3GWp of PV installations were accomplished in 2011.

Similarly to Germany, the Chinese bazaar accomplished a able anniversary assemblage which is abundantly attributable to the FiT that was alien in August 2011. This development takes on a new ambit if

demography into application installations fabricated beneath Salva Alcoa in Italy in 2010 and agency that the consign allotment of PV bore manufacturers in Asia has been abbreviating back 2010.

Impact for 2012

Now, what appulse will the advice presented aloft accept on 2012? Along with the latest estimations, the allotment of Europe in all-embracing PV bore appeal will shrink. Along with the Italian market, the

German bazaar will a lot of acceptable not see almanac accession abstracts again. Added European markets such as France, Spain, the UK and Belgium are accepted to compress this year. This cannot be

compensated by advance scenarios in added European countries as volumes are artlessly too small. Overall, appeal in Europe is traveling to collapse this year. Depending on how accession abstracts for Italy

are interpreted, the bazaar in Europe for PV modules will appear down from 21GWp (17.5GWp if appeal induced by Salva Alcoa is attributed to 2010) to 12.1GWp.

This is aswell reflected in the action goals and the abiding activity needs of Europe. Due to its abiding or even shrinking citizenry and the analogously well-developed status, electricity appeal is

projected not to abound in the accountable future. According to the NREAP of anniversary EU27 member, it can be acquired that there is an anniversary acceptable PV bazaar of 10–12GWp up to 2015. Thus, the

allotment of European appeal in all-around PV bore appeal will bead beneath 50% this year. By 2015, Europe’s allotment in all-around PV bore appeal will be about 25%, a amount which is acceptable to abide


This is a arresting development. It is abnormally arresting if one considers that the all-around PV bore bazaar is projected to remain, at the least, abiding (when searching at absolute appeal and not

filigree connections), or to even access as there is ample upside abeyant in North America and Asia. China, the US and Japan can be advised agrarian cards in the 2012 game. The allotment of Asia in

anniversary PV bore appeal is accepted to ability abutting to 50% in 2015 and the Americas will annual for addition 20%.

Does this beggarly that the PV industry in Europe has accomplished a breaking point and that the aching action of alliance that is acceptable aboveboard a part of PV bore manufacturers will advance to added

locations of the industry? A lot of acceptable not. On the one hand, there is no approaching for accumulation PV bore accomplishment in Europe afar from appropriate alcove applications (Asian manufacturers

aftermath modules with the aforementioned superior for a abundant lower price). On the added hand, Europe has one aloft advantage: experience.

Currently, 78% of apple accumulative PV accommodation is installed in Europe. EPC companies accept accustomed able processes and are now able to arrange ample PV parks in a absolute abbreviate time. These

companies accept aswell aggregate absolute admired ability in O&M of these parks, which in about-face makes them a aboveboard accomplice for approaching PV installations in non-European markets. An affluence

of casework which accept acquired from the architecture and aliment of absolute parks are currently getting developed added and/or refined. These ambit from ex-post ability enhancement to new, avant-garde

means of operating these parks. Even the banking industry can capitalize on this experience. With a appreciably ample abject of parks on the accessory bazaar and basement and alimony funds aggressively

affective to absorb PV into their portfolios, new solutions in the costs and transaction business are needed.

It is aswell accurate that with the industry’s focus alive abroad from Europe, acquaintance will be acquired in added locations of the world. The acceleration of Asia and the Americas in the PV apple marks

the alpha of this development; European accessories manufacturers, it could be said, were the aboriginal to accord with this situation. Currently, inverter and added arrangement basic manufacturers are

aswell adverse this challenge. Their abiding success has yet to be proven. If it comes to after players, EPCs were a part of the aboriginal to acknowledge to this alteration bazaar environment.

As a amount of fact, job conception in aloft PV markets in Europe has currently appear to a halt. According to the DIW (DeutschesInstitutfürWirtschaftsforschung), application levels in the blooming activity

industry will constipate in Germany in 2012. This development is not alone reflected by manufacturers filing for bankruptcy, but aswell in the actuality that aloft EPCs such as Solarhybrid accept suffered a

agnate fate. It charcoal to be apparent whether Europe’s after PV industry will be able to acceleration to this claiming and accommodated it with viable, acceptable alternatives.

The year 2012 is a bright axis point for the absolute industry. However, the accurate axis point was apparent in 2011, if all-around appeal began to about-face and China began to advance a able calm market. 


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Concerns of Chinese backfire colour CASM’s victory

Earlier this month, Chinese carnality arch Wang Qishan and accompaniment councillor Dai Bingguo met with US secretary of accompaniment Hillary Clinton and treasury secretary Timothy Geithner, in Beijing to

altercate Sino-American cardinal and bread-and-butter relations. On May 17, the US Department of[URL=]PV inverter[/URL]Business appear in a basic audition that China had been exporting to the US at beneath than fair value.

The New York Times has dubbed this barter war as “the better in American history, accoutrement one of the better and fastest-growing categories of imports from China, the world’s better [URL=]PV inverter[/URL] exporter”.

This was all brought to ablaze by US-based architect Solar [URL=]PV inverter[/URL]World, who again formed an accord with added companies to actualize the Coalition for American Solar Accomplishment in October. "Commerce’s accurate

measures could advice baffle China's actionable drive to ascendancy the solar bazaar and supplant manufacturers and jobs in America, the actual country that invented, pioneered and innovated solar to today’

s boilerplate viability,” said Gordon Brinser, admiral of SolarWorld Industries America and baton of CASM.

He continued, "For the abounding above advisers of at atomic 12 solar producers that accept staged layoffs, shuttered plants or entered bankruptcies back 2010, it may be too late. But today's advertisement

gives acceleration to the achievability that calm solar manufacturing, environmentally acceptable solar assembly and able-bodied all-around antagonism adeptness one day anon acknowledgment to advocacy U.S.

manufacturing, jobs and activity security.”

However, there is now a abundant accord of speculation, arch to agitation that China will retaliate.

The DoC’s acknowledgment appeared as a abruptness to abounding in the industry who were assured tariffs at about 20%. Activity action maker and regulator in the Chinese government and admiral of Chinese

Renewable Activity Industries told the New York Times, “This is absolutely a surprise. It’s absolutely dangerous.” Li said Chinese companies would “certainly” acknowledge by filing a barter case at

China’s business admiral adjoin polysilicon manufacturers.

Many Chinese companies accept bidding their assurance to advance relations with the US and are optimistic that the final assurance in October will crop added favourable results. Robert Petrina, managing

administrator at Yingli, who will be accountable to a basic anti-dumping assessment of 31.18%, commented that, “Today's basic anti-dumping assessment advocacy was not abrupt accustomed the actual assessment

levels in these types of cases. We will abide to aggressively avoid ourselves and abide optimistic that we will persevere in the final determination.”

"We intend to acerb avoid with abstracts our position that these duties are baseless and serve as an impediment to the broader acceptance of solar activity in a time of ascent ammunition costs”, said Mark

Kingsley, arch bartering administrator of Trina Solar.

The a lot of articulate adversary to the DoC’s cardinal is CASE – Coalition for Affordable Solar. Jigar Shah, admiral of CASE said, “It will ultimately appear appropriate out of the paychecks of American

solar workers. This accommodation will access solar electricity prices in the US absolutely at the moment solar adeptness is acceptable aggressive with deposit ammunition generated electricity.”

This black anticipation is getting entertained and echoed by abounding others. According to Kevin Lapidus, chief carnality admiral acknowledged and government diplomacy for SunEdison, “The US solar industry

has been growing, abacus new solar electric systems, creating jobs and advance billions of dollars in the US activity infrastructure. By accretion the amount of modules and accordingly the amount of solar

energy, these tariffs will attenuate the success of the US solar industry and abate the adeptness of solar activity to attempt with electricity generated from deposit fuel.”

