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Le Cirad met au point Handa, une nouvelle variété de vanille.

Une des maladies les plus ravageuses pour la vanille est la fusariose. C’est pourquoi une équipe de chercheurs du Cirad de Saint-Denis de la Réunion a conçu Handa. Handa est peut-être l’avenir de la vanille. Elle représente probablement la plus grande avancée agronomique pour cette orchidée terrestre depuis le XIXème siècle. Sous les serres du Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement (Cirad), les chercheurs sont satisfaits.

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Christmas trees, coffee and vanilla among poorly protected plants.

Christmas trees, coffee and vanilla among poorly protected plants. | F&FNews | Scoop.it

The indicator was developed by CIAT in collaboration with the Global Crop Diversity Trust, the US Department of Agriculture, and a number of universities and conservation organisations.

The Useful Plants Indicator scores almost 7,000 useful wild plants from 220 countries on a scale of 1-100, with 100 meaning fully protected. Any plant rated 75 or higher is “sufficiently conserved.” Low, medium and high priority for conservation is reflected by scores of 74-50, 49-25 and 24-0, respectively. The indicator equally weighs in situ plant conservation – in protected areas like national parks – and ex situ conservation, which covers plants safeguarded in gene banks, botanical gardens and other conservation repositories.

Coffea liberica, a wild coffee plant that used to make a caffeinated brew in parts of Africa and sought by coffee breeders for its disease resistance, scores only 32.3 out of 100 on the indicator. The wild ancestor of the connoisseur’s preferred bean, C. arabica, does not fare much better, scoring 33.8. Vanilla (Vanilla planifolia) and cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) score 39.8 and 23.0.

The full findings of the study will be published in the journal Ecological Indicators in March 2019.

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L'histoire à la carte: la vanille, venue des colonies

L'histoire à la carte: la vanille, venue des colonies | F&FNews | Scoop.it

Thierry Marx propose, pour L'Histoire à la Carte, une recette de homard à la vanille, d'après Alain Senderens. La colonisation a permis d'introduire dans la gastronomie française les ingrédients les plus variés. La vanille - venue d'Amérique centrale, commercialisée à La Réunion puis surtout en Polynésie - est de ceux-là.

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How fortunes are being made and lost in Madagascar's vanilla boom.

How fortunes are being made and lost in Madagascar's vanilla boom. | F&FNews | Scoop.it

Vanilla is big money in a nation that produces up to 80 per cent of the world's natural vanilla, but which hangs around the bottom of global poverty lists. On the streets of Madagascar's vanilla capital Sambava, fast-moving hustlers trade the bean like drugs.

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Aust & Hachmann Vanilla Market Update - November 2018.

Aust & Hachmann Vanilla Market Update - November 2018. | F&FNews | Scoop.it

The 2018 vanilla campaign opened officially in Madagascar on October 15th tinged with both optimism (lower prices and vastly improved quality) and uncertainty (very slow and late flowering for 2019). There are now over 140 accredited exporters of vanilla in the country, with many capital hungry collectors trying to make the jump to exporter.  Most have scant experience in the preparation and export of vanilla and will most likely exit from the trade as the most recent crisis abates. Some will go on to become legitimate vanilla exporters. The crop size is expected to be between 1500 – 1700mt which is better than expected thanks to the crop maturity. 

Many buyers expected lower prices in 2018 and are holding back in the hopes this will materialize in the months ahead as unsold vanilla accumulates on the ground. Prices are still at historically very high levels and there is plenty of room on the downside. Three months ago, this may have been the correct strategy, however a very lackluster flowering season for 2019 thus far has changed sentiment on the ground in Madagascar. Unless there is a dramatic turnaround in flowering in the weeks ahead the demand for 2018 vanilla could increase considerably. Heavy rains in August, September and much of October have hampered the flowering. Lately there has been improvement but most regions are reporting far fewer flowers per vine than last year.

