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How does gender impact Victimology and Criminology?
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Labour laws in 104 countries reserve some jobs for men only - Never done

Labour laws in 104 countries reserve some jobs for men only - Never done | Gender and Crime | Scoop.it
EVEN as rich countries seek to rid workplaces of subtle gender bias, in many developing ones discrimination remains overt. According to the World Bank, women are barred from certain jobs in 104 countries (see map).

“Gender equality in labour law is associated with more women working and earning more relative to men,” says Sarah Iqbal of the Bank. Yet some countries publish lists of jobs deemed too dangerous for women (Russia’s 456 include driving a train or steering a ship). Others stop women from working in entire sectors, at night or in “morally inappropriate” jobs (in Kazakhstan women cannot bleed or stun cattle, pigs or small ruminants). In four countries women cannot register a business. In 18 a husband can stop his wife working.

The aim is often to protect the “weaker sex”. Some laws put women in the same category as children; they concern jobs seen as physically tough, such as mining, construction and manufacturing. Others relate to broader safety fears. In Mumbai, for example, female shopkeepers cannot work as late as male ones. Other laws are intended to protect capacity to bear children. “Such policies often have demographic motivations, especially in countries with low birth rates,” says Ms Iqbal.

Restrictions on night work originated in England during the Industrial Revolution. They were based on the idea that women not only were weaker and more vulnerable to exploitation than men, but also lacked competence to make valid choices. In 1948 the International Labour Organisation (ILO) still sought to keep women away from mines and industrial nightwork. Spain did not lift restrictions on female workers in mining, electricity and some construction jobs until 1995. Some bans on women’s work still in place in former colonies are remnants of the 1960 Spanish Civil Code, the Napoleonic Code or Commonwealth laws.

Some laws are of surprisingly recent origin: Vietnam’s ban on women driving tractors of 50 horsepower or more came into force in 2013. But on balance, the trend is towards liberalisation. In recent years Bulgaria, Kiribati and Poland have removed all restrictions; Colombia and Congo have got rid of some. Other countries have changed laws in light of technological advances that have made many jobs safer and less reliant on brute force, or have seen courts overturn bans as discriminatory.

Labour shortages are also leading to change. When many male miners left Marmato, in Colombia, to find better pay elsewhere, female replacements were tolerated, even though hiring them broke the law. Similarly, when male truckers in eastern European countries that joined the European Union left for western ones, pressure to let women replace them increased. And the end of a ban on women working nights in the Philippines in 2011 was cheered on by call-centres, which need staff during daytime in America and Europe.

Some sex-specific restrictions are called for, says the ILO, particularly in the case of pregnant and breast-feeding women, for example when working with chemicals. (Such temporary and specific precautions are not counted in the World Bank’s study.) But, concludes the ILO, blanket protective prohibitions are “increasingly obsolete”.
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Doctor suspected of sexually molesting 4 women during health checks

Police in Ota, Gunma Prefecture, have arrested a 47-year-old doctor on suspicion of sexually molesting four women while he was giving them health checks last year. According to police, the four women work for an automobile parts maker.

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Transgender woman assaulted by 'mob' last month killed in Texas

Transgender woman assaulted by 'mob' last month killed in Texas | Gender and Crime | Scoop.it
A transgender woman who was assaulted in an alleged “act of mob violence” in Texas last month was found dead on Saturday, authorities said.

Dallas Police Lt. Vincent Weddington said Muhlaysia Booker, 23, was found lying face down on a street northeast of downtown Dallas in the morning.

Weddington said officers found her body after responding to a report of a shooting. He attributed Booker’s death to “homicidal violence” but did not provide more details.
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Human Trafficking Part of Larger Cartel Strategy - AZPM

Human Trafficking Part of Larger Cartel Strategy - AZPM | Gender and Crime | Scoop.it
Former DEA Tucson head Tony Coulson discusses when drug cartels added human smuggling to their business model.
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Where Sex Trafficking Occurs in America

Where Sex Trafficking Occurs in America | Gender and Crime | Scoop.it
A recent report highlights the cities and states within the U.S. in which human trafficking is most reported.
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Former government sniper admits he shot former girlfriend to death on Manhattan street

Former government sniper admits he shot former girlfriend to death on Manhattan street | Gender and Crime | Scoop.it
A former government sniper pleaded guilty Thursday to gunning down his former girlfriend on a Manhattan street in a deal that will see him serve at least 18 years for the murder. 
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Fairbanks murder suspect apprehended by Alaska State Troopers

Fairbanks murder suspect apprehended by Alaska State Troopers | Gender and Crime | Scoop.it
Fairbanks murder suspect Patrick Marsh has been taken into custody.
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The Alleged Killer’s Daughters Speak Out After Marlen Ochoa’s Murder – CBS Chicago