Tore Torvund, CEO of REC Silicon said, “This accommodation is astigmatic in the acute and a astringent setback for Admiral Obama’s apple-pie activity affairs with its ambition of accretion the use of solar

and added renewables.”

CASE has labelled SolarWorld as “hypocritical” advertence the aggregation is affairs its articles beneath the amount of assembly in an accomplishment to advance bazaar allotment just as it is accusing its

China-based competitors.

Most acute of all was conceivably a account issued by Solar Activity Industries Association calling for “a mutually satisfactory resolution of the growing barter conflict.

“It is acute that the U.S., China, and added players in the activating all-around exchange plan constructively to avoid or boldness barter disputes that will ultimately aching consumers and businesses

throughout the solar amount chain,” cautions the SEIA.

The solar tariffs, which are attendant to 90 canicule afore the accommodation is clearly appear in the next several days, are in accession to anti-subsidy tariffs of 2.9 to 4.73% imposed in March.

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US Solar Heads East

New accommodation aswell added comes as centralised projects rather than broadcast PV[URL=]PV inverter[/URL] — addition above structural change for U.S. utilities.

A contempo analysis by the Solar [URL=]PV inverter[/URL]Electric Ability Association (SEPA) showed that in 2011 about 63% of new solar [URL=]PV inverter[/URL]accommodation in the U.S. came from utilities alfresco California, the better allotment on

record. Moreover, a absolute of seven of the year’s top 10 utilities were from alfresco California, and four of the astral utilities were amid in the east.

But not abandoned is the cartography alteration — so is the actual anatomy of the industry, with Florida afresh arch the way.

While acceptable solar markets accept relied on broadcast PV for a lot of new capacity, these canicule it is the centralised all-embracing projects that are accepting traction. In 2010 alone, eight

centralised projects greater than 10 MW anniversary were installed.

Florida is now absorption carefully on utility-owned or purchased solar power, as against to the abate customer-owned, net-metered systems that accept characterised the west bank market.

Utility-owned Development

Already operational is the DeSoto Next Bearing Solar Activity Center in DeSoto County, which opened in backward 2009 and has a nameplate accommodation of 25 MW. The bulb consists of over 90,000 solar panels

beyond 235 acreage (95 ha).

Following that development, Florida Ability and Light (FPL) installed 87 MW in 2010, abundantly based on two projects – a 10 MW photovoltaic (PV) activity at the Kennedy Space Center and a 75 MW amalgam

apperception solar ability (CSP) bulb at a combined-cycle accustomed gas bulb beyond 500 acreage (202 ha) arctic of West Palm Beach.

The US$476 actor (€367 million) project, accepted as the Martin Next Bearing Solar Activity Center is about an agreement to actuate whether accepted ability bearing can be affiliated with cogent solar

ability resources. What makes the bulb noteworthy is that this is one of the few currently operating examples of a accepted bulb getting retrofitted with the latest solar technology on such a ample scale.

The bulb aswell serves as a real-life analysis bed as developers attack to abate the amount of solar power, which charcoal abundant added big-ticket than a lot of added forms of electrical generation. FPL

Group, the ancestor aggregation of Florida Ability and Light, expects to cut costs by about 20% compared with a archetypal stand-alone apperception solar ability facility, back it does not accept to body a

new beef turbine, new high-power manual curve or added accepted basement aggregate with the neighbouring gas-fired installation.

‘We’d adulation to acquaint you that solar ability is as bread-and-butter as deposit fuels, but the absoluteness is that it is not,’ Lewis Hay III, FP&L’s administrator and arch executive, explained on a

contempo bout of the plant. ‘We accept got to amount out means to get costs down. As we saw with wind power, a lot has to do with scale,’ he added.

As consistently with solar, the accent of calibration has to be put in context. Admitting the admeasurement of the Martin Center its 75 MW — absorbing for a solar ability — is about almost a bead in the

ocean if compared with the adjoining gas plant, which can aftermath about 3800 MW.

Other larger-scale solar projects advancing to accomplishment cover Florida-based National Solar Power’s plan to body a 200 MW solar acreage in Hardee County at a amount of about $700 million. Construction

of this installation, which is due to activate in the additional division of 2012, is accepted to yield six months for anniversary of the 20 MW ‘modular’ plants.

This is the additional activity that National Ability has appear in Florida. The aggregation is planning an even bigger one in Gadsden County, a $1.5 billion, 400 MW activity that will aswell abide of 20

abate plants, anniversary on a 200 acre (81 ha) site.

Similarly, and aswell in Florida, BlueChip Activity has torn arena on the 120 MW Sorrento Solar Acreage in Lake County with Taiwan-based Neo Solar Ability accouterment its high-efficiency solar modules in

barter for disinterestedness participation. Earlier this year, BlueChip aswell congenital a 1.2-MW appearance of the Rinehart Solar Acreage in Seminole County, the better rooftop PV accession in the

accompaniment of Florida to date.

Legislative Roadblocks

Smaller-scale solar accessories accept aswell been authoritative appropriate in Florida, but afresh these accept been baffled in abounding cases by aldermanic roadblocks. As things stand, a admitting its

abundance of solar resources, Florida lags abaft around every added above accompaniment in its abutment of renewable energy.

Many states advantage federal apple-pie activity tax credits and grants to advice activate appeal in their states through allurement programmes, but Florida’s abatement programme asleep in June 2010 and

there is no allocution of reinstating it.

Part of the acumen for Florida’s apathy in implementing legislation that would account solar ability development by account groups is because a lot of agitation in Florida has focused on attempts by FP&L to

advance legislation through the accompaniment senate, conspicuously Assembly Bill 2078. This would accept provided Florida’s above ability companies with added incentives to access their solar portfolios by

acceptance them to canyon the costs of amalgam renewable activity plants on to their consumers.

But 2078 is aswell apparent as a acrid brand by the solar community, as it does not accommodate for any affectionate of feed-in assessment (FiT) by which ability companies would buy ability produced by abate

renewable companies.

Susan Glickman, a lobbyist for the Southern Alliance for Apple-pie Energy, says that added should be done to akin the arena field. She said that in the twentieth aeon there was a drive for accepted service,

but that cerebration is added outdated.

‘We are in a altered world; we accept abounding altered means to accommodate energy. There’s so abundant activity ability befalling out there that we don’t yield advantage of because utilities are

incentivised to body ability plants, because they put that into their amount abject and that’s how they accomplish money.’

Glickman argues that the accompaniment should be at the beginning of developing renewables, but expresses affair that if Florida writes behavior favouring behemothic utilities, it would drive abroad

companies that innovate.


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Brazil Laying Foundation for New Solar Bazaar

Brazil Laying Foundation for New Solar Bazaar | Germany's New Solar Containment Policy |

Rumors of massive solar bulb auctions in Brazil set for 2013 raced through U.S. renewable [URL=]PV inverter[/URL]activity account endure anniversary to no avail. Brazil's federal government quashed the rumor that it ability bargain off assorted solar bulb architecture concessions, adage instead, that installed solar kilowatt costs in the country are still too top — by three to four times — to attempt with added renewable activity sources. Government admiral did accurate hope, however, that as solar[URL=]PV inverter[/URL] actual costs abide to decline, the government could activate solar auctions in a few years' time.

Meanwhile, a amount of Brazilian utilities, now architecture their aboriginal solar [URL=]PV inverter[/URL]ability plants, are anticipating the auctioning of electricity from their soon-to-be-built accessories on the able bartering bazaar for electricity, says Andrea Lombardo, a agent for Eletrosul Centrais Eletricas, or Eletrosul, a accompaniment account based in Florianopolis, in southern Santa Catarina state. The account provides about 17 percent of the country's electricity.

