Geography Education
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The World's Newest (Official) Ocean

The World's Newest (Official) Ocean | Geography Education | Scoop.it

"The Southern Ocean extends from the coast of Antarctica north to 60 degrees south latitude. The Southern Ocean is now the fourth largest of the world's five oceans (after the Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, and Indian Ocean, but larger than the Arctic Ocean). The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) has  declared, named, and demarcated the Southern Ocean as a fifth, separate ocean."

Seth Dixon's insight:

Typically we define oceans and seas based on their borders with land as their most important characteristics.  Also, we rarely look at the bottom of the globe as the center of our global perspective.  Those are a few of the reasons why American students usually have never heard of the Southern Ocean, but Australian students see it as one of the world's main oceans.  

 

TagsOceaniaAntarctica, water, environment, physical.

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Katie Kershaw's curator insight, April 24, 2018 12:22 PM
This is slightly embarrassing to admit, but I have never heard of the Southern Ocean.  I think it is because, as mentioned in class the other day, we do not talk about the Southern Hemisphere very often.  When looking a globe this entire ocean is on the bottom and pretty much out of sight.  I thought that it was interesting that the creation of this ocean was created within my lifetime because all of the rest of the world’s oceans are well documented throughout history.  Even though the water in the Southern Ocean has been there just as long as the other oceans, it hadn’t been designated as an ocean.  I think another reason that I haven’t heard much about the Southern Ocean is because it doesn’t really have any direct impacts on Americans.  All of our trade routes avoid this area of the world, we don’t have any landclaims within the ocean, and very few Americans have actually gone to Anarctica.  This article also talks about the boundaries and the conflict regarding how far north the boundaries of the ocean would be.  Most members of the IHO supported the boundary being at 60 degrees.  However, 7 countries pushed to have the boundary set at 50 degrees.  The reason most countries supported the 60 degree boundary is because it doesn’t add any land outside of Anarctica to the ocean.  Although this article doesn’t state which countries wanted the boundary at 50 degrees, I am guessing its countries with land very far south, like Argentina, Chile, Australia, and maybe South Africa.  This would allow them control over the Southern Ocean that they can’t get with the current boundaries.  It is interesting that it took until 2002 for the point to be raised that the Southern Ocean is district enough from the other oceans, that it should be considered a separate ocean.
Zavier Lineberger's curator insight, May 3, 2018 11:25 AM
(Oceania) Geography experts now claim the waters around Antarctica will join the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, and Arctic as the fifth ocean. Almost every member of the International Hydrographic Organization declared the existence of the South Ocean, which extends to 60° S latitude and is double the size of the United States. While it might seem trivial, the Southern Ocean has the most powerful water current, a different circulation, and a unique ecosystem, marking it separate from other bodies of water.
K Rome's curator insight, October 6, 2018 7:30 PM
The Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, and Artic as an American student growing up those were the Oceans that I grew up learning about. So to see an article talking about the Southern Ocean comes as kind of a surprise. We learn as young American students about "Atlantic trade" or our West Coast with "Pacific Trade" we as young students learn about the mysterious Indian Ocean and the unattainable Artic Ocean,  but for some reason the Southern Ocean has been left out. The Southern Ocean as the article explains is the 5th and newest Ocean. Ocean scientist thought it was necessary to name the the body of water south of the Pacific but north of the Artic. While it might not seem that important to some it is key to identify with areas. When we discuss Atlantic trade for the most part in the United States we know we are discussing trade with the Europeans or on our East Coast. When discussing Pacific trade we understand that to be West Coast and probably dealing with China or other Asian countries. As an Australian resident or student they grow up learning about this key body of water to them. They can use it to identity where they are and where they are going. We can also use the body of water to discuss different weather pattern and effects on the countries in Oceania region of the world. An interesting read if  you want to learn more about our forgotten 5th Ocean. 
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Rare Look Inside Antarctic Explorers’ Huts

After 10 years of conservation efforts, the huts that once housed the likes of Robert Falcon Scott and Ernest Shackleton are ready for a new generation.


TagsAntarctica, National Geographic.

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4 animations that show what's really going on with our climate

4 animations that show what's really going on with our climate | Geography Education | Scoop.it

"Trying to understand what’s actually going on in the world’s climate seems like it might be truly impossible. For one thing, there are so many different factors at work. Everything from how light travels through the atmosphere to how the winds move the ocean around to how rain hits the ground has an effect on what actually happens on Earth both now and in the future. That also means there’s absolutely no use in looking at each piece individually … to understand what’s really going on, the climate jigsaw puzzle needs to be complete.

That, says climate scientist Gavin Schmidt, is where climate modeling comes in. The discipline synthesizes data from multiple sources, including satellites, weather stations, even from people camping in the Arctic and submitting measurements of the ice they see around them. Climate modeling, Schmidt says, gives us our best chance of understanding the bigger picture of the world around us. 'We take all of the things we can see are going on, put them together with our best estimates of how processes work, and then see if we can understand and explain the emergent properties of climate systems,' he says. These four silent animations show what he means."