The Alleged Killer’s Daughters Speak Out After Marlen Ochoa’s Murder – CBS Chicago | Gender and Crime | Scoop.it
Scared to show their faces or reveal their names, the adult-twin daughters of Clarisa Figueroa describe the horror after learning, that their mother and half sister, Desiree, allegedly murdered a woman, took her baby and tried to pass it off as their brother.
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Police arrest Idaho man in 23-year-old cold-case murder of Angie Dodge

Police arrest Idaho man in 23-year-old cold-case murder of Angie Dodge | Gender and Crime | Scoop.it
Idaho police have arrested Brian Leigh Dripps of Caldwell, Idaho for the 1996 murder of Angie Dodge.
Rob Duke's insight:

These cold cases are being closed on a regular basis using this new genealogy tool.

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Menstrual Sheds Are Hard To Give Up In Western Nepal : Goats and Soda : NPR

Menstrual Sheds Are Hard To Give Up In Western Nepal : Goats and Soda : NPR | Gender and Crime | Scoop.it
In western Nepal, women often sleep in a hut outside the house during menstruation because of beliefs about impurity — and they sometimes die. The government is trying to end the practice.
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Traveling carnival worker confesses to killing 2 women, teen in 18-day period in Virginia, authorities say

Traveling carnival worker confesses to killing 2 women, teen in 18-day period in Virginia, authorities say | Gender and Crime | Scoop.it
A traveling carnival worker has confessed to killing two women and a teenager within an 18-day period, according to authorities.
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California 'sexually violent predator' arrested in cold case rape, murder of woman, 81

California 'sexually violent predator' arrested in cold case rape, murder of woman, 81 | Gender and Crime | Scoop.it
A California man classified a sexually violent predator has been arrested in the cold case rape and murder of an 81-year-old woman decades ago.
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After 36 years, DNA evidence and genealogy help to ID a murder victim and her killer

After 36 years, DNA evidence and genealogy help to ID a murder victim and her killer | Gender and Crime | Scoop.it

In 1982, the 33-year-old unidentified woman was found shot to death near a Lake Tahoe hiking trail. She appeared to be dressed for a day at the lake, wearing a powder blue T-shirt, jeans, yellow sneakers and a bathing suit under her clothing.

She had no identification. No one was looking for her. So she became known as Sheep’s Flat Jane Doe, named after the trail where she was found by a group of hikers. Her remains were buried in a nameless grave; the case went cold.

Almost 37 years later, with the help of DNA detectives, genealogy records and dogged detective work, the mystery was solved. The victim in the lonely grave is Mary Silvani, a Pontiac, Michigan, native who grew up in Detroit, had two brothers and eventually moved to California.

Forensic genealogists used the victim’s DNA to track down relatives, including two distant cousins who had used ancestry sites to research their family trees, and a nephew who still lives in the Detroit area. Family members who spoke to the Free Press said they learned Silvani also had a child, whose whereabouts are unknown.

Investigators also tracked down neighbors who grew up next to the Silvani family in Detroit and helped confirm her identity.

Detroit police also played a crucial role. The department had kept a set of Silvani’s fingerprints from a 1974 misdemeanor loitering case. Based on this set of fingerprints, authorities in Nevada were able to confirm that Sheep’s Flat Jane Doe was Mary Silvani.

“This is an incredible story,” Washoe County Sheriff Darin Balaam said in a Wednesday phone interview, noting Detroit Police played a crucial role in the case. “If Detroit had not kept those fingerprints – back then they weren’t digitalized – we never would have been able to (connect) those points.”

Detroit Police, who were contacted by Nevada detectives last summer, found the decades-old fingerprint card after digging through old archives in a massive warehouse.

"It certainly was a pleasant surprise that we were able to locate it after all this time," said Detroit Police Lt. Martin Stefan, noting the discovery of records from a decades-old misdemeanor case is "certainly pretty rare."

"Some records are kept for just these kinds of reasons," Stefan said. "Theoretically, they didn't need to be retained. It really was just a lucky situation that they managed to survive all this time."

Then there were the persistent forensic genealogists who uploaded snippets of the victim’s DNA into a database called GEDMatch. This led to cousins, her nephew and eventually her parents: John and Blanche Silvani of Detroit, who had two sons and one daughter, all of them deceased. It was the same technique successfully used in the Golden State Killer investigation.

It was the DNA of a nephew and closest living relative, Robert Silvani Jr., 53, a lifelong Detroiter who recently moved to Newport, that helped the scientists solve the puzzle.

"I just want to let her know that she was loved," Silvani Jr. said in an interview Thursday, noting he had only heard about his Aunt Mary once from his mother. "I never knew my aunt ... it would be really nice if I could do something for her."