Eletrosul itself has commissioned a 1-megawatt (MW) solar affirmation bulb for its headquarters, which will awning both barrio and parking structures. The activity is getting financed in allotment by Germany's KfW Bankengruppe. Eletrosul aswell has cooperated with the University of Rio Grande do Sul to aftermath calm photovoltaic modules, with the aim allowance to boot-strap the calm photovoltaic industry.

While the on-grid bazaar for photovoltaics in Brazil is just alpha to yield shape, the country has a continued history of application off-grid PV for residential installations and for association lighting. Kyocera Solar is a avant-garde in this bazaar in Brazil, a allotment of a few added all-embracing manufacturers. Solar lighting use has admiring a amount of all-embracing development coffer loans, including funds from the World Bank. Similarly, Brazil has a well-developed solar thermal industry that is focused on residential and bartering hot baptize provision, but not on apperception solar ability projects.

Net Metering Starts Solar Reforms

Since the Brazilian government beforehand this ages accustomed residential and bartering entities to install solar bearing accessories up to 1 MW accommodation and advertise electricity to the filigree beneath basal net metering, the bazaar is accepted to focus on abate installations until costs bead abounding for ample utility-scale projects. If ample civic licitations appear out for solar plants, they will be managed by the Comissão Especial de Licitação, or licitation commission, of the Agência Nacional de Energia Elêtrica (Aneel), based in Brazil. Aneel. which has already captivated a abounding amount of wind acknowledgment auctions in Brazil.

One allurement the federal government did advertise beforehand this ages to animate clandestine area solar plants of up to 30 MW was a tax breach of up to 80 percent over the aboriginal 10 years of operation. This accouterment is bound to those projects that activate operating by December 2017. Thereafter, the tax breach would bead to 50 percent, and any plants advancing online afterwards 2017 aswell would be acceptable for the break, according to a contempo advertisement by Aneel.

Demonstration Systems Tied to Soccer

Earlier this year, Brazil fabricated solar ability account with the advertisement of affairs to body a solar arrangement on top of the soccer amphitheater in Salvador, in Bahia state, as allotment of the country's efforts if it hosts the 2014 World Cup. The Salvador amphitheater activity is getting developed by the German-Brazilian collective adventure Gehrlicher Ecoluz. A array of added municipalities with soccer teams plan to body solar systems on their stadiums as well.

Financing for solar ability in Brazil is aswell nascent. The civic development coffer Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento e Social, or BNDES, has adumbrated it is able to accounts ample solar projects in the country. The coffer has a appropriate lending armamentarium for Climate and Renewable Activity already established, and a abstracted Renewable Activity affairs that involves a broader set of banking tools.

Utility Affairs Starting Small

Thus far, the alone utility-scale solar ability bulb in Brazil is the 5 MW assemblage congenital by MPX Energia application Kyocera solar modules, in the northeastern city-limits of Taua, in Ceara state, which was adjourned in allotment by the InterAmerican Development Bank, based in Washington. In September 2011, General Electric appear that it would add addition 1 MW of breeding accommodation to the unit. MPX has filed for approval to aggrandize the ability to 50 MW.

Another 3 MW solar ability assemblage is getting planned by the accompaniment account Companhia Energética de Minas Gerais, or CEMIG, at Sete Lagoas, in Minas Gerais state. The bulb is getting developed in cooperation with Solaria Brasil, a assemblage of Madrid-based Solaria Energía y Medio Ambiente. Some costs will appear from Germany's Banco de Fomento da Republica Federal da Alemanha (KfW) Entwicklungsbank.

The civic awning utility, Eletrobras, in Brasilia, has amorphous calls for absorbed calm companies able of accouterment solar bearing plants of up to 3 MW.

Future Growth

Brazil does accept aggressive affairs to amateur its renewable activity sourced ability by 2020. About with abounding and almost beneath big-ticket hydroelectric and wind resources, solar costs will charge to bead for solar bearing to yield off. A added aggravation in the development of a solar ability industry in Brazil is the country's continued history of architecture careful tariffs adjoin alien appurtenances in cardinal industries. Some solar bore tariffs are already in place, and as appeal rises and calm assembly grows, tariffs are acceptable to rise.
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Conflicting 2011 PV inverter figures released

According to one research company, the photovoltaic inverter industry experienced a "record" year in 2011, with

shipments increasing by up to 15 percent year-on-year. Meanwhile, a second has reported that growth actually

declined by one percent from 2010.

In its latest PV Inverter Supply & Demand Report, IMS Research has found that at over 26 gigawatts (GW), growth in

the 2011 photovoltaic inverter marketplace was up by over 10 percent from 2010’s figures. This record was

achieved, it said, despite the "huge" inventory buildup from the year before and following eight GW worth of

shipments in the fourth quarter of 2011. It added, "In total, IMS Research estimates shipments grew by up to 15

percent globally in 2011, but revenues were flat in U.S. dollar terms and slightly down in euros."

The future
IHS iSuppli agrees that the market should be much more stable in 2012. It further forecasts growth of five percent

this year, despite the fact that revenues are set to decline. From 2013 to 1016, the company additionally expects

to see "successive expansion". "While revenue will still decline in 2012, the retreat will ease to just three

percent, after which growth is expected to return and then climb to the 20 percent range by 2014 as demand from new

markets begins to make an impact," it said.

It added that in particular, the U.S., China and Japan will represent the largest absolute growth in inverter

opportunities this year. India and other emerging markets in Asia, Latin America and MENA are also expected to do

well. France and Italy, however, will "run into stiffer headwinds in 2012".

Finally, Sheppard said that the German market could also see further stimulation on the back of new feed-in tariff

cuts this year.
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Japan publishes strategic energy road map

Japan has published its latest strategic energy plan, originally formulated in 2003 and reviewed every three years by conference bodies as well as various opinion polls. The latest revision includes a road map of [URL=]PV inverter[/URL] energy-based economic growth and reformation of the energy infrastructure. The strategy is to ensure growth and encourage multi-faceted international trade by taking into account the social cost and price differences between nuclear, thermal and renewable energy generation.

However, the country recently become embroiled in a trade dispute with Canada over its contentious domestic content requirements. On the other hand, this could however cement relations with the EU as it also joined the fracas later in the year.

Furthermore, in May, following talks between Japanese Prime Minister Yoshihiko Noda and US President Barack Obama, plans were discussed to strengthen mutual cooperation on [URL=]PV inverter[/URL]  energy issues.

The government of the Land of the Rising Sun will also be expanding its feed-in tariff systems for renewables as well as increasing support for R & D projects and local revitalization.

Japan’s choice of energy generation has been influenced not only by the ¥17 trillion spent in 2010 on importing electricity, but also the earthquake and nuclear disasters of spring last year. However, although Fukishima affected energy choices in other countries as well, Japan will be commissioning nine nuclear plants (14 by 2030) and new fossil fuel plants, to be installed by the beginning of 2020.

Curiously, only last month Japan had shut down operations at its last nuclear plant, leaving Japan without energy from atomic power for the first time for more than 40 years. Nonetheless, on June 16, the Japanese government approved plans to restart units 3 and 4 of the Ohi nuclear power station (NPS), western Japan, overseen by Kansai Electric Power Co. At the earliest, unit 3 will start [URL=]PV inverter[/URL] power generation this week and reach full power next week and unit 4 will start power generation on July 20 and reach full power on July 24.

The plan is to raise the energy independence ratio to 70% (self-sufficiency energy plus self-developed energy supply, divided by total primary energy sources).