Tags: physical, weather and climate, Arctic, Antarctica, climate change.

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Lora Tortolani's curator insight, February 2, 2015 6:59 PM

This makes me think of so many more things than just Geography and climate!

Nathalie Mercken's curator insight, February 11, 2015 3:33 AM

ajouter votre aperçu ...

Rich Schultz's curator insight, February 11, 2015 11:22 AM

All about climate change...

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The Most Complex International Borders in the World

"In this video I look at some of the most complex international border. Of course, there are more complex borders in the world, but this video looks at some of my favourites."

Seth Dixon's insight:

This video shows some great examples of how the political organization of space and administration of borders can get complicated.  Here are the examples (and time in the video when they are covered in the video):


Tags: borders, political, territoriality, sovereignty, video.


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ELAdvocacy's curator insight, October 3, 2014 9:40 AM

There are so many reasons our immigrant students come to the United States.  Some stories are so complex and painful it can be extremely difficult for Americans to understand.

Adilson Camacho's curator insight, October 3, 2014 10:21 PM

Interesting!

Nevermore Sithole's curator insight, October 6, 2014 5:39 AM

The Most Complex International Borders in the World

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Penguins from Space: A New Satellite Census Doubles the Known Population of Emperors

Penguins from Space: A New Satellite Census Doubles the Known Population of Emperors | Geography Education | Scoop.it
High-resolution imaging has allowed scientists to produce the first full count of Antarctica's emperor penguins...

 

Before this, there was no way to to gather reliable penguin statistics.  Geospatial technologies are now providing us the tools to teach us more about the biogeography of penguins.  The applications of geospatial technologies are endless.   

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Jacob Crowell's curator insight, December 16, 2014 7:48 AM

In the beginning of the semester we talked about how geography is always changing. Our understanding of geography does as well. This new technology helps people have a clearer picture of the wildlife that exists on Antarctica. Because of its harsh environment the amount we know about this barren continent has been limited. As technology improves we will be able to gain more accurate information about Antarctica.

Hector Alonzo's curator insight, December 16, 2014 12:58 PM

Using this new technology, animal can be monitored and helped by the satellites. Having a way to accurately know the population of a species is incredible,  because now we can know which species are in danger of extinction and we can take steps to help them. Before the use of the satellite,  the population of Emperor penguins was found to be 595, 000 and the colonies of penguins was found to be 46 instead of the previous 38, so without this technology there have been penguins that may have needed help, but now they will get proper attention.

Kendra King's curator insight, April 13, 2015 9:27 PM

Technology never ceases to amaze me. As the article described, the use of satellite imagining recently showed that the “population count” of the emperor penguin is “found nearly twice as many...as did previous studies.” Prior to the use of satellite imaging, the method to obtain this type of data was done by people actually being around the area. As the new numbers showed this was inaccurate because so much of the artic can’t be reached by the human population. I think this brings up an interesting notion. We define our landscape based on what we see. Yet, what we see doesn’t always capture what is actually on earth. As such, I wonder if more penguin colonies have disappeared then the one the British intuition noticed. We won’t know, but at least now thanks to technology a better grasp of the situation can happen. Maybe with more concrete data about the effects of global warming on Antarctic more non-believers could be swayed. All in all, I think the technology is beneficial. The only down side about this technology is the possibility for misuse. If we can now figure out the penguin population down to which ones are adults, imagine just what else this technology can due in the name of “geographic research.”      

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Frozen Planet - An Interactive Exploration of the Poles

Frozen Planet - An Interactive Exploration of the Poles | Geography Education | Scoop.it

Very cool way to explore the colder realms of our planet.  This web-based "Google Earth-like" resource comes preloaded with layers  (ice extent, temperature, permafrost, biogeography, etc.) that would make for a great interactive lesson for many grade levels. 


Via Carla Saunders
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Countries Rush for Upper Hand in Antarctica

Countries Rush for Upper Hand in Antarctica | Geography Education | Scoop.it
For decades to come, Antarctica is supposed to be protected as a scientific preserve. But an array of countries are eager to assert greater influence.

 

TagsAntarcticaclimate changepoliticalresources, sovereignty.

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Who Owns Antarctica?

Seth Dixon's insight:

If there is one thing that the modern political order can't stand it is letting unclaimed land remain unclaimed...even if it covered in frozen ice.  See some of the competing claims (and international agreements) on the political status of Antarctica.  Click here to see a similar analysis on competing claims over the North Pole.    


TagsAntarcticaclimate changepoliticalresources,watersovereignty.