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Bronze Age people in Israel were the first known vanilla users.

Bronze Age people in Israel were the first known vanilla users. | F&FNews | Scoop.it

Science News reports that evidence of the use of vanilla has been found in three jugs in a 3,600-year-old tomb in Israel. Archaeologist Vanessa Linares of Tel Aviv University said the Bronze Age jugs, unearthed near a palace and monumental city gate at the site of Megiddo, contained traces of two of the major chemical compounds in natural vanilla extract. Evidence of olive oil and other plant oils were also detected. Linares said vanilla-infused oils may have been added to foods and medicines, and may have been used in rituals and for embalming the dead. She thinks the vanilla, which comes from beans grown on vanilla orchids in East Africa, India, and Indonesia, arrived in the Middle East through trade.

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How Mauritius is turning vanilla around for re-export.

How Mauritius is turning vanilla around for re-export. | F&FNews | Scoop.it

While Mauritius is trying to expand on a limited vanilla production of its own, the majority is actually imported in its raw form from Madagascar

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The Journey of Vanilla: From Plant to Extract. .

Vanilla is, in truth, a mystical Mexican orchid that is so difficult to cultivate it's surprising anyone knows what it tastes like. Luckily for us, and for vanilla plants, the flavor is so good that much of the last 500 years have been dedicated to propagating and developing this tasty plant.

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Vols de vanille à Madagascar : producteurs, exportateurs et gendarmes se mobilisent.

Vols de vanille à Madagascar : producteurs, exportateurs et gendarmes se mobilisent. | F&FNews | Scoop.it

A Madagascar, premier producteur mondial de la vanille, à l'heure de la récolte dans les champs, la tension monte d'un cran chez les cultivateurs. Depuis trois ans, les cours de l'épice se sont envolés. Conséquence: les paysans sont de plus en plus victimes de vols...

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Pourquoi le prix de la vanille a flambé.

Pourquoi le prix de la vanille a flambé. | F&FNews | Scoop.it
En dix ans, le cours du kilo de vanille a décuplé: il vaut désormais plus qu’un kilo d’argent métal. Insécurité pour la production et «bulle spéculative» se sont emparées de la précieuse épice. Cinquante dollars en 2009. Cinq cents dollars en 2017.
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Appetite-enhancing effects of vanilla flavours such as vanillin.

Appetite-enhancing effects of vanilla flavours such as vanillin. | F&FNews | Scoop.it

Vanilla flavour is familiar to consumers through foods, cosmetics, household products and some medicines. Vanilla flavouring agents typically contain vanillin or its analogue ethyl vanillin. Our previous study revealed that the inhalation of eugenol, which contains a vanillyl group, has an appetite-enhancing effect, and the inhalation of aroma compounds containing the vanillyl group or its analogues led to increased food intake in mice. Here, we found that vanillin, ethyl vanillin and eugenol showed appetite-enhancing effects, whereas isoeugenol and safrole did not. These results suggest that the appetite-enhancing effects could be attributable to the vanillyl group and could be affected by the position of the double bond in the aliphatic chain. Furthermore, the results of intraperitoneal administration of eugenol and vanillin suggest that their appetite-enhancing effects could occur via stimulation of olfactory receptors.

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The real price of Madagascar’s vanilla boom.

The real price of Madagascar’s vanilla boom. | F&FNews | Scoop.it

The crop is targeted by gangs and costs as much as silver, but high prices hurt the ice-cream market and do little to reduce poverty on the African island.

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Campagne vanille 2018 : vers une professionnalisation du secteur à Madagascar.

Campagne vanille 2018 : vers une professionnalisation du secteur à Madagascar. | F&FNews | Scoop.it

A un mois et demi avant le jour J, les préparatifs de la campagne vanille 2018 battent leur plein dans la Sava. Dans son rôle de coordination du développement économique et social de l’ensemble de son ressort territorial, la région Sava veut contribuer à la professionnalisation du secteur durant cette campagne 2018 qui débute le 15 juillet prochain.