But if this further increases consumer electricity household bills, as figures from METI demonstrated last week, there is a possibility public pressure may force the government’s hand to concede to cuts as has happened in Europe this year.

If policies are sufficiently promoted, Japan’s energy target to reduce domestic energy CO2 emissions by 2030 has put in place a framework which could set it apart from the rest of the world to help solve the problem of global warming.

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Beware of the 'Greenwash'

Sustainability is added in the account and on the minds of accumulated accommodation makers – and it applies not alone to a company's products, but to its absolute manufacturing, accumulation and administration chain. And barter and shareholders wish advance that their [URL=]PV inverter[/URL] investment is acknowledging environmentally affable behavior and practices – or, conceivably added importantly, that it isn't acknowledging annihilative ones.

Help is accessible for companies absent to ‘go green’. The accumulated sustainability account area offers abetment with accretion activity efficiency, implementing acceptable accretion and acknowledging with legislation. In a contempo REW affection (see Vol. 14, No. 6, pages 47-50) we explored the acceleration of the ‘energy executive’ aural absolute organisations: new [URL=]PV inverter[/URL] roles accepting created for sustainability managers, engineers and investment professionals in acknowledgment to a growing acquaintance that – no amount how ‘green’ its online writing – every aspect of the way a aggregation functions may eventually appear beneath scrutiny.

The role of the sustainability controlling includes both inward-facing and outward-facing responsibilities. It can be acute not alone to apparatus acceptable business practices – to ‘be green’ – but aswell to let the accessible apperceive that you’ve done so – to ‘be apparent to be green’. In abounding cases this is alone a amount of accepting the actual advice into the calmly of barter and shareholders, but in some cases a company’s admiration to be apparent to be blooming has resulted in accusations of the alarming ‘greenwash’.

The term, modelled on the earlier ‘whitewash’ (meaning to appearance over or camouflage scandal), is authentic by Greenpeace as ‘the act of ambiguous consumers apropos the ecology practices of a aggregation or the [URL=]PV inverter[/URL]  ecology allowances of a artefact or service’. And greenwash is a media issue. For example, from 2007-2010 UK bi-weekly The Guardian abundantly ran a alternation of online writing on greenwash, for which it arrive readers to email examples of ‘exaggeration, cool claims or absolute lies that big business makes about its blooming credentials’. From the oil and gas and biologic industries to politicians, municipalities and civic governments, no one was safe. The EU was the final article to be tarred with the newspaper’s greenwash brush, in a 2010 adventure on its accomplishing of an eco-label in the anatomy of a flower, advised to announce environmentally affable products. The Guardian appear that two of these EU-labelled products, both accepted brands of archetype paper, were in fact fabricated in allotment from copse lurid logged from a rapidly dematerialization Indonesian rainforest.

But We’re Already Green!

Renewable activity companies ability anticipate they accept beneath to anguish about than added industries in agreement of greenwash: afterwards all, if the base of your business is blooming energy, you’re already way advanced in your blooming credentials. However, there accept been cases such as PV console architect Jinko Solar’s 2011 abeyance of operations afterwards bounded protesters alleged absorption to top numbers of asleep angle in a beck abreast one of its factories. In a televised interview, Jinko Solar said that rainstorms had acquired containers of solid decay absolute fluoride to discharge over into the brook. The aggregation apologised and briefly abeyant operations while acclimation the problem, but the irony of a renewable activity aggregation causing ecology accident was not absent on the all-embracing media.

When Viking Energy, an SSE subsidiary, proposed architecture a 550 MW wind acreage in 2009 on the Shetlands’ capital island as allotment of the UK’s plan to accommodated EU 2020 emissions targets, The Guardian acicular out that the proposed site, amid on 187 km2 of peat bog, was a accustomed carbon athenaeum that, if abashed on a ample scale, could absolution added than 5000 tonnes per hectare of CO2 into the air, essentially offsetting any carbon abridgement represented by the wind farm. Peat slides are a accepted accident in addled areas, consistent in the blaze of ample amounts of peat, and the architecture of roads, arising areas and the turbines themselves could calmly could cause such slides, according to ecology experts consulted by the newspaper. Viking Energy’s own ecology assessment, however, declared that the accident of peat slides was ‘zero’. Due to this abrogating media advantage Viking Energy’s efforts to appoint the bounded association with the activity were broadly beheld as greenwash. Although the activity assuredly accustomed planning permission in April, the association has formed a attack group, Acceptable Shetland, that has vowed to ‘fight on’ adjoin development of the wind farm.

In the bioenergy sector, accessible beef over the ecology appulse of biofuel assembly and its addition to the common aliment crisis about batty the US industry in 2011. And all-around biofuel producers, abnormally Malaysian and Indonesian approach oil producers, accept been adamant by letters of mass-scale rainforest abolition in adjustment to accomplish allowance for oil approach plantations. The Malaysian government has been criticised for its about-face of added than 1 actor hectares of backwoods acreage into oil approach plantations; critics say this threatens to actualize abundant carbon emissions to account the carbon reductions represented by the use of decay from approach oil assembly in renewable activity projects (and by the government’s own carbon abridgement programme). The Malaysian Approach Oil Council’s alternation of television advertisements, with the tagline ‘Sustainably Produced Since 1917’, was broadly accursed as greenwash.

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Solar Manufacturing: To Attempt or Not To Attempt

Last year, the all-around bazaar for clean, renewable energies [URL=]PV inverter[/URL]  accomplished a almanac $260 billion – and is accepted to abound into the trillions over the next 20 years. Solar accomplishment in accurate is growing badly in the United States and about the world. In fact, according to the Solar Activity Industry Association, America's solar industry now employs 100,000 workers – acceleration back 2009.

The catechism is no best whether America will be a above chump for the solar industry – we will. The absolute catechism is whether the U.S. will aswell abide to be a above architect of solar technology, bearing abounding new [URL=]PV inverter[/URL]  jobs for American workers.

Some in Washington accept that the United States cannot, or should not, attempt with China if it comes to solar accomplishment – and aren’t accommodating to accomplish any investments or yield on any risks to win the all-around apple-pie activity accomplishment race. Meanwhile, China offered added than $30 billion in government backed loans to its solar accomplishment companies in 2010 abandoned and is surging to abduction almost bisected the [URL=]PV inverter[/URL] market. That’s because China realizes this is a huge all-around bazaar and a antagonism account winning.

We respectfully disagree with those who are accommodating to abalienate bags of top paying jobs and the innovations to appear over the next decade and above to our competitors in China and about the world. Americans invented solar technology, and with the appropriate abutment our companies can out-innovate and out-build any competitor, anywhere in the world.

But we aswell apperceive that our competitors are not artlessly traveling to abalienate that action to us, and that the all-around solar accomplishment industry is adverse bazaar altitude that are abrupt even the arch of our all-around competitors. In such an acute antagonism and with the amount crumbling 47 percent endure year alone, not every company, nor every investment, will be a success – but America will be stronger and added aggressive if we abide to abutment and body a advancing solar industry actuality at home.

Through our Accommodation Program, the Department is alive to acknowledgment the claiming from China and others by acknowledging a ample amount of solar projects. The all-inclusive majority of those are ability breeding projects that account from falling prices for solar panels and – as the Independent Report by Herb Allison acclaimed beforehand this year – backpack actual bound accident to the aborigine because they accept abutting affairs in abode with utilities to buy the ability they produce.

Of our absolute accommodation portfolio, about 35% was for solar breeding projects – which account from falling prices – while beneath than 4% was for solar manufacturers, an industry that is adversity about the apple from the steeper than accepted collapse of appraisement for solar modules, which has been apprenticed in allotment by what the Commerce Department has begin to be arbitrary practices by competitors in China.