What he wants is to "get her a nice headstone," said Silvani Jr., who learned about his aunt's death a year ago when DNA researchers reached out to him via Facebook and told him that they had linked him to a relative of a homicide victim, and that they needed his DNA.

"You can imagine what was going through my head," Silvani Jr. recalled.

"I was all for it. I always wanted to take an ancestry thing. I was just very surprised that she was murdered," said Silvani Jr. "I'm finding out a whole lot, but not enough still. ... I really think she would be like me. ... It just drives me crazy not knowing things."

Angel Capriles, a distant cousin of Silvani's from New York who was also contacted by DNA researchers, is also aching for more answers.

"She deserves people to know her name. She was a person and somehow life just ate her," Capriles told the Free  Press. "It's hard for me because she deserves more than what happened to her."

Capriles, whose mother was first cousins with Silvani, landed on the radar of DNA researchers after joining a study on 23andMe. She has lupus, and took advantage of a  free kit for people researching their ancestry and health. That put her in touch with a distant cousin. The two started building a family tree when an investigator called her and said her DNA may be linked to a Jane Doe case.

"I was shocked. ... I didn't expect that. We all thought that everybody was just living their lives," said Capriles, whose mother knew Mary and spoke of her often. "It's hard on my mom the most. I remember her talking about Mary during my childhood."

According to relatives, Mary Silvani's mother died in 1980 – two years before her daughter. Her father died in 1964. The three Silvani children lived together in Detroit after that so that Mary could continue high school,  but all eventually went to California and went their separate ways.

According to family and Nevada authorities, the only known photo of Mary is a picture that a detective dug up on the Internet. She is pictured with a group of students, a club or school group of some sort, in the 1966 Mackenzie High School yearbook. Balaam said detectives contacted the school, but learned very little.

“We tried to talk to the school. Whey they called back, they said, ‘There’s no senior photo,’” Balaam said, noting there were no other yearbook photos of her found, or records of her graduating.

Silvani was identified in late summer of 2018, though detectives chose not to release her name because the suspect was still unknown. It took three days to learn the name of the victim, and another five weeks to confirm her identity.

The killer was much more difficult to find.

The making of a Jane Doe
On July 17, 1982, Silvani was found shot to death near the Sheep’s Flat area, just off of Mount Rose Highway, a few miles above Incline Village on the Nevada side of Lake Tahoe. She had been shot twice in the head and was sexually assaulted, authorities said.

Initially, the victim was believed to be of European descent based on an inoculation scar and unique dental work. Authorities compared her DNA, fingerprints and dental records to hundreds of reported missing women who matched her description, but there was no match.

The suspect's DNA taken from the victim’s bloody shirt and evidence from the crime scene were entered into the FBI’s DNA database, but no matches were found for the killer, either. There was also a sexual assault kit with more DNA evidence. 

The case went cold for years. The initial detectives on the case retired. And the sheriff’s office didn’t get a dedicated cold case unit until 2014.

The following year, a detective named Dave Jenkins put forward a fresh theory: The victim may have been an American who became voluntarily estranged from her family and that’s why no missing report was ever filed.

It wasn’t until February 2018 that Jenkins’ theory would gain momentum. Detectives with the sheriff’s office attended a lecture on forensic genealogy in Seattle presented by Colleen Fitzpatrick of the DNA Doe Project. They solicited her help in finding the suspect’s family.

Researchers sent the suspect’s DNA to a private lab and uploaded it to GEDMatch. Some 2,000 hours of research later, they got a match: The suspect was the grandson of a Texas couple.

Then came a twist. The suspect was an illegitimate child fathered by one of the couple's sons. His mother lived in Dallas, had a son out of wedlock and raised him under a different family name.

That son was their suspect: James Richard Curry, a Texas native and serial killer who confessed to three California murders in January 1983, just five months after Silvani’s killing.

Curry attempted suicide after being taken into custody in 1983. He died Jan. 7, 1983, from self-inflicted injuries. He was 36.

It was Curry’s two children who helped solve the case. When detectives approached them about Silvani’s homicide, the children voluntarily provided DNA samples.

The case was closed.

“When you get a case like this – it starts with a woman found dead, no clue who she is, just a body – and to prove the whole story, who she was, who did her in. … It's amazing the power of the data that we have now,” said Fitzpatrick, the forensic genealogist and key player in cracking the case.

Fitzpatrick is founder of DNA Doe Project, a nonprofit that works with law enforcement to help identify Jane and John Does and return them to their families. She also works with Identifinders International, which uses genetic genealogy to identify suspects and worked on finding Silvani’s killer.

