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A History Of Sudan's Civil Wars & Conflict

This is the story of how Sudan became two nations, and of an ongoing conflict in the Nuba Mountains that has changed the lives of millions of people. In parts 2–5 of our VR series, We Who Remain, follow the lives of four people living through the war: http://ajplus.co/nuba360. Produced in partnership with Nuba Reports and Emblematic Group.
Seth Dixon's insight:

The first video in this 5-part video is a bit slow, but provides the historical and geographic context needed to understand the developmental, ethnic, and political issues that remain so difficult to resolve.  The Subsequent four videos provide a more human, personal glimpse into facets of the conflict. 

 

Tags: Sudan, politicalethnicity, Africa, war.

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Lorraine Chaffer's curator insight, August 31, 2017 7:58 PM
Global Challenges: political geography
Deanna Wiist's curator insight, September 12, 2017 9:01 PM

The first video in this 5-part video is a bit slow, but provides the historical and geographic context needed to understand the developmental, ethnic, and political issues that remain so difficult to resolve.  The Subsequent four videos provide a more human, personal glimpse into facets of the conflict. 

 

Tags: Sudan, politicalethnicity, Africa, war.

Matt Manish's curator insight, May 2, 2018 11:47 PM
From this video one can see how crucial borders can be to neighboring ethnic groups, especially in Sudan. North Sudan is made up of mostly Arabs and Muslims, while mainly Christians live in South Sudan. Also, the majority of North Sudan is black while the majority of South Sudan is white. Due to these two ethnic groups being so different and previously being grouped into one country, much fighting and a devastating civil war has broken out over the past few decades. Recently within the last decade Sudan was officially divided up into two nations because of the ongoing fighting and cultural differences which seems to be a step in the right direction to reduce the amount of fighting between the two countries.
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Water Is Life

Hundreds of thousands of refugees have fled South Sudan to escape the civil war. When they arrive in Uganda, water is what they need most. Without it, they will die.
Seth Dixon's insight:

Next to nothing in this video will make you happy about the way things operate for refugees in Northern Uganda who have fled from South Sudan.  We all know the about the dire conditions that refugees face, but knowing about the specifics, and hearing stories from the refugees about their lives and living conditions is powerful.  A huge influx of refugees can tax local resources, especially water.  Food can be shipped in, but water a much more locally variable resource.   The UN refugee camps recommend at least 15 liters of water per person be made available each day, but often it is more like 4-8 liters in these camps.  Dedicated wells (or boreholes) are more effective, but costly.  Trucking in water from the Nile River is the preferred method to simply keep these drowning people’s heads above water.    

 

Questions to Ponder: Consider how much water you drink, use for cooking, bathing, etc. per day in your household.  How difficult would it be to live on 4 liters of water a day?  What about your lifestyle would be changed? 

 

TagsAfrica, development, Uganda, South Sudan, migrationrefugees, environment, waterenvironment depend, sustainability, resources.

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Ivan Ius's curator insight, April 8, 2017 11:49 PM
Geographic Thinking Concepts: Interrelationships; Geographic Perspective;
Seth Dixon's curator insight, June 5, 2017 12:15 PM

Next to nothing in this video will make you happy about the way things operate for refugees in Northern Uganda who have fled from South Sudan.  We all know the about the dire conditions that refugees face, but knowing about the specifics, and hearing stories from the refugees about their lives and living conditions is powerful.  A huge influx of refugees can tax local resources, especially water.  Food can be shipped in, but water a much more locally variable resource.   The UN refugee camps recommend at least 15 liters of water per person be made available each day, but often it is more like 4-8 liters in these camps.  Dedicated wells (or boreholes) are more effective, but costly.  Trucking in water from the Nile River is the preferred method to simply keep these drowning people’s heads above water.    

 

Questions to Ponder: Consider how much water you drink, use for cooking, bathing, etc. per day in your household.  How difficult would it be to live on 4 liters of water a day?  What about your lifestyle would be changed? 

 

TagsAfrica, development, Uganda, South Sudan, migrationrefugees, environment, water,  environment depend, sustainability, resources.

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7 awful conflicts that were under-reported in 2014

7 awful conflicts that were under-reported in 2014 | Geography Education | Scoop.it
Sadly, there was plenty of mayhem and violence that didn't make newspaper frontpages. Here are some awful conflicts that merited more attention.


Tags: conflictLibya, Yemen, Assam (India), the Sudans, Nigeria, Pakistan, Somalia and Kenya

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Courtney Barrowman's curator insight, January 23, 2015 12:14 PM

Current events, course resource, could be applied to just about every unit!