Next week, Abound Solar, a startup aggregation that adopted $70 actor through the Department’s accommodation program, will abutting its doors and book for bankruptcy. Abound was an avant-garde architect of next-generation, cadmium telluride thin-film photovoltaic modules that had developed and approved a action for bearing thin-film solar panels at a amount that was accepted to be essentially beneath than acceptable solar panels. If the amount of polysilicon was high, Abound’s technology offered the affiance of a lower amount another that would be congenital actuality the United States.

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Solar Thermal Scales New Heights in China

Ask any six-year-old in a Chinese street, 'What's a solar baptize boiler and what's it for?' Without averseness they will acquaint you: 'A solar baptize boiler is on the roof of a architecture to accomplish hot baptize for the [URL=]PV inverter[/URL] shower'. This adventure is told by Hongzhi Cheng, carnality secretary-general of the Beijing-based Chinese Solar Thermal Industry Federation (CSTIF) and arch of The Sun's Vision, a aggregation based in the city-limits of Dezhou in Shandong province.

Dezhou, one hour by car south of Beijing, has become one of China’s solar towns due to the attendance of Himin Solar, one of the country’s [URL=]PV inverter[/URL] better solar baptize boiler manufacturers. For a German aggregation with an absorption in solar thermal technology, active in the city-limits provides an agitative bout accomplished array of roof and bluff installations.

From Retrofits to Axial Systems

Dezhou is aswell a abundant city-limits to see how the solar thermal industry is developing from retrofitted systems for alone households appear all-embracing rooftop solar fields confined absolute buildings.

The residential retrofit market, breadth collapsed owners install their own solar thermal systems on the roofs of absolute buildings, now accounts for some 60% of the bazaar and its allotment is still binding down, says Yunbin Le, agent accepted administrator at the Sino-German solar baptize boiler architect Linuo Paradigma and its sales administrator for the Chinese market.

In a simple adaptation of the technology, the arrangement buyer opens the baptize tap in the morning and waits until the catchbasin on the roof is full. When they appear aback from work, they can use the acrimonious baptize until the catchbasin is empty. The systems abide of unpressurised water-filled exhaustion tubes and the battery baptize flows anon through the tube and the tanks.

The next bearing of solar baptize heaters are begin on ample accommodation buildings, which represent a rapidly growing bazaar segment. The new audience are accommodation companies that architecture roofs to host abundant thermosiphon systems for anniversary collapsed to be awash with solar hot water. These accommodation companies accept to accommodated solar obligations imposed by several cities and municipalities back the Renewable [URL=]PV inverter[/URL] Activity Law of 2006. A lot of bounded governments now crave solar baptize heaters to be installed in new civilian barrio of up to 12 storeys.

‘As a architect you do not accept architecture permission from the city unless you accept approved the plan for amalgam solar hot baptize into the building,’ says Fude Li, a activity architect for Linuo Paradigma.

In a new accommodation architecture with Linuo Paradigma solar baptize heaters in Jinan in Shandong arena (see overleaf), the solar systems are absorbed to adhesive blocks that are chip into the roof during construction. They are aswell able with temperature and baptize akin sensors so they can ample up automatically.

Building-integrated Systems Take Off

The third bearing of solar thermal technology in China consists of building-integrated systems. Himin Solar is afire a aisle with several affirmation projects in Dezhou’s ‘Solar Valley’.

Utopia Garden Activity is one of the Solar Valley’s a lot of contempo multi-family buildings, breadth flats of 300-600 m2 bundle amidst blooming breadth and amalgamate energy-efficiency standards with renewable activity supplies. Business the flats, forth with the architecture and architecture of their ecological accommodation technology, is in the easily of Himin Solar Activity Real Estate, a accessory of Himin Solar Group.

The ‘demonstration of approaching avant-garde living’ is what makes humans buy the flats, says Chen Ping of Himin Solar’s cast administration department. ‘The amount of the flats is about RMB12,000 (US$1900) per aboveboard metre, about 50% college than commensurable apartments because of the avant-garde renewable activity technology and the able home technologies,’ she says. But she claims their owners will pay as little as a division of accustomed activity costs.

In a new accommodation architecture solar systems are absorbed to adhesive blocks chip into the roof (Source: Barbel Epp)

Four blocks with a absolute of 298 flats accept already been awash and occupied. Two added blocks are beneath construction. These buildings’ rooftop solar installations are arresting from some distance, with 504 exhaustion tube collectors abiding angular in massive wave-shaped metal stands extending for several metres aloft the buildings. With a gross beneficiary breadth of about 756 m2, the pressurised heat-pipe exhaustion tubes accumulation axial heating and cooling systems for absolute architecture complexes. Surplus calefaction is stored underground in melancholia borehole storage.

Yet axial solar heating and cooling systems still accommodate alone a accessory allotment of the solar thermal market. ‘Larger bartering installations provided up to 15% of the absolute bazaar aggregate in 2011, admitting 85% is still residential,’ says Jiuwei Wang, Himin’s agent accepted administrator and arch business director.

Pressurised Balustrade Systems

Each collapsed at these new developments aswell includes a exhaustion tube beneficiary installed in the bluff and a 300-litre catchbasin on the balustrade to accumulation hot water. These solar systems represent a absolutely new bearing of residential solar baptize acceptance in China. They are pressurised, aberrant systems with u-pipe collectors, and a closed-loop solar ambit abounding with glycol. If the bluff beneficiary fails to ability 60°C, the electric aspect in the catchbasin compensates. Solar calm hot baptize is accordingly abstracted from the buildings’ axial heating and cooling system.

Despite getting far added big-ticket than retrofitted, open-loop solar baptize heaters, these balustrade systems still adore top demand, says Yunbin Le from Linuo. ‘Today 180-litre systems are added accepted than 100-litre systems.’

In Linuo Paradigma’s solar boutique in Jinan a 100-litre balustrade arrangement with 13 tubes is sold, including installation, at RMB6880 - about alert as abundant as a pressureless arrangement with 18 tubes.

Shop prices for systems from Sangle Solar Energy, addition of China’s 5 better solar baptize boiler manufacturers, are about 10%-15% lower than for Linuo Paradigma, yet affectation a analogously ample gap amid the two technologies. Customers pay RMB5860 for a closed-loop balustrade arrangement with a collapsed bowl beneficiary and a bifold bank tank, or no added than RMB2690 for a pressureless solar baptize boiler with 20 baptize abounding tubes and a 180-litre tank.

Aesthetic tastes assume to adjudge whether companies aces exhaustion tubes or flat-plate collectors, says Chen Liang, business artist for all-embracing business development at Sunrain Group, China’s better architect of solar baptize heaters in 2011. ‘Flat-plate collectors in the bluff are added admirable than exhaustion tubes, according to architecture designers,’ he says.

Sales Bifold for Balustrade Systems

Balcony systems are accepted for multi-family barrio that abridgement roof amplitude for a solar assemblage for anniversary apartment. ‘We produced 60,000 tanks for balustrade systems endure year and we apprehend a acceleration this year,’ says Jie Xu, Linuo Paradigma’s assembly manager.

Linuo Paradigma’s solar catchbasin accomplishment and arrangement accumulating branch in Jinan produced one actor sets in 2011. Its 300 full-time workers aftermath 784 altered catchbasin models, awash both as OEM units and beneath the Linuo Paradigma brand.

The aggregation aswell afresh opened an automatic ‘tank-in-tank’ assembly band for balustrade systems. Pressurised enameled cylinders for calm hot baptize are purchased externally. All accomplishment accomplish are performed in a single, awful automatic U-shaped line: awning printing, punching and angle of the catchbasin jacket, close catchbasin burden testing, preassembling, bubbles with polyurethane insulation as able-bodied as packaging. ‘We can run the accomplished band with a best accommodation of 500 tanks a day with about 30 workers,’ says Jie Xu.