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Blake Joseph's curator insight, April 24, 2015 3:48 PM

With Antarctica being the coldest, driest, and most isolated continent on earth, it is surprising that 51 different countries own pieces of land on it. As of now, the lands there can only be used strictly for scientific research, but I presume that treaty will not be in effect forever. Hidden resources yet to be discovered and future technology and is bound to give us some reason to permanently settle in this barren land someday. Discovering oil or minerals would be a good bet, as it was a leading factor in causing Dubai to form in the Arabian Desert, or the city of Perth in Western Australia. A healthy fishing industry could even help support future economies there. While weather has always been an important factor in human colonization, it does not make a place totally inhospitable. If economies can form in places like Barrow, Alaska and Longyearbyen, Norway, I don't see future  settlements in Antarctica as an impossibility.

Norka McAlister's curator insight, April 25, 2015 5:20 PM

In reality, no one own Antarctica for now. However, it is governed under the Antarctica treaty of 1959.  There are a few reasons why no one has been claimed Antarctica, one being that is has extremely cold temperatures that drop to -122 °F. The continent also has a vast amount of thick ice that is 3 miles deep and covers its surface. In addition, it would be very costly to explore these regions and difficult to build infrastructure and transport food due to the cold temperatures and frozen seas. The Antarctica treaty of 1959 is an international agreement which states that no one cannot own the Antarctica. However, some countries have claimed some part of Antarctica. These designated areas are only to be used for scientific research purposes. Also, since an international agreement has been putted in place, Antarctica cannot be used for military purposes. The agreement also stresses freedom of scientific investigation but prohibits nuclear testing and waste disposal in Antarctica. This research has helped scientists discover new truths about global problems, climate change, and geology. 

Kristin Mandsager San Bento's curator insight, May 1, 2015 4:16 PM

It will be interesting to see what happens to Antartica as the climate shifts and continues to get warmer.  What is under the frozen tundra?  Will it be something of a natural resource or mineral?  I think this is when the fight will get real about the slice of pie and how much each has.  

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What’s the deal with Antarctica and the Arctic?

What’s the deal with Antarctica and the Arctic? | Geography Education | Scoop.it

"Perhaps the biggest misunderstanding is that the Arctic and Antarctic are similar. One’s in the north and the other is in the south; but other than that, they’re the same, right? No, this couldn’t be more wrong. These polar opposites are literally polar opposites.
For starters, the Arctic is a small, shallow ocean surrounded by land: Eurasia, Greenland, Canada and the United States. It’s only about 5 ½ million square miles, which is five times smaller than the Atlantic and 11 times smaller than the Pacific. Antarctica, on the other hand, is a continent surrounded by the entire Southern Ocean.

This may seem like no big deal, but it makes all the difference in the world. It takes a lot of energy to change water temperature compared to what it takes to change land temperature, which means Arctic seawater isn’t as cold as the continental ice sheet covering Antarctica. So, the Arctic sea ice (frozen sea water) is about 10 feet thick, whereas the Antarctic ice sheet (compacted freshwater ice) is over a mile thick."


Tags: physical, weather and climate, Arctic, Antarctica.

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Land Unseen: What's Beneath Antarctica's Ice?

Land Unseen: What's Beneath Antarctica's Ice? | Geography Education | Scoop.it

"Many of us tend to think of Antarctica as a sheet of solid snow and ice. But, in contrast with its peer to the north, the southern pole's ice sheet lies atop a rocky continent. What are its features, its mountains and valleys, plains and coastlines?

A new dataset from the British Antarctic Survey provides the most detailed map ever of the bedrock below, information scientists hope will enable them to better model the affects of climate change on the ice, whose melting will have an impact on climate the world over."

Seth Dixon's insight:

This video sheds some light on explorations to uncover truths about one of the most remote places on Earth.


Tags: Antarctica, water, physical, remote sensing, geospatial.


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Johani Karonen's curator insight, June 17, 2013 4:46 AM

Talking about challanges - Amundsen and Scott sure had a tough one!

Jason, Charlie's curator insight, October 3, 2013 1:33 PM

This is the Intellctual part of Antarctica. This video talks about what is underneathAntarctica. Its' ice is flowing out towardsstone sea and could contribute to sea rise. If Antarctica didn't have anymoreonce our ocean would have a major rise but Antarctica would be a new place. 

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Scientists Reach Buried Antarctic Lake

Scientists Reach Buried Antarctic Lake | Geography Education | Scoop.it
Update: Russian news agency Ria Novosti has reported that the team penetrated Lake Vostok on Feb. 5, 2012. According to the report, the rese...

 

More questions than answers, but there are essentially 200 lakes buried underneath the miles-thick Antarctic ice sheet that haven't seen the light of day or interacted with the atmosphere in millions of years.  Russian researchers for years have been drilling and finally reached Lake Vostok, the largest of its kind.  What are these places like?  What will scientists discover?   

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