Lena Minassian's curator insight, April 9, 2015 9:36 PM

This article struck me because of certain topics overshadowing really important ones. This talks about seven horrible conflicts and tragedies that have occurred that went unreported. These issues needed attention and media this day in age is focuses on unnecessary issues rather than discussing issues like these. One of the conflicts was in Pakistan. They experienced a terrorist attack on a school by the Taliban and many children were slaughtered and many of those children were the kids of military personnel. This has been an ongoing conflict and has even had numerous airstrikes involved. This terrorist outbreak has caused more problems and the fighting still continues. A second conflict is in Assam, India. This conflict has been a clash of between ethic groups. This conflict has gotten so bad, numerous people have left their homes and people have been massacred causing it to become a terrorist operation. Conflicts like these need our intention and there are way too many cases like this going unnoticed. 

Chris Costa's curator insight, October 26, 2015 3:05 PM

It is sad to see the state of Libya following the optimism that surrounded its revolution and the toppling of the dictatorship that had ran the nation for decades. Despite the high hopes of the West and the Libyans themselves, the nation has devolved into civil war between the coalition government and an alliance of former rebel groups and militant Islamic extremists. Violence has gripped the nation ever since, a sad story of an incomplete revolution that occurred without a plan set for the future. One must only look at the Benghazi attack to not that the hopes of the US to secure another ally in the region have turned out to be entirely unfounded, as the people remain divided. The lack of coverage of this story in Western media suggests that the story is perhaps too depressing for American audiences, or that the major news networks don't want to dwell on another failure of the US in its involvement in the region. I hope that the violence ceases soon, as there has been far too much bloodshed already for the Libyan people.

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South Sudan factional fighting leaves hundreds feared dead

South Sudan factional fighting leaves hundreds feared dead | Geography Education | Scoop.it

"Two days of street battles between rival factions in South Sudan's army left parts of the capital in ruins and prompted fears of a bloodbath in the world's youngest country.

UN officials in New York said they had received reports from local sources indicating that between 400 and 500 people had been killed and up to 800 wounded. More than 16,000 people were seeking refuge at UN facilities. What began on Sunday night as an alleged coup attempt now threatens to widen deep ethnic divisions in a country awash with weapons and still recovering from a devastating war that led to its secession from the north in 2011."

Seth Dixon's insight:

Earlier in the semester we discussed how difficult it is to establish a new country in a region with political and economic instabilty.  This is only further complicated by the presence of factional rivalries.  It's a tragedy that these problems are being played out.  


Tags: South Sudanpolitical, Africa, states.

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Joseph Thacker 's curator insight, March 24, 2014 9:51 PM

The newest nation in the world still faces hardships today in 2014. In 2013 the country was almost involved with a civil war between the government and rebel forces. One of the reasons for violence occurring was some people who were supportive of the vice president felt the president was acting like a dictator. However, in 2014 a cease-fire was signed between the government and rebel forces, but violence still occurs between those groups of people and over natural resources such as oil.

It is very difficult for the newest country in the world to be successful, as it is politically unstable. 

Tracy Galvin's curator insight, May 4, 2014 2:37 PM

Wow they just got their own country and now they are fighting amongst themselves. The government said it was a misunderstanding. Sad that 500 people died due to a misunderstanding.

Nicole Kearsch's curator insight, November 1, 2014 10:59 PM

Two and a half years as a country and they are already fighting?  With all the instability already in Sudan before South Sudan was created it doesn't help that there are differences between the people of South Sudan to add to the mix.  The people don't even trust their own government as they are flocking in masses to the UN refugee centers instead of listening to the government when they have been assured security.  With any hope South Sudan can get it together, stop killing their own people, and become an example for other countries around them to follow.

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‘How to Build a Country From Scratch’

‘How to Build a Country From Scratch’ | Geography Education | Scoop.it
The filmmakers present a 12-step program to establish the world’s newest country: South Sudan.
Seth Dixon's insight:

What does a state need to have to be politically viable?  If you were to start your own country, what would you need to do?  This isn't just a hypothetical question since South Sudan is currently undergoing this process and having to answer these questions. 


Tags: South Sudanpolitical, sovereignty, Africa, territoriality, states, unit 4 political.

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Cam E's curator insight, March 18, 2014 12:51 PM

This is a really interesting dynamic to look into, as it's not everyday the process of founding a country can be seen at work. That's a true once in a lifetime experience for those involved, and is likely one of the harder jobs in the entirety of history.

Elizabeth Bitgood's curator insight, March 19, 2014 10:46 AM

This video and article highlight the steps a new country takes when it is carved out of an old one.  The problems and tribulations the new country faces and how it responds to the rest of the international community will decide if it will be a long lasting country or just a blip on the road of the original countries history.