At the Utopia Garden project, solar hot baptize tanks blow on balconies abaft a bluff of accumbent exhaustion tubes (Source: Barbel Epp)

Linuo Paradigma’s balustrade systems affection exhaustion tube collectors. To advance the thermosiphon breeze in the solar ambit of balustrade systems, the aggregation has developed a appropriate blazon of u-pipe exhaustion tube. The chestnut brim in the accumbent tubes anatomy added the appearance of a V than a U. Continuously ascent aqueduct supports the accustomed breeze of the hot baptize to the catchbasin aloft the collector. ‘We do not see abstruse problems with exhaustion tubes in the bluff up to 36 floors,’ says Yunbin Le.

China’s alpine barrio assume to accept no top absolute for solar thermal installations. The industry aims top and still has huge advance potential, says Hongzhi Cheng. ‘Only 30% of the bazaar appeal is accomplished yet in the rural area. We apprehend the rural articulation to abound [from about RMB100 billion ($15 billion) today] to RMB600 million.’ But he predicts even stronger advance of bags of billions of renminbi for the all-embracing solar thermal sector. European visitors will again be afraid by even added solar thermal installations on Chinese skylines.

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Global Solar Energy Deutschland applies for insolvency

Global Solar Energy Deutschland has amorphous defalcation affairs at a German court, the aggregation has announced. Global [URL=]PV inverter[/URL] Solar Energy Inc., based in Tucson, Arizona, appear the account that the German

controlling team’s accommodation will not access its Tucson assembly line. The aggregation will cease operation of its 35MW German ability in Berlin.

Discussing the situation, CEO Jeffrey Britt explained: “The EU renewables bazaar is financially arduous due to top [URL=]PV inverter[/URL] inventories, annoyed prices and cogent reductions to European feed-in-tariffs. As a

aftereffect of this difficult operating environment, a cardinal accommodation has been fabricated to plan and assassinate an EU accommodation abridgement and focus investment on the articles and technology

all-important to accommodated our customer’s needs and fulfil our business plan.

Global Solar will abide to honuor all of its assurance obligations and account European customers, but from its Tucson facilities.” He added commented: “While unfortunate, the Berlin ability abeyance

provides an befalling to abode banking anatomy [URL=]PV inverter[/URL] issues, appropriately calibration assembly capabilities and adjust with growing markets in Asia, the Middle East and North America. We abide to accommodate our

barter with industry arch products, above account and aggressive pricing, while aswell ensuring the abiding success of Global Solar.”

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what advantages of solar energy you understand?

 Firstly: universality
 On Earth, Solar is everywhere, you can use it without worring about transportation

problems, especially helpful for the traffic underdeveloped rural areas, islands

and remote areas, the only light different was caused by a different angle of

incidence, but at least solar energy will not be the monopoly by a few countries or

regions which result energy crisis. Initially you only need to spend a certain

price, investment a few funds then made solar energy devices, energy will flow to

their fingertips, provided free, just need cost a very few fee for the maintenance

of equipment.

 Secondly: Permanent
 The sun's energy is very large, the scientists calculated that at least six

hundred years period for humans, this time can be described as infinite.

 Thirdly: Non-polluting
 Nowadays, the most used energy is fossil which caused the questions are   waste

objects' dealing, objects not out. When nenergy consumption increase
, polluting will increase too. Solar is a non-hazardous and non-polluting.If the

equipment is completed, later cost will be little, and the device will produce at

least seventh of ten square kilowatts of electricityannually .
 When we use coal, oil and other fossil fuels wil produces harmful gases and waste

but when we  use solar energy that will not cause any pollution, is a clean source

of energy. Solar energy will not increase the thermal load on Earth, which is solar

energy a particularly important advantage.
  Fourthly: Richness
  It is estimated that in the past long years, which has 1.1 billion, the sun

consumes only 2% of its energy, the next few billion years the sun will not be

changed significantly, so the sun can be used as a permanent human energy, taken

fromendless, inexhaustible. It to the ground 15 minutes of exposure energy is

enough all over the world for one year.

  Fifth: Safety and reliability
  Nuclear power generation will be the risk of nuclear leakage, once the nuclear

leak will cause great ecological crisis, but solar energy is absolutely no such

cases, it is very reliable. In the entire PV industry chain, in addition to the

silicon material production processes, other aspects of the middle and lower

reaches basically non-existent pollution. And if this production process will

result in damage to the environment is not sure, which according to if the

enterprise is willing to cost to control.

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Torrefaction Cracks the Biomass Challenge

Utilities are adverse above challenges in the advancing decades. Accepted action envisions a alteration to a acceptable activity [URL=]PV inverter[/URL] supply, while ensuring aegis of supply. Therefore, accepted activity action is

spuring utilities to advance the sustainability of their coal-fired ability plants.

Co-firing biomass is one of the above measures broadly activated to abate CO2 emissions. Since the mid-1990s, ability plants advised to bake pulverised atramentous accept additionally been battlefront amoebic [URL=]PV inverter[/URL]  materials, such

as copse and agronomical waste. However, coal-fired ability plants are not advised to action biomass, which banned the co-firing allotment to some 5%-10%. With investments in committed accumulation chains and

biomass pre-treatment [URL=]PV inverter[/URL] accessories co-firing percentages of 25%-50% (thermal) accept already been achieved.

Wood Pellets

From the ammunition perspective, the ideal bearings is to action the biomass so that its backdrop resemble those of coal. The capital anatomy of candy biomass currently in use is copse pellets – pelletised dry

sawdust – because it is a almost apple-pie ammunition that is internationally available, simple to handle (free abounding capabilities, beneath dust emission) and has almost low carriage cost. Copse pellets plan

well in coal-fired plants and are now admired as a well-proven technology.

Nevertheless, copse pellets do accept their drawbacks. Copse pellets charge committed silo accumulator to abstain degradation. Co-firing copse pellets has after-effects for the milling and agitation of the copse pellets.

At >5% co-firing, the pellets charge to be bang formed in abstracted bang mills to a archetypal atom admeasurement of up to 1 mm, admitting the atramentous mills bullwork the atramentous to a pulverised atom admeasurement of about 50

microns on average. Co-firing along may access primary air requirements, agitation behaviour, calefaction alteration arrangement in the boiler, boiler efficiency, by-products and emissions. The assorted problems

mean that copse pellets aren’t absolutely a article ammunition that can be attenuated with atramentous in whatever accommodation are desired.


In adjustment to access the co-firing allotment further, utilities are searching for innovations. To actualize a biomass artefact that has above administration and co-firing capabilities than copse pellets, torrefaction

is an option. Indeed, torrefaction is one of the technologies that promises to realise the dream of a accurate article fuel.

Torrefaction is about a biomass arise technique. It’s an added pre-treatment footfall that heats the biomass to 260-320°C for up to one hour in an atmosphere of no or low oxygen content. After

torrefaction the biomass has become brittle, due to the abrasion of hemicelluloses and to a bottom admeasurement lignin and celluloses, which are amenable for the boxy fibre structure. In added words, the

fibrous anatomy of the biomass is partially torn down. The attenuated fibre anatomy improves the milling backdrop of the biomass and enables the biomass to be candy calm with atramentous at the ability


Furthermore, the calorific amount of the biomass increases about from 12-16 MJ/kg to 20-24 MJ/kg, due to the accident of volatiles and moisture. The appearance of torrefied biomass accredit co-firing ante of

more than 50% of breeding output, while befitting the investments bare to a minimum.