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University of Florida Scientists Sequence Vanilla Genome.

University of Florida Scientists Sequence Vanilla Genome. | F&FNews | Scoop.it

The U.S. leads the world in imported vanilla beans, said Alan Chambers, an assistant professor of tropical fruit breeding and genetics at the UF Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. Madagascar grows about 80 percent of the world’s vanilla, but that island lies thousands of miles from the companies that buy vanilla beans and convert them to extract.

That’s why Chambers is leading a group of scientists trying to develop new Vanilla varieties to grow in Florida.

In new research published in the journal Scientific Reports, Chambers and Elias Bassil -- a UF/IFAS assistant professor of plant stress physiology -- led a group of researchers that established a Vanilla collection with 112 potentially unique individuals.

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La vanille de La Réunion en passe d’obtenir l’Indication Géographique Protégée.

La vanille de La Réunion en passe d’obtenir l’Indication Géographique Protégée. | F&FNews | Scoop.it

Tandis que le réchauffement climatique conduit à cultiver toujours plus haut la vanille réunionnaise, celle-ci, menacée par la fusariose, fait l’objet de recherches importantes du CIRAD depuis une dizaine d’années. Ces recherches entrées dans une phase de développement chez des agriculteurs commencent à porter leurs fruits, permettant à la vanille de La Réunion d’être en passe d’obtenir l’Indication géographique protégée (IGP). 

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The painful process of pollinating vanilla.

The painful process of pollinating vanilla. | F&FNews | Scoop.it

Every flower in a vanilla orchard must be hand pollinated on the one day of the year they are in bloom. Hand pollination is fiendishly difficult to get right. The technique was invented by a 12-year-old slave, Edmond Albius, on the island of Reunion in the 1840s. It involves carefully opening an orchid, folding back part of the flower with a smooth orange thorn, and delicately pressing the male and female parts of the flower together. If you press too hard or try to pollinate a few hours too early or late, you'll kill the orchid.

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La vanille bleue, l'épice rare qui fascine les chefs pâtissiers.

La vanille bleue, l'épice rare qui fascine les chefs pâtissiers. | F&FNews | Scoop.it

De la vanille bleue, mais quésaco ?

Contrairement à la bourbon, que l'on déshydrate une fois récoltée, la vanille bleue subit un à deux ans de séchage et de préparation, afin de préserver le potentiel maximal d’arôme de la gousse. Ainsi, sa pulpe continue d'évoluer et son arôme s'intensifie avec le temps. De ce fait, son goût et son parfum sont davantage prononcés.

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Why vanilla prices have been rising.

Why vanilla prices have been rising. | F&FNews | Scoop.it

Vanilla prices have climbed so high it's worth more by weight than silver. This increase in price has to do with a number of factors, including vanilla bean theft, complex pollination, extreme weather, and the rise of the "all natural" food movement...

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La vanille bourbon, un patrimoine inestimable.

La vanille bourbon, un patrimoine inestimable. | F&FNews | Scoop.it

La vanille a été importée à la Réunion au début du XIXe siècle mais, stérile, elle a été cultivée pour son originalité et l'intérêt botanique qu'elle suscitait auprès des collectionneurs de végétaux rares. Quand un jeune esclave réunionnais de 12 ans, Edmond Albius, a découvert, en 1841, le procédé de fécondation manuel de la vanille, il a lié à jamais la culture de cette plante au destin de l'île.

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Vanilla could spice up Florida's agriculture.

Vanilla could spice up Florida's agriculture. | F&FNews | Scoop.it

In Florida citrus growers and former citrus growers are still reeling from citrus greening. In the tropical climes of South Florida, there are researchers trying to breed the state's next commercial crop. It could be vanilla...

Avocado trees, with their height and shady canopy, would be an ideal structure for vine-like vanilla plants to climb.