Kendra King's curator insight, March 15, 2015 6:33 PM

I think building a country from scratch mostly needs a plan for strong governance. Some of the items mentioned in the video would eventually be necessary (i.e. an anthem or a flag), but not exactly a top priority as the country could function without these. Rather the items like taxes and training the police are hugely important. A society needs the revenue to grow and the police to keep order. However, what disturbed me about this video is there were no other real mention of government institutions. Now I am not saying that the Constitution needs to be exactly like the United States, but the following is needed: a plan for how to treat the citizens, implement social programs, create/review the law, get officials into office, etc. Without looking at these basic questions of government, there is no way the country can function because there aren’t actually the procedures in place when problems do arise.

 

After strong governance, I also think that recognition in our globalized world is needed as well. In order for a country to prosper, the country will need to rely on other nations at one point in time for things like trading. If enough countries just refused to recognize the area and as such refused to trade then the country would more than likely fail. Luckily, Sudan is recognized by the United States and the UN did come to speak with the nation. SO that doesn’t seem to be an issue.

 

To me these are the top two things needed and since one is greatly missing, I am not surprised by the problems Sudan has.  

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Five Geographic Challenges for South Sudan - My Wonderful World Blog

Five Geographic Challenges for South Sudan - My Wonderful World Blog | Geography Education | Scoop.it

South Sudan's a newly minted country, but faces some serious challenges.  Good for discussing political geography.  "Learn about My Wonderful World, a National Geographic-led campaign to increase geographic learning, and meet coalition members."  

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Chris Rouse's curator insight, May 15, 2017 5:46 PM
This article relates to our lessons because we talked about how different places had different types of politics. My opinion about political geography, is that it's cool. I like how everywhere you go things aren't gonna be the like back at home.
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Short Film: How Water Gets From The Nile To Thirsty Refugees

Short Film: How Water Gets From The Nile To Thirsty Refugees | Geography Education | Scoop.it
Hundreds of thousands of refugees have fled the civil war in South Sudan and resettled in Uganda. This 12-minute documentary shows the daily struggle to get water.
Seth Dixon's insight:

Next to nothing in this video will make you happy about the way things operate for refugees in Northern Uganda who have fled from South Sudan.  We all know the about the dire conditions that refugees face, but knowing about the specifics, and hearing stories from the refugees about their lives and living conditions is powerful.  A huge influx of refugees can tax local resources, especially water.  Food can be shipped in, but water a much more locally variable resource.   The UN refugee camps recommend at least 15 liters of water per person be made available each day, but often it is more like 4-8 liters in these camps.  Dedicated wells (or boreholes) are more effective, but costly.  Trucking in water from the Nile River is the preferred method to simply keep these drowning people’s heads above water.    

Questions to Ponder: Consider how much water you drink, use for cooking, bathing, etc. per day in your household.  How difficult would it be to live on 4 liters of water a day?  What about your lifestyle would be changed? 

 

Tags: Africa, development, Uganda, migrationrefugees, environment, water, sustainability, resources.

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Kimmy Jay's curator insight, May 10, 2017 3:51 PM
This would be good to show during 6th grade lesson on refugees 

Matt Richardson's curator insight, May 10, 2017 6:43 PM
The multiple catastrophes occurring in Central Africa at the moment are among the worst in recorded history. These traumatized people need to be heard, understood, and helped. 
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South Sudan On Brink Of 'Rwanda-Like' Genocide, Commission Warns

South Sudan On Brink Of 'Rwanda-Like' Genocide, Commission Warns | Geography Education | Scoop.it

"In a meeting of the U.N. Human Rights Council, commission chief Yasmin Sooka reported murder and rape on an 'epic' scale. 'We are running out of adjectives to describe the horror,' she said."

Seth Dixon's insight:

Since December 2013, South Sudan has been embroiled in a civil war that began as a primarily political conflict, but has since taken shape between the country's two largest ethnic groups, the Dinka and the Nuer.  One of the many tragedies has been the impact on the children living in South Sudan.   

 

Tags: South Sudanpoliticalethnicity, Africa, war.

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David G Tibbs's curator insight, April 5, 2018 12:44 PM
Atrocities have been happening in this region since the 60s when the Western powers left the continent. Following the "ethic" cleansing of Rwanda, many other countries have started to face the same thing. One of those countries is South Sudan, over political issues. Much like Rwanda the country is split between two tribes that hold a good amount of power over the country. To make matters worst some countries like Australia have excluded people fleeing the country from their programs. https://www.sbs.com.au/news/anger-as-south-sudan-iran-somalia-excluded-from-an-australian-refugee-program The west has historically helped those in need when the people face danger, the West needs to find a way either economically or diplomatically to intervene. 