Depending on the ambit from biomass antecedent to the co-firing site, it is economically adorable to pelletise the torrefied biomass. Torrefaction pellets accept a volumetric activity body of 14.5-17.5 GJ/m3

(bulk body of 800 kg/m3), which is about 70%-80% college than accepted copse pellets (8.5-10 GJ/m3). In adjustment to pelletise, the torrefaction temperature accept to break beneath 300°C to accumulate a ample allotment of

the lignin intact, which serves as a accustomed bounden abettor for authoritative pellets. Biomass that has been torrefied at college temperatures ability charge additives to aftermath acceptable above pellets. Once the

hydrophobic attributes is proven, they can be stored in the accessible air – accomplishing abroad with the charge for silos. It is aswell advised feasibile to use particles with a admeasurement beyond than the accepted 8 mm pellets.

More Attention

Torrefaction of biomass was already developed in the 1970s and 1980s. After a quiet period, the biomass bazaar started to abound added rapidly at the alpha of this century. A amount of baby accessories

suppliers with altered abstruse processes started to anhydrate biomass in pilot plants. The baby quantities produced accepted that it is accessible to anhydrate coarse biomass. At this moment, torrefaction is

attracting added and added attention. Biomass suppliers, investors, and end users are all starting up projects. There are about 30 projects currently running, mainly in Europe and North America. And, although

most projects are appealing baby scale, some beyond ones are accepting off the arena as well. The best accepted torrefaction assemblage is Topell in Duiven, the Netherlands, which is advised for 60,000 tonnes a year of

product output.

Proven Success

A amount of torrefaction reactors are getting developed in parallel. It’s too anon to say which access is traveling to abound with the suppliers of torrefaction technology in altered stages of developing a

commercial-scale installation. An account of the absolute concepts for torrefaction, evaluating them on their abstruse performance, has apparent that almost all suppliers accept developed an chip

concept, in which the activity ability is optimised by combusting the airy affluent torrefaction gases and by application the calefaction of the flue gases to dry and anhydrate the biomass. It isn’t the case that one

technique is fundamentally above to the others. Several techniques will ultimately prove successful. The abstraction is to accept a action that can be managed easily. Arise is an acutely circuitous business; it

’s not just one footfall on from drying.

Integrated Approach

The capital affair is to accept an chip approach. It is important to anticipate not alone about the reactor itself, but aswell about the drying, the milling and the calefaction recovery. If the actual isn’t pre-

processed properly, that has implications for how the reactor works. For example, the pre-drying footfall is acute for acceptable torrefaction conditions. College damp capacity of the biomass will aftereffect in ‘wet

’ torrefaction gas, which requires activity to bake and lowers the all-embracing activity efficiency. Seasonal aspects aswell play a role.

It’s no acceptable searching at aggregate from a absolutely abstruse viewpoint; it’s about award the a lot of economical band-aid as well. Where the biomass is advancing from makes a big aberration to the activity of a

scheme, for example. As does whether one needs to actualize something from scratch, or if a torrefaction assemblage can be added to an absolute plant.

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Prefabricated PV inverter station

Prefabricated PV inverter station | Germany's New Solar Containment Policy |

With the prosperity of the photovoltaic market, the inverse of one of the major aspects of photovoltaic power generation system
The change has also ushered in inverter development, many inverter manufacturers have invest larger amount of funds for product development and marketing. However, these plants Providers in the vast majority to provide a single product, and few consider the inverter shipped
Line environment, but also less departure from the system point of view. In fact, the construction of photovoltaic power plants, not only from the terms of the efficiency of the building, but also from the availability, reliability, security and other aspects.

  Such as efficiency and reliability of operation of photovoltaic power station construction, general and
Words, the construction of power station related to the square solar cells, batteries, charge and discharge
Controllers, inverters, AC power distribution cabinets, monitoring systems, etc. links, each ring Section requires careful selection, but also to achieve the seamless integration between the link and the link to Maximize the operating efficiency of the best reliability and the lowest cost of the project. Inverter manufacturers to consider the power station's outdoor environment, without considering the system can be Management, does not take into account factors such as power distribution,ventilation,construction on the need These areas is more human, material and financial resources, and time-consuming, this invisible. Also brought greater pressure to ensure the reliability of the system.

  Prefabricated PV inverter station system for photovoltaic manufacturers have the following value:
First, one-stop design and factory prefabrication reflects more professional. Secondly,   
The container-style design with excellent environmental adaptability and superior reliability.
PV power plant were mostly built in the desert, the Gobi, the plateau and coastal environment, as
The power station key aspects of the premise of stable operation of the inverter system has a good ring
Environmental adaptability.

  Prefabricated PV inverter station system for photovoltaic manufacturers have the following value:
First, one-stop design and factory prefabrication reflects more professional. Secondly, The container-style design with excellent environmental adaptability and superior reliability. PV power plant were mostly built in the desert, the Gobi, the plateau and coastal environment, as
The power station key aspects of the premise of stable operation of the inverter system has a good ring
Environmental adaptability.

  Third, the ease of monitoring and management embodies the intelligent features of the system. The system
Monitoring and management level, including data acquisition box, smoke detectors, access control, temperature and humidity, and photo
Like head, infrared and other equipment, can provide a complete equipment status and environmental information
The degree of automation and high degree of intelligence, can be unattended.

  Fourth, the engineering interface is simple and quick establishment of the station. As the system uses factory prefabrication Integrated design customers only box positioning, input and output cable connections simple
Single work, without the need to care about the operating environment of the inverter, monitoring, protection ring
Section, therefore greatly reducing the complexity of the power station construction, substantial reduction in power plant Construction time - an inverter station to install and put into operation only 1-2 days. The additional value of time savings is self-evident.

  Looking at the current PV market, we can see that the policy changes on the market development plays a decisive role, but as an equipment provider can notIgnore the concern of policy-oriented research on user needs, after all, with the market continues to mature, and demand-oriented technology in the development process in the photovoltaic industry Will play a more important role, the user needs is to lay a solid market base of the final
The deciding factor. 

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Asia Report: Solar Stocks Tumble Afterwards Assessment Ruling

It was addition asperous anniversary for China's already booming solar manufacturers, who are already addled from overcapacity and above subsidy drawbacks in the European market.

On Thursday, the account got worse as the United States, one of the added advantageous[URL=]PV inverter[/URL] markets out there, captivated up a behemothic detour assurance to those Chinese console makers who consign their articles into the country. The markets didn’t acknowledge able-bodied to the account of 31 percent anti-dumping tariffs. Shares of the big three of Suntech, Yingli and Trina alone decidedly against the end of the week.

Meanwhile, Chinese [URL=]PV inverter[/URL] companies are starting to bandage calm as they accede their aggregate next footfall in an advancing altercation that has abysmal political implications.

“We captivated an emergency affair in the morning of May 18 afterwards audition the news, and we are now contacting and mobilizing Chinese companies to break the tariffs,” said Gao Hongling, Deputy Secretary General of the China Photovoltaic Industry Alliance, according to


Ruling Goes Against China: The U.S. [URL=]PV inverter[/URL]Department of Commerce on Thursday appear annealed anti-dumping tariffs of about 31 percent on apparent silicon solar panels alien from China, arch to a new annular of apropos on how the duties will appulse the growing American solar industry.

Will Ruling Restore Balance?: In the adventure to "level the arena field," the 31 percent anti-dumping assessment appear Thursday was a acceptable start, said SolarWorld President Gordon Brinser, but even added is bare to accompany the industry aback into balance. Key Chinese manufacturers, meanwhile, abide assured that the assessment will be bargain amid now and the final determination.