Rob Duke's insight:

This story has great details about how these investigations are brought to conclusion.

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Man arrested for gunning down transgender woman

Man arrested for gunning down transgender woman | Gender and Crime | Scoop.it
Michelle Washington, 40, was shot multiple times on Sunday morning.
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Fairbanks Representatives comment on abortion bill HB 178

Fairbanks Representatives comment on abortion bill HB 178 | Gender and Crime | Scoop.it
Fairbanks Representatives comment on abortion bill HB 178
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Some reasonableness in the face of a drastic law.  

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AG Steve Marshall shuts down alleged 'human traffickers' masquerading as massage parlors in north Alabama

AG Steve Marshall shuts down alleged 'human traffickers' masquerading as massage parlors in north Alabama | Gender and Crime | Scoop.it
On Friday, the attorney general's office announced that the Madison County Circuit Court has granted a request by Marshall for a temporar
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How to identify victims of human trafficking

Amid 10 men facing charges for human trafficking in Hernando County, Rich Kolko, safety and security specialist, looked at how our agencies across the state are able to respond to these types of crimes. There are also many resources available to help identify victims and efforts being made to catch those doing this. Watch video …
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Vulnerability is the common thread in human trafficking exploitation

Vulnerability is the common thread in human trafficking exploitation | Gender and Crime | Scoop.it
Human traffickers rely on the exploitation of their victims' trust and vulnerabilities to pull them into the forced sex trade.
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Alaska state legislator introduces bill criminalizing abortion

Alaska state legislator introduces bill criminalizing abortion | Gender and Crime | Scoop.it
Representative David Eastman and Representative Sharon Jackson have introduced a bill on May 15th, 2019 named HB 178 that would ban legal abortion in Alaska and create a new interpretation of the ‘right to privacy’ under state law.

The bill, otherwise known as the ‘Life at Conception Act’ or the ‘Abolition of Abortion Act of 2019’, has been referred to House Health and Social Services Committee where it will be taken under review. If the committee decides to forward on the bill it will then be scheduled for debate and voting within the legislature. Rep. Sharon Jackson, who is the co-sponsor of the bill, also sits as a member on the House Health and Social Services Committee.

According to the Alaska State Constitution, only topics written in a proclamation may be discussed or approved during a special session. So it isn’t likely that this bill will be discussed until the start of the next legislative session.

Under the proposed HB178 the intentional taking of human life “before, during, or after birth” is not protected by a right to privacy under the Alaska State Constitution. Classifying abortion as murder.
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West Virginia man arrested for murder of girlfriend's 15-year-old daughter Riley Crossman

West Virginia man arrested for murder of girlfriend's 15-year-old daughter Riley Crossman | Gender and Crime | Scoop.it
Andy J. McCauley, 41, was arrested Thursday for the murder of Riley Crossman – his girlfriend’s 15-year-old daughter -- in West Virginia.
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Ohio State Doctor Sexually Abused At Least 177 Male Students, Investigation Finds : NPR

Ohio State Doctor Sexually Abused At Least 177 Male Students, Investigation Finds : NPR | Gender and Crime | Scoop.it
The independent investigation concluded that university personnel were aware of the abuse as early as 1979, but that Richard Strauss kept abusing students until he retired nearly two decades later.
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Pregnant woman killed in Chicago: 3 arrested today in death of pregnant Chicago woman Marlen Ochoa-Uriostegui - CBS News

Pregnant woman killed in Chicago: 3 arrested today in death of pregnant Chicago woman Marlen Ochoa-Uriostegui - CBS News | Gender and Crime | Scoop.it
Family says Marlen Ochoa-Uriostegui was lured by a woman she met on Facebook with the promise of baby clothes
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Julian Assange rape case: Sweden reopens investigation of WikiLeaks founder.

Julian Assange rape case: Sweden reopens investigation of WikiLeaks founder. | Gender and Crime | Scoop.it
The news could make things more complicated for the U.S. extradition request.
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In legal victory for Robert Kraft, judge suppresses video in prostitution case

A Florida judge said video evidence that allegedly shows the New England Patriots owner paying for sex acts inside a spa can’t be shown to a jury if the matter goes to trial.
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Man Who Had Prostitutes Rob Valley Banks Heads To Prison

Man Who Had Prostitutes Rob Valley Banks Heads To Prison | Gender and Crime | Scoop.it
Man Who Had Prostitutes To Rob Banks Sentenced - Studio City, CA - With a headset and a cellphone, he walked prostitutes through a series of San Fernando Valley bank robberies, according to prosecutors.
Rob Duke's insight:

The movie of this should star Sandra Bullock, Melissa McCarthy, and Octavia Spencer.

File under "Life IS stranger than fiction."

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