 
 
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How New Countries Gain Independence

"Secession movements seem to be everywhere: from the Kurds in Iraq, to pro-Russian Ukrainian separatists, to Scotland's aim to break up the UK. How does secession actually happen? Let's look back to South Sudan's successful secession effort to see exactly how new countries gain independence."

Seth Dixon's insight:

What does it take to actually secede from a country?  This video takes the example of South Sudan to highlight the necessary requirements to successfully secede and then gain full independence. 


Tags: South Sudanpolitical, sovereignty, Africastates, unit 4 political.

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Nevermore Sithole's curator insight, October 14, 2014 4:27 AM

How New Countries Gain Independence

Norka McAlister's curator insight, February 23, 2015 7:06 PM

For a region to be able to succeed as an independent country, it must fulfill a series of requirements. In the case of Catalonia, Spain, it is far from what citizens in that area want to pursue, even when Catalonia is one of the richer regions in Spain. There are many factors that inhibit Catalonia from achieving its status as an independent country such as economic, political and cultural issues. With Spain’s current economy, it would be almost impossible for Catalonia to support itself as its own nation. In addition, if Catalonia gains its independence from Spain, it would not be able to be a part of the United Nations (UN). Language would prove as another obstacle for Catalonia as their combination of French and Spanish is not the official dialect of the region. Cultural assimilation would be difficult as Catalonians would have to transition and adapt Spain’s vascos and gallegos to a version of their own. However, centripetal forces in Catalonian citizens unify them as strong communicators within their region in order for them to promote and retain their distinct cultural identity.

As the video emphasizes how to gain independence; Catalonia does not qualify to achieve independence as it fails to meet some of the characteristics such as an “established group, marginalization, [and] economic stability.” However, as Spain’s economy begins to weaken, Catalonian citizens can take this opportunity to work towards their goal as being an independent entity from Spain

James Piccolino's curator insight, March 24, 2018 10:37 AM
I have nearly always supported large governments or governmental entities breaking down to smaller levels in order to better suit smaller groups (I believe you call it devolution but I can not remember if that is quite it off the top of my head). What I do not agree with is having to have had a past history of oppression in order to secede. This seems to say that there are some movements that are not legitimate because they haven't been oppressed enough. Who is the judge of this in the end? Why can't any group of people who come under an identity that want to be their own people do so, and instead need to seek approval? This is not to say that every single one should or has reason to, but to ask who is the one who gets to decide the difference?
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South Sudan’s President relieves VP and dissolves government

South Sudan’s President relieves VP and dissolves government | Geography Education | Scoop.it

July 23, 2013 (JUBA) – South Sudan’s president, Salva Kiir Mayardit, has issued a presidential decree removing the vice-president, Riek Machar Teny, and dissolved the whole government.

Seth Dixon's insight:

Just today I mentioned in class that South Sudan had some serious issues in establishing effective governance over their territory and building a legitimate government...then I read this.  Starting a new country is difficult, especially with the hand South Sudan has been dealt--stay tuned. 


Tags: South Sudanpolitical, Africa, states.

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Ryan Amado's curator insight, December 11, 2013 4:37 AM

Unfortunately, these actions seem to be the one of a man who is trying desperately to hold on to his power. It is known that there was a power struggle between him and members of his government. It is the last thing this young country needs when it is trying to establish itself.  Hopefully this move does not lead to the very thing South Sudanians were trying to get away from.

Joseph Thacker 's curator insight, March 24, 2014 9:59 PM

It is very difficult for a country this young to be politically and economically stable. The president must have a difficult time earning the peoples respect when the country is struggling.  Removing the vice president only upset some locals as they felt he showed signs of a dictator.  

Jess Deady's curator insight, May 4, 2014 3:56 PM

He wants to get rid of the entire political cabinet. Who does he think he is, Superman? There is no way this president can take on a whole nation by himself. He needs to reconsider his actions and think about South Sudan and its needs.

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Sudan and South Sudan sign non-aggression pact

Sudan and South Sudan sign non-aggression pact | Geography Education | Scoop.it
Khartoum and Juba sign memorandum of understanding regarding disputed border, as talks continue over oil pipeline fees.

 

For an article pointing to some of the factors that might undermine this peace agreement, see: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/11/world/africa/sudan-and-south-sudan-edge-closer-to-brink-in-oil-dispute.html?ref=jeffreygettleman

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