“Co-cropping” the vanilla with avocado, citrus or nut trees on existing farms would mean getting more use out of the same piece of land, a win-win for growers and the environment.

Compared to traditional monoculture, the dual system would have its challenges. Another option for growing vanilla in Florida is monoculture in shade houses. The simple and relatively inexpensive structures can sustain the right conditions for plants to thrive and enable more intensive production.

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Fighting the vanilla thieves of Madagascar.

Fighting the vanilla thieves of Madagascar. | F&FNews | Scoop.it

How vanilla became one of the world's most expensive - and dangerous - ingredients.

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Campagne Vanille, un mauvais démarrage dans la Sava.

Campagne Vanille, un mauvais démarrage dans la Sava. | F&FNews | Scoop.it

L'ouverture de la campagne du 15 juillet dernier, déjà repoussée d’un mois pour la principale région productrice, la Sava, n’a pas tellement amélioré la donne. Le président de la plateforme régionale de concertation et de pilotage (PRCP) de la filière Vanille dans la région Sava, Tombo Tam raconte que depuis ces quatre jours, les prix de la vanille verte ne sont pas les mêmes dans la région. « À Sambava, les producteurs proposent deux cent mille ariary pour un kilo de vanille verte. Les acheteurs tablent à cent mille ariary. À Antsanganoro Antalaha, les cent mille ariary proposés par les producteurs sont négociés à 80 000 ariary. Dans beaucoup d’autres localités un peu éloignées, personne n’a encore rien vendu depuis dimanche », explique Tombo Tam.

Ce prix yoyo de la vanille non préparée, ainsi que les quelques marchés sporadiques ouverts jusqu’ici impacteraient fortement sur le prix de la vanille préparée. On peut s’attendre d’ici peu à ce que le prix du kilo à l’exportation atteigne alors la somme astronomique d’un million cinq cent mille ariary, soit entre 500 et 600 dollars. Cette éternelle envolée du prix de ce produit de rente inquiète au plus haut point les opérateurs.

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Madagascar: spéculations autour du prix de la vanille à l’approche de la récolte.

Madagascar: spéculations autour du prix de la vanille à l’approche de la récolte. | F&FNews | Scoop.it

A Madagascar, le prix de la vanille n'a cessé d'augmenter ces 5 dernières années, laissant déjà présager l'an passé une possible chute brutale des prix pour 2018. Cette année, les yeux des connaisseurs seront rivés sur la Sava, dans le nord-est de l'île. Cette région fournit 80% de la production mondiale de vanille. Rencontre avec les acteurs de la filière à quelques semaines du 15 juillet, date de l'ouverture officielle de la récolte de la gousse verte dans cette zone.

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Hot money, cold beer: Navigating the vanilla and rosewood export economies in northeastern Madagascar.

Hot money, cold beer: Navigating the vanilla and rosewood export economies in northeastern Madagascar. | F&FNews | Scoop.it

Since 2000 northeastern Madagascar's subsistence‐based communities have registered record profits thanks to a boom in vanilla and rosewood exports. Yet, rather than saving or investing these returns, much of the local earnings were spent in “hot money” sprees on cold beer, gambling, and other forms of immediate consumption. Far from being illogical or unproductive, hot‐money spending and other practices associated with export economies help local communities navigate the volatility of global markets and domesticate foreign demands. Although these tactics come from the margins of global capitalism, they represent an acute cultural expression of some of the most sophisticated dynamics found at its core.

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Sava : polémiques sur la campagne de la vanille.

Sava : polémiques sur la campagne de la vanille. | F&FNews | Scoop.it

L’annonce conjointe du Groupement des préparateurs et acheteurs de vanilles de la Sava (GPAS) et des exportateurs de vanilles, fixant le début de la campagne officielle au 15 juillet, n’a pas recueilli l’unanimité au sein des producteurs de cette région.

 

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