U.S. Bill Looks to Exclude Chinese Panels from Tax Credit: In a move aimed absolutely at China, two high-profile Senate Democrats alien a angle Tuesday that if anesthetized would set American-made requirements on solar installations searching to authorize for the 30 percent Investment Tax Credit.


South Korea Carbon Affairs Passes: South Korean assembly accept accustomed a civic emissions trading affairs to abate the all-around abating abuse from its better sectors by 2015. South Korea is the world’s eighth better emitter of carbon abuse from deposit ammunition burning. The legislation is set to go into aftereffect in 2015 and would cap the carbon abuse from ability plants, animate plants, address makers, and ample universities.

Minister Praises India Solar Project: New and Renewable Activity Minister Farooq Abdullah said the new solar ability bulb aloft a baptize aqueduct in the accompaniment of Gujarat has apparent the nation the way and it will be replicated by Damodar Valley Corporation. The world's aboriginal 1 MW canal-top solar ability bulb in Mehsana commune around eliminates the claim to admission all-inclusive amplitude of acreage and banned dehydration of baptize from the 750 beat continued canal.

India Wind Developer Falls Abbreviate of Target: Mytrah Activity additional its installed wind-turbine accommodation in India to 224 megawatts, falling abbreviate of a ambition to body 500 megawatts by June.

In Japan Solar Beef Surge: Sales of solar beef in Japan rose 32.1 percent in the year concluded March 31 from the antecedent year to 1,404 megawatts, apprenticed by able-bodied appeal from abode owners, industry abstracts showed.


India May Approve Aboriginal Adopted Wind Projects: The Indian government may anon acquiesce activity developers to set up the aboriginal adopted wind activity projects in the country. The action by the government has been taken afterwards several activity developers bidding alertness to set up adopted projects which may bear college acquirement compared to onshore projects.

Ups and Downs of Japan’s Wind Sector: The accommodation to aftermath electricity from wind ability in Japan added about fivefold to 2.5 actor application over the accomplished decade, but the clip of admission in the accomplished budgetary year to March was the slowest during the 10-year aeon at hardly beneath 100,000 application due to the abortion the antecedent year of government subsidies for bulb construction.

Cambodian Apple Gets Solar: Koh Slar, a baby rural apple in Kampot Province in southern Cambodia, afresh acclaimed the aperture of a solar ability bulb congenital by a Korean aid agency. The villagers of Koh Slar, who are mostly disabled soldiers from years of civilian wars in the country, had little or no admission to electricity.

Dwindling Support for Jatropha in India: Jatropha, hailed by India as a applicable crop for biofuel, has so far bootless to reside up to expectations, and a abrogating address has spurred admiral to put a authority on the civic acreage program.

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Japan's PV products shipments rose 38% in three months

Japan's PV products shipments rose 38% in three months | Germany's New Solar Containment Policy |

 According to the Japan Photovoltaic Energy Association

announced on the 18th, the first three months of Japan's

domestic photovoltaic cells and components out of the volume

rose to 392MW, an increase of 38%.

 Association issued a statement saying, Growth led to the

housing market, shipment growth to 331MW, amount of increase

reached 45%. Exports fell 53% to 163MW.

  As of March 31 as a whole, with the residential PV market rose

40% to 1206MW, Japan's domestic shipments rose to 1404MW, an

increase of 32%. The export volume over the same period fell 13%

to 1281MW.

  In addition, according to the Japan Photovoltaic Industry

Association announced that the U.S. market and export volume

fell 14% to 276MW, the European market decreased by 22% to

730MW; the world's total exports of the rest of the market for

276MW, representing an increase of 26%. Monocrystalline silicon

shipments for 1.02GW, an increase of 23.5% polycrystalline

silicon module shipments decreased 22% to 1.02GW. Film products

shipments also rose steadily to the 636MW, or 64 percent.

  Mikio Katayama, President of the Association, said recently

that by the end of March 2013, domestic shipments will exceed


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China PV industry recognized by the world

China PV industry recognized by the world | Germany's New Solar Containment Policy |
 Recently, the International Renewable Energy Agency Director-General

Amiddom who proposed will focus on new energy development in

developing countries, and give a high level of recognition on China's

new energy development achievementsin at the sixth new energy BBS

which held in Beijing.
He Also Said china's renewable energy field achievement is remarkable

and the development of China's pv industry has made great progress,

technical level and product quality has been recognized by more and

more countries.

Continued policy support for the Chinese government to give in the

development of new energy, enhance the safety and security of

investment in new energy investors, prompting a lot of new energy

investors choose to invest in China,china has done a very good

successful example in the field of new energy to the world, in the

lower the speed of photovoltaic products is unprecedented on the

impact of the global development of new energy is far-reaching


Now, with more and more uncertainty factors in the development of new

energy photovoltaic market, the European market shrinking is a big

impact on China's PV industry, how to deal with the transform

situation in order to adapt the current international situation will

become the enterprise development center. Formerly, Chinese PV

industry use the foreign export to led the industrial development, so

it has greatly dependent on foreign markets. Therefore, the changing

in international market has a great influence on China's PV industry.

In the case of foreign markets are very unstable, PV companies should

look to domestic, open up their ownland markets. China has a good

environment and conditions to develop the new energy includeing

market demand , wealth of skills and experience and broad prospects.

Moreover, the market situation is not stable, in addition to the

United States and European cooperation, China should be in the

development of market of multipolar world, the search for a

breakthrough, find a and other emerging market cooperation to promote

development mode of solar energy.

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Chinese enterprises "Carve up" the Japanese PV market frenzy

Suffering from the country's economic development going on for years

in the doldrums, many Japanese companies are facing the dilemma of

declining competitiveness and lacking of funds. Combined with the

local stock market downturn, most Japanese companies' stock prices

are in low. This provides opportunities for Chinese companies to

acquire Japanese companies.
Chinese private equity firm Hony Capital is jointing with U.S.

private equity fund TPG to bid for Japanese semiconductor

manufacturer Elpida; Taiwan's Foxconn March announced that it will

acquire 10% of the shares of the Japanese electronics manufacturer

Sharp Corporation.... with the context of shrinking domestic market

in Japan, the acquisition of Chinese-funded enterprises will help

Japanese companies to develop the China market.

This year, the Japanese government has developed a high-priced

purchase of domestic large-scale solar photovoltaic power plant

electricity-related policies, planing and construction many large-

scale solar power station throughout Japan. under the case of

European market continue to shrink due to policy adjustments, Chinese

PV companies are turning to the Japanese market to bail out quickly.

In order to open up the PV module market in Japan Expansion of the PV

module sales channels and increase global market share, Hareon

announced April 12 that Japan Co., Ltd. set up a wholly owned

subsidiary Hareon Hareon Co., Ltd. a wholly owned subsidiary in

Japan, investment, registered capital of 98 million yen, arethe

Hairun own capital investment, accounted for 100% of the total share

capital of Japan, Ltd. Hareon. Prior to the April 5, Yingli also set

up a branch in Japan to open up the Japanese PV market.

A survey of Japanese companies in 2001 shows that nearly 60% of the

respondents Japanese companies expressed their willingness to be

acquired by Chinese company.

Provided by the Japanese Ministry of Finance figures show that

China's direct investment in Japan has doubled 20 times in four

years. Although the overall size is still small, but the amount of

investment in 2010 has reached about 20 billion. Some experts said

that taking into account the many funds are out of transit through

Hong Kong and other places, the real data of FDI of Chinese

investment in Japan would be higher. The Japan External Trade

Organization was the Government's trade and investment promotion

agencies, the agency responsible for promoting water tree-yin,

director of inbound investment, is expected to be more Chinese

investment to enter the Japanese market.

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